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Modeling and Validation of Electrical Load Profiling in Residential Buildings in Singapore  [PDF]
Luo Chuan,Abhisek Ukil
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2014.2367509
Abstract: The demand of electricity keeps increasing in this modern society and the behavior of customers vary greatly from time to time, city to city, type to type, etc. Generally, buildings are classified into residential, commercial and industrial. This study is aimed to distinguish the types of residential buildings in Singapore and establish a mathematical model to represent and model the load profile of each type. Modeling household energy consumption is the first step in exploring the possible demand response and load reduction opportunities under the smart grid initiative. Residential electricity load profiling includes the details on the electrical appliances, its energy requirement, and consumption pattern. The model is generated with a bottom-up load model. Simulation is performed for daily load profiles of 1 or 2 rooms, 3 rooms, 4 rooms and 5 rooms public housing. The simulated load profile is successfully validated against the measured electricity consumption data, using a web-based Customer Energy Portal (CEP) at the campus housings of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
A Survey of Communications and Networking Technologies for Energy Management in Buildings and Home Automation  [PDF]
Aravind Kailas,Valentina Cecchi,Arindam Mukherjee
Journal of Computer Networks and Communications , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/932181
Abstract: With the exploding power consumption in private households and increasing environmental and regulatory restraints, the need to improve the overall efficiency of electrical networks has never been greater. That being said, the most efficient way to minimize the power consumption is by voluntary mitigation of home electric energy consumption, based on energy-awareness and automatic or manual reduction of standby power of idling home appliances. Deploying bi-directional smart meters and home energy management (HEM) agents that provision real-time usage monitoring and remote control, will enable HEM in “smart households.” Furthermore, the traditionally inelastic demand curve has began to change, and these emerging HEM technologies enable consumers (industrial to residential) to respond to the energy market behavior to reduce their consumption at peak prices, to supply reserves on a as-needed basis, and to reduce demand on the electric grid. Because the development of smart grid-related activities has resulted in an increased interest in demand response (DR) and demand side management (DSM) programs, this paper presents some popular DR and DSM initiatives that include planning, implementation and evaluation techniques for reducing energy consumption and peak electricity demand. The paper then focuses on reviewing and distinguishing the various state-of-the-art HEM control and networking technologies, and outlines directions for promoting the shift towards a society with low energy demand and low greenhouse gas emissions. The paper also surveys the existing software and hardware tools, platforms, and test beds for evaluating the performance of the information and communications technologies that are at the core of future smart grids. It is envisioned that this paper will inspire future research and design efforts in developing standardized and user-friendly smart energy monitoring systems that are suitable for wide scale deployment in homes. 1. Introduction Residential energy consumption and the amount of pollution emitted from the electric generators create side effects that are not beneficial to public health and well-being, including increased pollution in the air and water ( C O 2 and other greenhouse gases, mercury, and other trace elements and particulate matter), and the depletion of finite resources [1]. “Green Smart Home Technologies” are aimed at reducing the footprint of greenhouse gases by efficient energy management in residential buildings. Studies have shown that the display of real-time information on consumption can result in reductions of up
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN SERBIA
Dragoslav ?umarac,Maja Todorovi?,Maja Djurovi? - Petrovi?,Nata?a Tri?ovi?
Thermal Science , 2010, DOI: tsci100430017s
Abstract: In this paper, presented is the state of the art of Energy Efficiency (EE) of residential buildings in Serbia. Special attention is paid to energy efficiency in already existing buildings. The average energy consumption in residential buildings in Serbia is over 150 kWh/m2 per year, while in developed European countries it is about 50 kWh/m2 per year. In this paper examined is the contribution of ventilation losses, through the windows of low quality, regardless whether they are poorly made, or made from bad materials, or with no adequate glass. Besides ventilation losses, which are of major importance in our buildings, special attention is paid to transmission losses, which are consequence of the quality and energy efficiency of the facade. All of the above statements are proved by measurements obtained on a representative building of the Block 34 in New Belgrade, built in the eighties of the last century. In addition to measurements performed the calculation of energy consumption for heating during winter has been made. The results of two different methods of calculation of energy consumption for heating are compared with the values obtained by measuring.
A comparison of non-intrusive load monitoring methods for commercial and residential buildings  [PDF]
Nipun Batra,Oliver Parson,Mario Berges,Amarjeet Singh,Alex Rogers
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Non intrusive load monitoring (NILM), or energy disaggregation, is the process of separating the total electricity consumption of a building as measured at single point into the building's constituent loads. Previous research in the field has mostly focused on residential buildings, and although the potential benefits of applying this technology to commercial buildings have been recognised since the field's conception, NILM in the commercial domain has been largely unexplored by the academic community. As a result of the heterogeneity of this section of the building stock (i.e., encompassing buildings as diverse as airports, malls and coffee shops), and hence the loads within them, many of the solutions developed for residential energy disaggregation do not apply directly. In this paper we highlight some insights for NILM in the commercial domain using data collected from a large smart meter deployment within an educational campus in Delhi, India, of which a subset of the data has been released for public use. We present an empirical characterisation of loads in commercial buildings, highlighting the differences in energy consumption and load characteristics between residential and commercial buildings. We assess the validity of the assumptions generally made by NILM solutions for residential buildings when applied to measurements from commercial facilities. Based on our observations, we discuss the required traits for a NILM system for commercial buildings, and run benchmark residential NILM algorithms on our data set to confirm our observations. To advance the research in commercial buildings energy disaggregation, we release a subset of our data set, called COMBED (commercial building energy data set).
