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CURING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHLOROSULPHONATED POLYETHYLENE RUBBER BLEND  [PDF]
Gordana Markovi?,Vojislav Jovanovi?,Suzana Samar?ija-Jovanovi?,Milena Marinovi?-Cincovi?
Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, the curing and mechanical properties of two series of prepared blends, i.e., chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM)/isobutylene-co-isoprene (IIR) rubber blends and chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM)/chlorinated isobutylene-co-isoprene (CIIR) rubber blends were carried out. Blends were prepared using a two-roll mill at a temperature of 40-50 °C. The curing was assessed using a Monsanto oscillating disc rheometer R-100. The process of vulcanization accelerated sulfur of pure rubbers and their blends was carried out in an electrically heated laboratory hydraulic press under a pressure of about 4 MPa and 160 °C. The stress-strain experiments were performed using a tensile tester machine (Zwick 1425). Results indicate that the scorch time, ts2, and optimum cure time, tc90, increase with increasing CSM content in both blends. The value of modulus at 100 and 300% elongation and tensile strength increases with increasing CSM content, whereas elongation at break shows a decreasing trend. The enhancement in mechanical properties was supported by data of crosslink density in these samples obtained from swelling measurement and scanning electron microscopy studies of the rubber blends fractured surfaces
Studies of chemical interactions between chlorosulphonated polyethylene and nit rile rubber  [PDF]
Markovi? Gordana,Marinovi?-Cincovi? Milena T.,Radovanovi? Blaga C.,Budinski-Simendi? Jaroslava K.
Hemijska Industrija , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/hemind0512324m
Abstract: Highly polar rubbers interact with each other through their active functional groups via condensation or substitution reactions at high temperature. Chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM) rubber is a highly reactive rubber, the reactivity of with is due to the -SO2CI groups. When CSM reacts with nit rile rubber (NBR), a chemical reaction takes place between the two rubbers at high temperature. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies support that CSM/NBR (50/50 w/w) isothermally induces a self cross-linking blend, when cross-linking takes place via the acrylonitrile groups of NBR and the SO2CI groups or the insitu generated allyl chloride moieties of CSM. There is a loss of some -CN groups during cross-linking. This may be due to an attack on the -CN groups by HCI (produced during the heating of CSM) in the presence of inherent moisture in the polymers. Amid type of linkage is formed due to cross-linking.
Rheological and mechanical properties of wood flour filled polyisoprene/chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber blends
Gordana Markovi?,Milena Marinovi?-Cincovi?,Blaga Radovanovi?,Jaroslava Budinski-Simendi?
Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly , 2007,
Abstract: N/A
Diffusion Characteristics of Toluene into Natural Rubber/Linear Low Density Polyethylene Blends  [PDF]
Henry C. Obasi,Okoro Ogbobe,Isaac O. Igwe
International Journal of Polymer Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/140682
Abstract: The sorption and diffusion of toluene through blends of natural rubber (NR) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) of varying compositions were studied at 35, 55, and 65°C by conventional weight-gain experiments. The effects of blend ratio on the diffusion, sorption, and permeation coefficients were determined. The sorption data were used to estimate the activation energies of diffusion and permeation, parameters which were found to show a decrease when the amount of NR or LLDPE was increased. The transport of toluene through most of the blends was anomalous, althouh at 35°C, the transport of toluene through the 60/40 blend was Fickian and at 35°C, pseudo-Fickian. The enthalpy of sorption of toluene obtained is positive and suggests a Henry's type sorption.
Compatibilization of natural rubber (NR) and chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM) blends with zinc salts of sulfonated natural rubber
Kwanruethai Boonsong,Manus Seadan,Natinee Lopattananon
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: A rubbery ionomer of zinc salt of sulfonated natural rubbers (Zn-SNR) was synthesized and used as a new compatibilizerfor the blends of natural rubber (NR) and chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM). Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)was also used for the preparation of NR/CSM blends. The effect of ionomer concentration on melt viscosity of the 50/50(%wt/wt) NR/CSM blends at different constant shear rates was characterized. It was found that the incorporation of ionomerincreased shear viscosity of the blends, indicating an increase in interfacial interaction between the NR and CSM. Themaximum shear viscosity was observed when the ionomer of 10% by weight of NR was added into the blends. The tensile,tear, oil resistant properties and morphology of the various 20/80 NR/CSM blends with and without the Zn-SNR and ENR atthe 10% wt of NR were examined. The 100% modulus, tensile strength, tear strength and oil resistance of the compatibilizedblends improved over those of the uncompatibilized blends. The blends compatibilized with the Zn-SNR showed higher levelsof improvement in modulus, tensile and tear strength than those of ENR. The tensile strength of 20/80 blends with the Zn-SNRand ENR compatibilizers increased by 38 and 30% over the corresponding neat blends. Furthermore, the addition of ionomerand ENR resulted in decreased domain of dispersed NR phase size and improved interfacial adhesion between the NR andCSM, indicating enhanced blend compatibility. These results suggest that the Zn-SNR is a new effective compatibilizer forNR and CSM blends.
Influence of Poly(vinyl chloride) on Natural Rubber/Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Blends  [PDF]
Manisara Phiriyawirut, Sawanya Luamlam
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2013.34013
Abstract:

