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Image and Interpretation: Using Artificial Intelligence to Read Ancient Roman Texts
Melissa Terras,Paul Robertson
Human IT: Tidskrift f?r Studier av IT ur ett Humanvetenskapligt Perspektiv , 2005,
Abstract: The ink and stylus tablets discovered at the Roman Fort of Vindolanda are a unique resource for scholars of ancient history. However, the stylus tablets have proved particularly difficult to read. This paper describes a system that assists expert papyrologists in the interpretation of the Vindolanda writing tablets. A model-based approach is taken that relies on models of the written form of characters, and statistical modelling of language, to produce plausible interpretations of the documents. Fusion of the contributions from the language, character, and image feature models is achieved by utilizing the GRAVA agent architecture that uses Minimum Description Length as the basis for information fusion across semantic levels. A system is developed that reads in image data and outputs plausible interpretations of the Vindolanda tablets.
Literacy practices, texts, and talk around texts: english language teaching developments in Colombia
Valencia Giraldo,Silvia;
Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal , 2006,
Abstract: this paper seeks to provide a window into the complexity of classroom interaction in english language classes in public secondary schools in colombia. it will show the relationship between what goes on in public schools and classrooms, the wider policy context, and recent reforms. through a detailed analysis of data collected in two schools and the interaction that takes place between the two teachers and their students around and about texts, this article provides insights into the specific nature of the literacy practices, the texts used, and the particular ways in which the teachers and learners made sense of these texts. it examines how the students are learning to read in english in these classes, and what the teachers understand by 'doing reading' and 'reading comprehension'.
LITERARY PRAXIS: ENGAGING WITH TEXTS IN CLASSROOM SETTINGS
BRENTON DOECKE,PIET-HEIN VAN DE VEN
L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature , 2012,
Abstract: This article focuses on a small group of teachers as they reflect on the strategies they use to support their students in their efforts to interpret literary texts. We argue that the interpretation of literary texts within classroom settings is mediated in complex ways: by the social context of the classroom, the insti-tutional setting of the school (including its curriculum and organization), as well as mandated educa-tional policies. These dimensions shape the relationships between teachers and students as they engage in the ‘social exchange of meanings’ (Reid, 1984) that is prompted by the texts chosen for study. Stu-dents bring their own biographies to this exchange, drawing on their experiences outside school in order to make meanings from the texts they are required to read. Teachers, on the other hand, also bring their biographies with them into classrooms, including their beliefs about the value of a literary educa-tion. By exploring the reflections in which a small group of teachers of literature engage about their work, we ask questions about the value of a literary education, reaffirming its significance in the con-temporary world.
Do the students check the internal consistency of scientific texts or do they keep the first information they read?  [PDF]
Carla I. Maturano,Claudia A. Mazzitelli,Ascención Macías
Investiga??es em Ensino de Ciências , 2003,
Abstract: This paper descrie the prepatarion and application of an instrument designed to assess the strategies students use to control comprehension when they read a short scientific text. It was applied to two groups of students from different school levels. A contradiction was introduced in the text generating two versions of it differing in order of appearance of the right information. Research findings are presented and interpreted according to findings of other studies on this subject.
How my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw: A narrative
Dr. Carlo Ricci
Journal of Unschooling and Alternative Learning , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper I want to share how my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw. By doing so I hope to offer an alternative to a schooling-centered curriculum that would have us believe that the only way to learn these things is to have an expert train young people to do these things. Methodologically, this paper is a narrative. I also consider this paper to be a political piece of writing. For me writing politically in this paper means, in part, engaging the reader in a dialogue about, on the one hand, trusting and respecting young people’s right to learn what they want, when they want, how they want and, on the other hand, imposing an externally directed curriculum on them. I am arguing in favour of the former.
Reading strategies used by undergraduates from different areas to read study texts Estratégias de leitura utilizadas por licenciandos de áreas distintas para lerem textos de estudo  [cached]
Diesse Garcia Gimenes,Elsa Maria Mendes Pessoa Pullin
Semina : Ciências Sociais e Humanas , 2010,
Abstract: O presente trabalho, de natureza exploratória, objetivou investigar as estratégias de leitura utilizadas por alunos matriculados em distintos cursos de licenciatura de uma IES pública. A op o para a sele o de alunos de licenciatura deve-se a que eles, como futuros professores, independente da disciplina que venham a ministrar, ser o responsáveis pela forma o de seus alunos como leitores. Os alunos participantes (N=366) encontravam-se matriculados no primeiro e quarto ano dos cursos de Biologia (n=59), Filosofia (n=32), Geografia (n=124), Letras Clássicas e Vernáculas (n=106) e Matemática (n=45). Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada a Escala de Estratégias de Leitura, traduzida e adaptada por Kopke Filho, e informado que, ao responderem, deveriam ter por foco a leitura dos textos prescritos em seu curso. Compara es entre as séries e áreas dos cursos foram realizadas. De modo geral, os resultados assinalam que alunos do último ano do curso informam utilizar com mais frequência estratégias de leitura que favorecem uma leitura mais apropriada dos textos acadêmicos prescritos. A necessidade de os professores do Ensino Superior se preocuparem ensinar os alunos a lerem os textos que prescrevem é ressaltada. This work was exploratory in nature, aimed at investigating the reading strategies used by students enrolled in different degree courses of a public University. The option of selecting undergraduate students was due to the fact that they, as future teachers, will be responsible for training their students as readers, regardless the subject they teach. The participating students (N = 366) were enrolled in the freshman and senior year in the courses of Biology (n=59), Geography (n=124), Languages (n=106), Mathematics (n =45) and Philosophy (n=32). In order to collect data it was used the Scale of Reading Strategies, translated and adapted by Kopke Son. The participants were informed that the answers should focus the reading of the texts assign in their courses. Comparisons focusing different series and areas of knowledge were made. In general, the results indicate that senior students report regularly using reading strategies that promote a more appropriate reading of the academic texts assigned. The need for teachers of higher education to focus on teaching students how to read the texts that are assigned is stressed.
