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 Tony Mitchell Transforming Cultures , 2009, Abstract: Review Essay
 Roald Hoffmann Hyle : International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry , 2003, Abstract: essay of Thoughts on Aesthetics and Visualization
 Computer Science , 2013, Abstract: We present an approach to decomposition and factor analysis of matrices with ordinal data. The matrix entries are grades to which objects represented by rows satisfy attributes represented by columns, e.g. grades to which an image is red, a product has a given feature, or a person performs well in a test. We assume that the grades form a bounded scale equipped with certain aggregation operators and conforms to the structure of a complete residuated lattice. We present a greedy approximation algorithm for the problem of decomposition of such matrix in a product of two matrices with grades under the restriction that the number of factors be small. Our algorithm is based on a geometric insight provided by a theorem identifying particular rectangular-shaped submatrices as optimal factors for the decompositions. These factors correspond to formal concepts of the input data and allow an easy interpretation of the decomposition. We present illustrative examples and experimental evaluation.
 Joel A. Shapiro Physics , 1997, Abstract: I discuss issue of how to adjust recitation grades given by different instructors in a large course, taking into account and correcting for differences in standards among the instructors, while preserving the effects of differences in average student performance among the recitation sections.
 Physics , 2009, Abstract: Charmed mesons in hot and dense matter are studied within a self-consistent coupled-channel approach for the experimental conditions of density and temperature expected at the CBM experiment at FAIR/GSI. The $D$ meson spectral function broadens with increasing density with an extended tail towards lower energies due to $\Lambda_c(2593) N^{-1}$ and $\Sigma_c(2800) N^{-1}$ excitations. The in-medium $\bar D$ meson mass increases with density. We also discuss the consequences for the renormalized properties in nuclear matter of the charm scalar $D_{s0}(2317)$ and D(2400), and the predicted hidden charm X(3700) resonances at FAIR energies.
 Tim Button Mathematics , 2014, Abstract: There are several relations which may fall short of genuine identity, but which behave like identity in important respects. Such grades of discrimination have recently been the subject of much philosophical and technical discussion. This paper aims to complete their technical investigation. Grades of indiscernibility are defined in terms of satisfaction of certain first-order formulas. Grades of symmetry are defined in terms of symmetries on a structure. Both of these families of grades of discrimination have been studied in some detail. However, this paper also introduces grades of relativity, defined in terms of relativeness correspondences. This paper explores the relationships between all the grades of discrimination, exhaustively answering several natural questions that have so far received only partial answers. It also establishes which grades can be captured in terms of satisfaction of object-language formulas, and draws connections with definability theory.
 Shipan Sun Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v6n3p113 Abstract: Although fair value is not a new measurement attribute, the interest of discussing fair value has been aroused by the release of new accounting standards. This article decodes fair value measurement again from four aspects respectively. Fair value measurement attribute is for asset measurement in the end, a kind of initiative measurement from master-slave relationship. As a matter of fact, fair value measurement is a measurement process. However, considering the special time, the relationship of exclusiveness does not exist between fair value and other measurement attributes. Simultaneously, fair value refers to fairness of value in special time and it is meaningless for fair value without the concept of time.
 Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2010, Abstract: Until now, the historical cost principle has dominated accountancy. At this time, another principle seems to operate: the fair value principle. The discussion will gravitate around the questions: What is fair value? How has concept of fair value evolved? How much is the fair value used as the basis for measurement in IFRS? Are we moving towards a full fair value? In conditions of economic crisis, the measurement at fair value offers pertinent information? To answer at these questions, we have realized by one hand, a description of the manner which the notion of fair value evolved and in the other hand, a deep IFRS analysis which use fair value in assets and liabilities evaluation. As a result of this study, it seems that the most of the assets and liabilities need to be measured at fair value or they may be measured at fair value, if the entity chooses this accounting treatment.
 JOHAR ALI The Professional Medical Journal , 2008, Abstract: Diabetic foot is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus. The management andout come is very much dependent on proper assessment of foot ulcer severity. Objectives: To asses severity ofdiabetic foot and to find a correlation between Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) and foot ulcer grades. Studydesign: Prospective study. Period: Jan 2001 to Dec 2003. Patients & Methods and Setting: Patients with diabeticfoot ulcers from all the medical and surgical units of Ayub teaching hospital Abbottabad were enrolled in the study.Results: Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) levels revealed 5 (5.8%) with ABPI < 0.5 for grade V, 8 patients (9.3%)ABPI 0.5 – 0.89 for grade IV, 18 patients (20.9%) ABPI 0.9-1 for grade III, 44 (51.2%) ABPI 0.9-1 for grade II, and 9patients (10.5%) ABPI > 1 for grade I diabetic foot ulcer. This data was analyzed via SPSS version 8.0. Conclusions:Ankle brachial pressure index is a good diagnostic tool to assess the lower extremity arterial disease in diabetic footpatients. ABPI readings should be cautiously interpreted as these may be falsely elevated in atherosclerotic patients.
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