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Production of pomace olive oil
Sánchez Moral, Pedro,Ruiz Méndez, M?a Victoria
Grasas y Aceites , 2006,
Abstract: Pomace oil is the principal by-product in olive oil processing and is currently developing considerably due to the technological advances which the mills have undergone in recent years. This investigation aims at presenting an overview of the complexity of this sector which, with around 100 years of existence, is searching for a role in the new integral strategy of the olive oil industry after the crisis suffered in 2001. Physical extraction, drying and solvent extraction are discussed, along with the influence of the technological treatments on the chemical composition of pomace oil. El aceite de orujo es el principal subproducto en el procesado de aceite de oliva y su obtención se ha transformado considerablemente en los últimos tiempos debido a los avances tecnológicos que han experimentado las almazaras. Este trabajo tiene la finalidad de presentar una panorámica de la complejidad de este sector, de casi 100 a os de existencia, que se afana en encontrar su función dentro de la nueva estrategia integral de la industria oleícola después de la crisis sufrida en el a o 2001. En el mismo se comentan la extracción física, el secado, así como la extracción con disolvente, y la influencia que tienen los tratamientos tecnológicos sobre la composición química del aceite de orujo.
Utilization of Agrowaste Polymers in PVC/NBR Alloys: Tensile, Thermal, and Morphological Properties  [PDF]
Ahmad Mousa,Gert Heinrich,Bernd Kretzschmar,Udo Wagenknecht,Amit Das
International Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/121496
Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride)/nitrile butadiene rubber (PVC/NBR) alloys were melt-mixed using a Brabender Plasticorder at and 50?rpm rotor speed. Alloys obtained by melt mixing from PVC and NBR were formulated with wood-flour- (WF-) based olive residue, a natural byproduct from olive oil extraction industry. WF was progressively increased from 0 to 30?phr. The effects of WF loadings on the tensile properties of the fabricated samples were inspected. The torque rheometry, which is an indirect indication of the melt strength, is reported. The pattern of water uptake for the composites was checked as a function WF loading. The fracture mode and the quality of bonding of the alloy with and without filler are studied using electron scanning microscope (SEM). 1. Introduction Polymer alloys continue to represent a field of intensive research. One of the most common blends in the modern sense is PVC with NBR [1, 2]. Due to the miscible nature of PVC/NBR blend as evidenced from single glass transition the soft blend of PVC/NBR can be categorized as a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and more specifically as a melt processable rubber (MPR) [3–5]. Fillers are incorporated mainly to improve service properties or to reduce material cost depending on the source of filler, type of filler, method of preparation, and treatment. Very large quantities of the natural lignocelluloses polymers are produced annually as agrowastes. A very small amount is used as antioxidants or fillers in polymers. The rest is used almost as fuel to generate energy. The field of wood-based agrowastes polymer composites is extensively reviewed in the open literature [5–8]. Recently, we report the effect of virgin olive pomace on the flexural and thermal performance of toughened PVC composites [9]. We found that the virgin olive pomace enhanced the flexural properties to a certain extent, which was due to the hydrogen bond formation, while the thermal stability was improved due to the phenolic hydroxyl group within the lignocellulosic powder. In this work, the effect of wood-flour-based olive residue on the tensile properties, water absorption and morphology of PVC/NBR alloys are reported in the current investigation. 2. Experimental 2.1. Materials and Formulation Acrylonitrile nitrile rubber with 34% acrylo content was supplied by Bayer AG, Germany. Suspension PVC grade in powder form with a -value of 67 was supplied by SABIC of Saudi Arabia and stabilized with lead salt. Wood-flour-based agrowastes with particle size equal or less than 45?μm were used as received. The WF-based olive mill residue has been
Evaluation of the in Vitro Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Lipid Fractions of Olive Pomace, Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fed with Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed  [PDF]
Constantina Nasopoulou,Vassiliki Gogaki,Giorgos Stamatakis,Leonidas Papaharisis,Constantinos A. Demopoulos,Ioannis Zabetakis
Marine Drugs , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/md11103676
Abstract: Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata). The aim of the current research was to elucidate the anti-atherogenic properties of specific HPLC lipid fractions obtained from olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and fish fed with the olive pomace enriched fish feed, by evaluating their in vitro biological activity against washed rabbit platelets. This in vitro study underlines that olive pomace inclusion in fish feed improves the nutritional value of both fish feed and fish possibly by enriching the marine lipid profile of gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata) with specific bioactive lipid compounds of plant origin.
