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Larval habitats and biodiversity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malarious area of southern Iran  [PDF]
A.A. Hanafi-Bojd , H. Vatandoost , M.A. Oshaghi , Z. Charrahy , A.A. Hagdoost , M.M. Sedaghat , F. Abedi , M. Soltani & A. Raeisi
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2012,
Abstract: Background & objectives: Malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease in Iran. It is endemic in southto southeastern part of the country. Knowledge about bio-ecology of vectors will support authorities for appropriatemanagement of the disease. Bashagard district is one of the main endemic areas for malaria in south of Iran.This study was conducted to determine anopheline fauna, diversity and affinity in the area, characterization oflarval habitats, and mapping their potential distribution across the district.Methods: The potential aquatic habitats for Anopheles larvae were extracted from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite(IRS) image and digital elevation model of the area using GIS. Surface water bodies were sampled monthlyduring 2009–10 for anopheline larvae, while characteristics of their physical environment were recorded andwater samples were analyzed.Results: A total of 4511 Anopheles larvae were found during the year with the lowest and highest frequencies inFebruary and April, respectively. Dominant species was Anopheles culicifacies. The Shanon diversity indexranged from 0.570–0.829 at fixed collection sites, while the affinity index was significant among some vectorspecies.Conclusion: Riversides and riverbeds were the main breeding places which provided sandy, rocky, and claybeds for different species. The potential breeding places as well as distribution of collected species were mapped.Knowledge about ecology of malaria vectors provides information to health sector for effective control programs.
Influence of biological and physicochemical characteristics of larval habitats on the body size of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) along the Kenyan coast  [PDF]
Joseph M. Mwangangi, Charles M. Mbogo, Ephantus J. Muturi, Joseph G. Nzovu, Ephantus W. Kabiru, John I. Githure, Robert J. Novak , John C. Beier
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2007,
Abstract: Background & objectives: The number and productivity of larval habitats ultimately determine thedensity of adult mosquitoes. The biological and physicochemical conditions at the larval habitataffect larval development hence affecting the adult body size. The influence of biological and physicochemicalcharacteristics on the body size of Anopheles gambiae was assessed in Jaribuni village,Kilifi district along the Kenyan Coast.Methods: Ten cages measuring 1 × 1 × 1 m (1 m3) with a netting material were placed in 10 differentaquatic habitats, which were positive for anopheline mosquito larvae. Emergent mosquitoes werecollected daily by aspiration and the wing lengths were determined by microscopy. In the habitats,physicochemical parameters were assessed: pH, surface debris, algae and emergent plants, turbidity,substrate, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and chlorophyll a content.Results: A total of 685 anopheline and culicine mosquitoes were collected from the emergent cages.Only female mosquitoes were considered in this study. Among the Anopheles spp, 202 were An.gambiae s.s., eight An. arabiensis, two An. funestus, whereas the Culex spp was composed of 214Cx. quinquefasciatus, 10 Cx. tigripes, eight Cx. annulioris and one Cx. cumminsii. The mean winglength of the female An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes was 3.02 mm (n = 157), while that of An. arabiensiswas 3.09 mm (n = 9). There were no associations between the wing lengths and the environmentaland chemical parameters, except for a positive correlation between wing length of An. gambiae andchlorophyll a content (r = 0.622). The day on which the mosquitoes emerged was not significant forthe anopheline (p = 0.324) or culicine mosquitoes (p = 0.374), because the mosquito emerged fromthe cages on a daily basis.Interpretation & conclusion: In conclusion, there was variability in production of emergent mosquitoesfrom different habitats, which means that there should be targeted control on these habitatsbased on productivity.
Why are anopheline mosquitoes not present in the Seychelles?