UNDERSTANDING METAPHORS IN POETIC TEXTS: TOWARDS A DETERMINATION OF INTERPRETATIVE OPERA-TIONS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ENGAGEMENT WITH IMAGERY
IRENE PIEPER,DOROTHEE WIESER
L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature , 2012,
Abstract: Metaphorical language plays an important role in literature education. Though it is not exclusive to poetic language it seems to have more prominence in literature than in other texts and an awareness of imagery can often be observed with experienced readers. However, so far little is known about how competences in understanding metaphor and figurative language develop. This article presents a think-aloud-study with students of different years in secondary education who all read the same poem. On the basis of this study and previous research we distinguish criteria which allow for the determination of difficulty in poetic metaphor. We also develop a coding system and characterise interpretative opera-tions. Results show that development of competences is certainly linked to cognitive development but probably also much influenced by other factors including classroom practices. The article also discusses methodological issues and draws conclusions for future research.
DEAF ADULTS AND COMPREHENSIONOF EXPOSITORY TEXTS
MONICA REICHENBERG
L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature , 2010,
Abstract: The study presents a comparison between deaf participants′ (14-65 years of age) comprehensionof expository texts. Each participant was exposed to 12 texts with regard to the following four differentconditions: 1. Silent reading of an authentic text. 2. Viewing of a videotaped signed authentic text 3.Silent reading of an easy-to-read text 4. Viewing of a videotaped signed easy-to-read- text. The conditionswere counterbalanced in order to control order and passage effects. The good deaf readers had ahigher mean score than the poor deaf readers on all text versions. There was a significant difference inmean scores between good deaf and poor deaf readers on the easy-to-read text version. How then can theresults be explained? All of the easy-to-read texts were much shorter than the authentic texts. However,since there has to be the identical content as in the authentic texts, there was much implicit information inthe easy-to-read texts. Consequently, the reader needs prior knowledge and reading experience to fill inthe missing information in the text. A conclusion is that the easy-to-read texts did not serve their purposethen since the process of simplification itself has given rise to the removal of structures that are relevantto facilitate understanding.
Depressive symptoms as a side effect of the sustained release form of methylphenidate in a 7-year-old boy with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  [PDF]
Laki? Aneta
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1202201l
Abstract: Introduction. Hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinical entity consisting of a cluster of symptoms including hyperactivity, attention disorder and impulse control disorder group. In the context of ADHD etiology we may say that genetic, clinical and imaging studies point out a disruption of the brain dopamine system, which is corroborated by the clinical effectiveness of stimulant drugs, which increase extracellular dopamine in the brain. Basically, it is a biological and not psychological disorder, which is important both for the comprehension and therapeutical approach to this problem. Today, the best recommended approach regarding children with ADHD is a combination of two therapeutic modalities: pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment. The first-choice drugs for this disorder belong to the group of sympathomimetics - psychostimulants and atomoxetine (more recently). As the firstchoice therapy, methylphenydate in sustained release form has numerous advantages. Like all drugs, methylphenidate has its unwanted side effects. Most common are: loss of appetite, weight loss, sleeping disorders, irritability, headache. These side effects are well-known and documented in the literature. By analysing the available literature we have found cases of psychiatric side effects such as: psychosis, mania, visual hallucinations, agitation, suicidal ideas. We have not found examples of ADHD in children who use increased dosage of sustained release of methylphenidate leading to depressive symptomatology. On the other side, methylphenidate may be prescribed for off-label use in treatmentresistant cases of depression. Case report. The case of a 7- year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD was on a minimal dose of sustained release form of methylphenidate. After initial titration of the drug, i.e. after raising the dose to the next level the boy developed clinical signs of depression. The treatment was ceased and depressive symptoms were withdrawed. Conclusion. Manifestation of depressive symptomatology after dose increasement of sustained release form of methylphenidate in a 7-year-old boy with ADHD represents an uncommon side effect. Precise drug activity mechanisms responsible for the appearance of these symptoms remains to be explained.
Read on the liar
Sandu,Gabriel;
Discusiones Filosóficas , 2011,
Abstract: in this paper i analyze read's solution to the liar and point out some of its problems relating it to other solutions in the literature.
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