The Thermal Performance of Traditional Residential Buildings in Kathmandu Valley  [PDF]
Sushil B. Bajracharya
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v10i1.10898
Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate into the aspects of thermal performance of traditional residential buildings in traditional settlements of Kathmandu valley. This study proceeds to analyze the detailed field data collected, with a view to identify the indoor thermal environment with respect to outdoor thermal environment in different seasons. This paper also compares the thermal performance of traditional buildings with modern residential buildings of traditional settlements of the valley. There is a regression analysis to obtain information about the thermal environment of different traditional and modern residential buildings with different conditions. The paper concludes that, thermal performance of traditional residential building, adapted in various ways to the changing thermal regime for thermal comfort is better than that of contemporary buildings. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v10i1.10898 Journal of the Institute of Engineering , Vol. 10, No. 1, 2014, ?pp. 172–183
Overall Thermal Transfer Value of Residential Buildings in Malaysia  [PDF]
R. Saidur,M. Hasanuzzaman,M.M. Hasan,H.H. Masjuki
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study presents the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) and the energy consumption of room air conditioners of the residential buildings in Malaysia. A survey has been conducted to investigate the OTTV and the energy consumption of room air conditioners of the residential buildings in Malaysia. OTTV calculation, energy consumption and effect of the building parameters on energy consumption have been investigated. It is found that OTTV of the residential buildings in Malaysia varied from 35 to 65 W m-2 with a mean value of 41.7 W m-2. The sensitivities of several parameters such as window to wall ratio (WWR), Shading Coefficient (SC), U-value for wall (Uw) and solar absorption (α) are provided to design and optimize the thermal performance of residential buildings. It is found that U and α influence more on OTTV compared to other parameters. The analysis shows that about 14, 10 and 5% of residential building air conditioners have annual electricity consumption in the ranges 500 to 1000 kWh, 1000 to 2000 kWh and 7500 to 10000 kWh, respectively. The maximum, minimum and average annual electricity consumption of the air conditioner of residential buildings is 22055.5, 136.1 and 3708.8 kWh, respectively.
Study on the Exigency Demands of Residential Buildings` Users  [PDF]
Razvan Giusca,Raluca Giusca,V. Corobceanu
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the study is to emphasize the actual demands of residential buildings` users and to explore new methods, yet less used, that could improve the buildings environmental comfort. The residential buildings, constructed by man in order to function as shelter where multiple processes of the social and material life takes place, are influenced by many factors that have to be taken under consideration when projecting, constructing, using and post-using them. All aspects emphasized in this study should be first considered in the processes of their interaction and interdependency and then to be systemically approached and analyzed. During the second half of the twentieth century, the urban population knew an incredible growth. This growth led to an exponential increase of the energy consumption and a more than alarming exceeding of noxious gases in the air and wastage. There was a time when the energy consumption was considered an indication of the quality of life. Therefore, from the point of view of the energy consumption, many differences appeared between the developed countries and the developing ones. At the same time a person living in one of the developed countries has energy consumption twenty-five times greater than one living in a poor country. A popular idea was that we can fight poverty with increased energy consumption. However, the facts showed a disturbing reality energy wastage.
Life Cycle Energy of Low Rise Residential Buildings in Indian Context  [PDF]
Talakonukula Ramesh, Ravi Prakash, Karunesh Kumar Shukla
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.34012
Abstract: Life cycle energy of the building accounts for all energy inputs to the buildings during their intended service life. Buildings need to be constructed in such a way that energy consumption in their life cycle is minimal. Life Cycle Energy (LCE) consumption data of buildings is not available in public domain which is essentially required for building designers and policy makers to formulate strategies for reduction in LCE of buildings. The paper presents LCE of twenty (20) low rise residential buildings in Indian context. LCE of the studied buildings is varying from 160 - 380 kWh/m2 year (Primary). Based on the LCE data of studied buildings, an equation is proposed to readily reckon LCE of a new building.
Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania  [PDF]
H. Bilgin,O. Korini
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-3753-2012
Abstract: This study evaluates seismic capacity of the unreinforced masonry buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Albania considering nonlinear behaviour of masonry. Three residential buildings with template designs were selected to represent an important percentage of residential buildings in medium-size cities located in seismic regions of Albania. Selection of template designed buildings and material properties were based on archive and site survey in several cities of Albania. Capacity curves of investigated buildings were determined by pushover analyses conducted in two principal directions. The seismic performances of these buildings have been determined for various earthquake levels. Seismic capacity evaluation was carried out in accordance with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) 440 guidelines. Reasons for building damages in past earthquakes are examined using the results of capacity assessment of investigated buildings. It is concluded that of the residential buildings with the template design, with the exception of one, are far from satisfying required performance criteria. Furthermore, deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of investigated buildings are discussed.
Influencing of orientation of glazed facades on general energy consumption of residential buildings  [PDF]
O.D. Samarin,N.N. Zaytsev
Magazine of Civil Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: In the paper the nature of relation of energy consumption of residential buildings of mass development from orientation of their glazed facades on the parties of horizon is parsed. The basic contents of a technique of an estimation of building energy efficiency, used in calculations, is adduced pursuant to the public Standard of Russian Science and Technical Society of the Builders of Russian Federation. The structure of a complex of energy saving measures, used in investigated buildings, is reviewed. The computed results of power inputs for the heating season on the indicated technique for two reference buildings at their different orientation with allowance for and disregarding of energy saving measures are shown. An estimation of influencing of orientation of glazed facades for the term of payback of a complex of energy saving measures, used in buildings, is given. The guidelines on expedient dimensional orientation of the extended residential buildings from the point of view of heat saving in the cold season of year are offered. The presentation is illustrated by a significant amount of a graphic stuff.
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