Vincent Robert, Gérard Rocamora, Simon Julienne, Steven M Goodman
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-31
Abstract: In order to re-examine the absence of anopheline mosquitoes in the Seychelles, an entomological field survey was conducted in December 2008 at 17 sites on four granitic islands, including Mahé and Praslin, and ten sites on coralline atolls in the extreme west, including Aldabra.No evidence of larval or adult anophelines was found at the surveyed sites, which supports their absence in the Seychelles.In the granitic islands of the Seychelles, the climate is favourable for anophelines. However, these islands are protected by their remoteness and prevailing seasonal winds. In addition, stagnant freshwater, required in anopheline larval development, is relatively uncommon on the granitic islands because of the steep slopes. In the southwestern atolls (Aldabra and Providence-Farquhar groups), the presence of a long dry season of up to nine months and the total absence of permanent natural freshwater prevents the breeding of anophelines and their successful colonization. The Seychelles does not have any native land mammals and like in other parts of the world (Antarctica, Iceland, New Caledonia, Central Pacific islands) their absence is associated with the lack of anophelines. This suggests an obligatory relationship for anophelines to feed on terrestrial mammals, without alternative for blood-feeding sources, such as bats, birds and reptiles.Plasmodium parasites are transmitted by mosquitoes (family Culicidae). Malaria parasites of mammals, including humans, are exclusively transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. These anophelines are observed virtually worldwide, although the distribution of a given Anopheles species varies from being highly localized to sub-continental. For example, on the one hand Anopheles bwambae occurs exclusively within a 10 km radius of geothermal springs in Bwamba, Uganda, and, on the other hand, Anopheles messeae is found in most of Eurasia from Ireland to Central Siberia [1,2].The examples of areas without anophelines are li
Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae), malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors
Guimar?es, Anthony érico;Gentile, Carla;Alencar, Jeronimo;Lopes, Catarina Macedo;Mello, Rubens Pinto de;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000100047
Abstract: the ecology of anopheline species (diptera, culicidae) was studied in the vicinity of the serra da mesa reservoir, state of goiás, brazil. climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. bimonthly human-bait and shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (january 1997 through december 1999). a total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%), followed by an. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%), an. triannulatus. (2.5%), an. oswaldoi (0.4%), and an. evansae (0.2%). the water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. climatic factors had a secondary influence. the reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of an. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.
Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae), malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors  [cached]
Guimar?es Anthony érico,Gentile Carla,Alencar Jeronimo,Lopes Catarina Macedo
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2004,
Abstract: The ecology of anopheline species (Diptera, Culicidae) was studied in the vicinity of the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil. Climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. Bimonthly human-bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (January 1997 through December 1999). A total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%), followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%), An. triannulatus. (2.5%), An. oswaldoi (0.4%), and An. evansae (0.2%). The water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. Climatic factors had a secondary influence. The reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of An. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) near a reservoir in the Western part of the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina
Marcondes, Carlos Brisola;Fernandes, Aristides;Müller, Gerson Azulim;
Biota Neotropica , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032006000300014
Abstract: anopheline and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in the southern brazilian state of santa catarina have been studied mostly near the atlantic sea coast and are not well known in other regions of the state. collections were made near a reservoir in the western portion of the state. at least 26 species were represented in the collections; 10 are recorded for the first time for the state: coquillettidia venezuelensis, cq. juxtamansonia, mansonia wilsoni, ochlerotatus fluviatilis, psorophora ciliata, ps. discrucians, ps. lanei, culex bigoti, sabethes belisarioi and sa. identicus, and 12 for the first time in the western portion of the state: anopheles albitarsis, an. intermedius, an. lutzi, an. parvus, an. strodei, chagasia fajardi, cx. quinquefasciatus, limatus durhamii, sa. aurescens, sa. melanonymphe, trichoprosopon pallidiventer and wyeomyia limai. the possible medical and veterinary significance of the findings is discussed.
