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 Chinese Science Bulletin , 2005, DOI: 10.1007/BF02897450 Abstract: The blends prepared by incorporation of carbon black (CB) or graphite powder (GP) into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix have been novel and extensively applied polymeric positive temperature coefficient (PTC) composites. A phenomenological model was proposed on the basis of the GEM equation and the dilution effect of filler volume fraction due to the thermal volume expansion of the polymer matrix. Accordingly, the contribution of the thermal expansion of the matrix to the jump-like PTC transition of the composites was quantitatively estimated and a mechanical explanation was given. It was proved that the contribution of the volume expansion to PTC effect decreased for HDPE/CB composites crosslinked through electron-beam irradiation. Furthermore, the influences of the filler content, temperature and crosslinking on the self-heating behavior as well as the nonlinear conduction characteristics at electrical-thermal equilibrium state were examined. Based on the electric-field and initial resistivity dependence of the self-heating temperature and resistance dependence of the critical field, the mechanisms of the self-heating of the polymeric PTC materials were evaluated. The intrinsic relations between macroscopic electrical properties and microscopic percolation network at electrical-thermal equilibrium state were discussed according to the scaling relationship between the self-heating critical parameter and the conductivity of materials.
 科学通报(英文版) , 2005, Abstract: The blends prepared by incorporation of carbon black (CB) or graphite powder (GP) into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix have been novel and extensively applied polymeric positive temperature coefficient (FTC) composites. A phenomenological model was proposed on the basis of the GEM equation and the dilution effect of filler volume fraction due to the thermal volume expansion of the polymer matrix. Accordingly, the contribution of the thermal expansion of the matrix to the jump-like PTC transition of the composites was quantitatively estimated and a mechanical explanation was given. It was proved that the contribution of the volume expansion to PTC effect decreased for HDPE/CB composites crosslinked through electron-beam irradiation. Furthermore, the influences of the filler content, temperature and crosslinking on the self-heating behavior as well as the nonlinear conduction characteristics at electrical-thermal equilibrium state were examined. Based on the electric-field and initial resistivity dependence of the self-heating temperature and resistance dependence of the critical field, the mechanisms of the self-heating of the polymeric PTC materials were evaluated. The intrinsic relations between macroscopic electrical properties and microscopic percolation network at electrical-thermal equilibrium state were discussed according to the scaling relationship between the self-heating critical parameter and the conductivity of materials.
 Proceedings of the International Conference Nanomaterials : Applications and Properties , 2013, Abstract: Interface is the key region which determines, to a great extent, the set of properties of all heterogeneous systems, including composite materials. We reported interface healing of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite material via resistive heating. The carbon fiber, T700 carbon fiber, with a resistivity of 1.66x10-3 Ω·cm was used as the heating element while the matrix is polyarylether sulfone with cardo. Micro-droplet experiment was used to study the interface strength before and after heating to determine the healing efficiency. The measurement shows (experimental results show) that resistive heating is an efficient way to heal cracks near interface.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.65.241405 Abstract: Low field and high field transport properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer composites are investigated for different tube fractions. Above the percolation threshold f_c=0.33%, transport is due to hopping of localized charge carriers with a localization length xi=10-30 nm. Coulomb interactions associated with a soft gap Delta_CG=2.5 meV are present at low temperature close to f_c. We argue that it originates from the Coulomb charging energy effect which is partly screened by adjacent bundles. The high field conductivity is described within an electrical heating scheme. All the results suggest that using composites close to the percolation threshold may be a way to access intrinsic properties of the nanotubes by experiments at a macroscopic scale.
 eXPRESS Polymer Letters , 2009, DOI: 10.3144/expresspolymlett.2009.95 Abstract: In this paper, pristine and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composites were prepared and the temperature dependence of some electrical properties of these composites were studied. It is found that the transition temperature (Tt), from positive temperature coefficient (PTC) to negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect, of the oxidized MWCNT/PVDF composites shifted to a higher temperature. The shift of the Tt of the oxidized MWCNT/PVDF composites can be attributed to the chemical functionalization of the MWCNTs. The dielectric constants of these composites are enhanced remarkably, which can be understood by the interfacial polarization effect. The largest dielectric constant of 3600 is obtained in the composite with about 8 vol% oxidized MWCNTs at 1 kHz. The dielectric constants of these composites increase firstly and then decrease with increasing temperature. However, when the temperature reaches a higher value, the dielectric constants increase again with increasing temperature. The ‘wave’ phenomenon of the temperature dependence of the dielectric constants can be understood by the temperature dependence of the interfacial polarization.
 Amir Galehdar;Wayne S. T. Rowe;Kamran Ghorbani;Paul J. Callus;Sabu John;Chun H. Wang PIER C , 2012, DOI: 10.2528/PIERC11092610 Abstract: Unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite laminates are highly orthotropic, with their conductivity and permittivity being strongly dependent on the incident angle relative to the fibre orientation. This paper presents a novel frequency selective polarizing subreflector manufactured from unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP), placed a certain distance from a conducting ground also made from CFRP laminate. Theoretical analysis, computational simulation, and experimental measurements are conducted to investigate the effects of separation offset, laminate thickness and incident angle on the performance of a reflector manufactured from a unidirectional IM7/977-3 CFRP. The results show that this new reflector reduces the cross polarization at S-band by 13 dB while remaining a good reflector at X-band and the incident angle has minimal effect on the frequency response of the polarizer. The single reflector can support two orthogonal polarized frequencies, unlike traditional wire grid polarizer screens.