Blend of natural rubber (NR) and chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM) was so interesting due to binding of the good oil resistance of CSM, the good mechanical properties and low cost of NR. However, due to the different polarities of two rubbers, phase separation and inferior properties of NR/CSM blend were obtained. The practical way to improve its properties is the addition of the third component to bind both phases of the blend. Effects of poly(vinyl chloride), PVC as compatibilizer on cure characteristics, morphology, mechanical properties and automotive fuel resistance of NR/ CSM blend were investigated. In this contribution, NR/CSM blend with blend ratio of 50/50 was prepared using a two-roll mill, and then vulcanized in a compression mold at 160°C. The PVC content was varied from 1 to 7 phr. It was found that the usage of 7 phr PVC led to improve interaction between NR and CSM phases. Therefore, increase in cure characteristics, mechanical strength and automotive fuel resistance of the blend was observed.

STUDY OF COMPATIBILITY OF NATURAL RUBBER/LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE BLENDS
天然橡胶/聚乙烯共混体相容性的研究

QIN Chuan,YIN Jing-hua,HUANG Bao-tong,
秦川
,殷敬华,黄葆同

高分子学报 , 1989,
Abstract: Compatibility of natural rubber (NR)/low density polyethylene blends was calculated and it was predicted that compatibility existed between the amorphous part of polyethylene and NR. Based on above calculation and prediction, an interaction model of polyethylene and NR was suggested. Effective network chain density measurement, dynamic mechanical spectrum measurement, wide angle X-ray diffraction and density measurement have been used to verify the compatibility of natural rubber/low density polyethylene blends (NR either unvulcanized or vulcanized) as predicted by the calculation and proposed model. Experimental results show that there exist certain interaction between amorphous LDPE and NR.
Improved Automotive Fuel Resistance of Natural Rubber/Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Blends by Blending Epoxidized Natural Polymer  [PDF]
Manisara Phiriyawirut, Sawanya Luamlam
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2013.34017
Abstract:

The natural rubber (NR) was mixed with chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM), due to the difference of polarity in NR and CSM made this blend incompatible and the third component was used. Epoxidzed natural rubber (ENR) was used as a third component. NR/CSM blended with the blend ratio of 50/50 was prepared by using a two-roll mill and vulcanization in a compression mold at 160°C. The ENR content was varied from 1 to 7 phr. The curing characteristics, morphology, mechanical properties, and automotive fuel swelling were investigated. The results indicated that the cure time of the blend rubbers was shorter as adding ENR. The mechanical properties of the blend rubbers were not affected by ENR content. However, automotive fuel resistance of the blend rubbers was found to increase with adding ENR in rubber blend.

IR STUDY ON THE COMPATIBILITY IN LINEAR LOW DEN-SITY POLYETHYLENE/RUBBER BLENDS
线性低密度聚乙烯/橡胶共混体系的相容性研究

LU Yan,QIN Chuan,JING Xia-bin,HUANG Bao-tong,
卢琰
,秦川,景遐斌,黄葆同

高分子学报 , 1991,
Abstract: Two polyethylene/rubber blends, LLDPE/NR and LLDPE/SBR, were examined by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and dynamic Tg measurements. It was found that the 835 cm-1 band of the NR and the 964cm-1 band of the SBR became higher and narrower as a result of blending with LLDPE, indicating certain extent of interaction between the amorphous molecular segments of PE and the rubber molecles. The Tg changes determined by dynamic techniques supported the result obtained by IR spectroscopy.
Thermostability and surface morphology of nano- and micro-filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM rubber blends
G. MARKOVIC,B. RADOVANOVIC,J. BUDINSKI SIMENDIC,M. MARINOVIC-CINCOVIC
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2004,
Abstract: Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), polychloroprene rubber (CR), chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSM) and their blends were cross-linked with sulphur, ethylene-thiourea, magnesium oxide or their combination. The effect of nano- and micro- particle sized of 35 pphr SiO2 on the thermostability and surface morphology of all the crosslinked systems was investigated. Identification of the structure of nano- and micro- particle sized SiO2 filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM crosslinked systems was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) extension. The thermal stability of the nano- and micro- particle sized SiO2 filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM crosslinked systems were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the samples was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the fracture surface of the crosslinked systems was carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show when filled with nano-particle sized of SiO2 NBR/CSM and CR/CSM polymer matrix have a strong peak from SiO C at 1079 cm-1. This suggests the an interaction between the SiO2, which should lead to an increased thermal stability, higher values of Tg, better dispersion the nano-SiO2 and more polish, without cracks than micro-filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM crosslinked systems.
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