Reappraisal on anopheline mosquitoes of Garhwal region, Uttarakhand, India  [PDF]
N. Pemola Devi,R.K. Jauhari
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2008,
Abstract: Background & objectives: The study examines occurrence of anopheline mosquitoes in seven districts— Dehradun, Pauri, New Tehri, Hardwar, Rudraprayag, Chamoli and Uttarkashi of Garhwal region in Uttarakhand state, India. Methods: The methodological approach comprised sampling and processing of adult/immature mosquitoes, data compilation, meteorological information and parasitological survey.Results: A total of 87 localities covering 24 tehsils/blocks were surveyed during January 2000 to December 2005 for mosquito sampling. The study encountered 18 species of anophelines including three malaria vectors namely Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. stephensi collected from Kalsi, Dehradun City, Sahaspur, Hardwar town, Roorkee, New Tehri town and Kotdwar localities. An. pallidus has been recorded for the first time from the Garhwal region. All the collected species have been presented with particular reference to their both adult and immature distribution, brief account of bionomics and some ecological notes.Interpretation & conclusion: Out of 18 collected anopheline species, 15 were non-vectors and they were found to create nuisance to the inhabitants. As far as the species distribution was concerned the diversity was more at elevation between 150 and 1000 m above the mean sea level, while the immature of some species were not recovered from those localities where their adults were collected. Certain species of Anopheles were climate determined and their distribution was localized while some others were cosmopolitan.
Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae), with new records for the State of Santa Catarina
Müller, Gerson Azulim;Marcondes, Carlos Brisola;
Iheringia. Série Zoologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0073-47212006000300007
Abstract: bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in atlantic forest in florianópolis, santa catarina, southern brazil, were studied, examining plants of vriesea philippocoburgi wawra and aechmea lindenii (e. morren) baker var. lindenii at secondary atlantic rain forest, and a. lindenii and vriesea friburgensis mez var. paludosa (l. b. smith) at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. no immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from a. lindenii in the secondary forest. collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from a. lindenii from rain forest. culex (microculex) spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, wyeomyia (phoniomyia) spp. 17.93%, and anopheles (kerteszia) cruzii (dyar & knab, 1908) only 1.36%. the study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. the rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from v. philippocoburgi. significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. all six species of cx. (microculex) found are recorded for the first time in the state of santa catarina, and all six species of wyeomyia (phoniomyia) are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.
Survey of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte  [PDF]
Gilbert Le Goff, Steven M. Goodman, Eric Elguero, Vincent Robert
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100696
Abstract: A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera.
Field Efficacy of Vectobac GR as a Mosquito Larvicide for the Control of Anopheline and Culicine Mosquitoes in Natural Habitats in Benin, West Africa  [PDF]
Armel Djènontin, Cédric Pennetier, Barnabas Zogo, Koffi Bhonna Soukou, Marina Ole-Sangba, Martin Akogbéto, Fabrice Chandre, Rajpal Yadav, Vincent Corbel
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087934
Abstract: Introduction The efficacy of Vectobac GR (potency 200 ITU/mg), a new formulation of bacterial larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Strain AM65-52, was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in simulated field and natural habitats in Benin. Methods In simulated field conditions, Vectobac GR formulation was tested at 3 dosages (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g granules/m2 against An. gambiae and 1, 1.5, 2 g granules/m2 against Cx. quinquefasciatus) according to manufacturer’s product label recommendations. The dosage giving optimum efficacy under simulated field conditions were evaluated in the field. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in terms of emergence inhibition in simulated field conditions and of reduction of larval and pupal densities in rice fields and urban cesspits was measured following WHO guidelines for testing and evaluation of mosquito larvicides. Results Vectobac GR caused emergence inhibition of ≥80% until 21 [20]–[22] days for An. gambiae at 1.2 g/m2 dose and 28 [27–29] days for Cx. quinquefasciatus at 2 g/m2 in simulated field habitats. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in natural habitats was for 2 to 3 days against larvae and up to 10 days against pupae. Conclusions Treatment with Vectobac GR caused complete control of immature mosquito within 2–3 days but did not show prolonged residual action. Larviciding can be an option for malaria and filariasis vector control particularly in managing pyrethroid-resistance in African malaria vectors. Since use of larvicides among several African countries is being emphasized through Economic Community of West Africa States, their epidemiological impact should be carefully investigated.
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