 Hemijska Industrija , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/hemind091221035s Abstract: There is currently great interest in the technological properties of conductive polymer composites because their cost-performance balance. They have a wide range of industrial applications -in anti-static materials, self regulating heaters, current overload and overheating protection devices, and materials for electromagnetic radiation shielding. Measurements of the electrical properties of polymer composites are one of the most convenient and sensitive methods for studying polymer structure. A polymer composite differs substantially from a free polymer in a wide range of properties. The presence of filler affects both the electrical, as well as mechanical properties. One of the most important characteristics of conductive polymer composites is that their electrical conductivity increases nonlinearly with the increase of the concentration of filler particles. When the concentration of filler particles reaches a certain critical value, a drastic transition from an electrical insulator to a conductor is exhibited. This conductivity behavior resulting in a sudden insulator-conductor transition is ascribed to a percolation process, and the critical filler concentration at which the conductivity jump occurs is called ‘percolation threshold’. In the past few years, a lot of studies have been carried out to analyze the percolation phenomenon and mechanisms of the conductive behavior in conductive polymer composites. It has been established that the electrical conductivity of conductive polymer composites uncommonly depends on the temperature. Some of such composites show a sharp increase and/or decrease in electrical conductivity at specific temperatures. The conductive temperature coefficient (CTC) of conductive polymer composites has been widely investigated. In these work we investigated how concentration of the CB affects the dielectrical properties of the composite LDPE+CB. The ac electrical conductivity, σac, for such composites was measured. The temperature and frequency dependence of the dissipation factor were analyzed. It was found that the ac conductivity and dissipation factor were highly affected by the concentration of the filler.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/758/1/53 Abstract: Observational measurements of active region emission measures contain clues to the time-dependence of the underlying heating mechanism. A strongly non-linear scaling of the emission measure with temperature indicates a large amount of hot plasma relative to warm plasma. A weakly non-linear (or linear) scaling of the emission measure indicates a relatively large amount of warm plasma, suggesting that the hot active region plasma is allowed to cool and so the heating is impulsive with a long repeat time. This case is called {\it low-frequency} nanoflare heating and we investigate its feasibility as an active region heating scenario here. We explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. For each model run, we calculate the slope $\alpha$ of the emission measure distribution $EM(T) \propto T^\alpha$. Our conclusions are: (1) low-frequency nanoflare heating is consistent with about 36% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are not accounted for; (2) proper consideration of uncertainties yields a range in which as many as 77% of observed active regions are consistent with low-frequency nanoflare heating and as few as zero; (3) low-frequency nanoflare heating cannot explain observed slopes greater than 3; (4) the upper limit to the volumetric energy release is in the region of 50 erg cm$^{-3}$ to avoid unphysical magnetic field strengths; (5) the heating timescale may be short for loops of total length less than 40 Mm to be consistent with the observed range of slopes; (6) predicted slopes are consistently steeper for longer loops.
 Journal of Thermodynamics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/605712 Abstract: Studying the nonisothermal kinetics of degradation of rice husks in air or nitrogen atmosphere, polypropylene and tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene copolymer filled with different quantities of rice husks flour or the products of its thermal degradation, namely “white” or “black” rice husks ash, a linear dependence was observed between the and , known as the kinetic compensation effect or theta rule. A linear relationship was also established between and the change of the entropy for the formation of the activated complex from the reagents. These dependences are related to the assumption of identical kinetic mechanisms of thermal degradation of the composites studied. The negative values of obtained show that the activated complex is a “more organized” structure than the initial reactants and that these reactions may be classified as “slow” ones. It may be concluded that the products of the thermal degradation of rice husks in a fluidized bed reactor can successfully replace the more expensive synthetic fillers to obtain different polymer composites. These polymer composites can lead to the futuristic “organic-inorganic hybrid materials” with specific properties. 1. Introduction It is well known that the nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis may successfully be used for determination of the kinetic triplet: the apparent activation , the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius equation, and the shape of the most probable mechanism function for some heterogeneous reactions [1–4]. If the kinetic studies are carried out on similar compounds and with a correctly chosen mechanism function , a linear relationship between the logarithm of the pre-exponential factors and activation energies exists, known as the kinetic compensation effect (KCE), isokinetic effect, or theta rule [5–8]. Such a correlation was firstly reported in 1925 by Constable [9], in connection with his catalytic studies. Several theories and explanations accounting for such compensation behavior have also been put forward [9–12]. Evidence of such a compensation effect has since been reported in many publications [13–17], even though some of these reports have subsequently been disputed [18–21]. In the case of studies of thermal decomposition reactions of solids, the existence of the compensation effect allows of certain conclusions concerning the decomposition mechanism and thermal characteristics of the compounds under investigation. Studying the kinetics of the thermal decomposition of different solid compounds at nonisothermal heating, for instance, using the TG curves recorded, a proper
 Woldesenbet E. EPJ Web of Conferences , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20100605002 Abstract: You Polymer composites have been attractive medium to introduce the autonomic healing concept into modern day engineering materials. To date, there has been significant research in self-healing polymeric materials including several studies specifically in fiber reinforced polymers. Even though several methods have been suggested in autonomic healing materials, the concept of repair by bleeding of enclosed functional agents has garnered wide attention by the scientific community. A self-healing fiber reinforced polymer composite has been developed. Tensile tests are carried out on specimens that are fabricated by using the following components: hollow and solid glass fibers, healing agent, catalysts, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and a polymer resin matrix. The test results have demonstrated that single fiber polymer composites and multiple fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites with healing agents and catalysts have provided 90.7% and 76.55% restoration of the original tensile strength, respectively. Incorporation of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the healing medium of the single fiber polymer composite has provided additional efficiency. Healing is found to be localized, allowing multiple healing in the presence of several cracks.
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