Miscibility Behavior of Poly Ethylene Glycol or Poly Ethylene Succinate/Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride Blends Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Taha A. Hanafy
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2013.32015
Abstract:

The miscibility of chlorinated poly vinyl chloride (CPVC) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) or poly ethylene succinate (PES) had been investigated using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) over frequency and temperature ranges; 10 kHz - 4 MHz and 300 - 450 K, respectively. Three relaxation processes namely ρ-, α’-, and α-relaxation processes were observed for tan(δ) and the electric modulus M\" of pure components and blends. The first one was attributed to the space charge polarization or the Maxwell-Wagner polarization. The second one was related to the amorphous regions located between the lamellar crystal stacks. The third one was due to the micro-Brownian motion of CPVC main chains. This process was found to be dependent in respect of temperature and frequency. The molecular dynamics of α-relaxation process were influenced by blending, i.e., the dielectric strength (De), the peak broadness, and the peak maximum of tan(δ) were found to be compositional dependent. Electric modulus analysis reveals that there is a role of electrode polarization for the dielectric relaxation.

Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing
Antonopoulos, Kostas,Valet, Nick,Spiratos, Dimos,Siragakis, George
Grasas y Aceites , 2006,
Abstract: Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development. El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.
The Effect of Interfacial Interactions on a Structure and Properties of Polyurethane Elastomer/Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Blends  [PDF]
T. L. Malysheva, S. V. Golovan, D. L. Starokadomsky
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2011.11001
Abstract: The effect of chemical structure of segmented poly(urethane-urea)s on its interfacial interactions with poly(vinyl chloride) as well as supramolecular structure and the properties of prepared composites has been studied. A direct influence of flexible and rigid segments of elastomers on a compatibility, structure and the physical-mechanical properties of poly(urethane-urea)/poly(vinyl chloride) blends was investigated. A formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds network in the poly(urethane-urea)/poly(vinyl chloride) systems was evaluated by FTIR analysis. Morphology studies have shown the effect of interfacial interactions on a size of thermoplastic phase dispersed within elastomer matrix. Obtained poly(urethane-urea)/poly(vinyl chloride) micro- and nanocomposites have improved tensile properties.
Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing
Linares, José,García Palma, Manuel,I?igo, Mariano,García, José Manuel
Grasas y Aceites , 2006,
Abstract: The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton), and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands. Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils. The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal). Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented. En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón) y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados. Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución. En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la Unión Europea: Espa a, Italia, Grecia y Portugal. Finalmente, se hace alusión al consumo de aceite de oliva en países terceros, y más concretamente la evolución del consumo y las perspectivas de futuro en mercados emergentes como Estados Unidos, Australia y Japón.
Utjecaj pritisnog naprezanja na dielektri na svojstva omek anog poli(vinil-klorida) / Compressive Stress Effect on Dielectric Properties of Plasticized Poly(Vinyl-Chloride)
?elimir JEL?I?,Nives BRAJKOVI?,Ivica PER?ULIJA,Robert MLINARI?
Polimeri , 2010,
Abstract: Fazno pona anje u mje avinama poli(vinil-klorida) (PVC) s omek avalom (dioktil-ftalatat, DOP) odre ivano je mjerenjima dielektri ne permitivnosti pri pritisnom naprezanju. Odre ivana je ovisnost mjerenih dielektri nih parametara o sastavu mje avina, temperaturi i naprezanju. Sadr aj DOP-a znatno utje e na sva svojstva mje avina. Povi enje sadr aja omek avala DOP-a pomi e relaksacijski spektar prema ni im temperaturama, a pove anje pritisnog naprezanja prema vi im temperaturama, te uz to snizuje i intenzitet staklastog prijelaza. Budu i da povi eni tlak zgu njava materijal, analogno sni enju temperature, tako er se o ekuje nelinearna ovisnost relaksacijskih prijelaza na tlak i promatra se kao pomak prema vi im temperaturama. / Phase behaviour of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) mixtures with plasticizer (dioctyl-phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DOP) is determined by measuring dielectric permittivity under compressive stress. The dependence of the measured dielectric parameters on the composition of mixtures, temperature and stress has been determined. The DOP contents affect significantly all the properties of the mixtures. The increase in the contents of the DOP plasticizer shifts the relaxation spectrum to lower temperatures, and the increase of compressive stress, towards higher temperatures, and reduces also the intensity of glass transition. Since increasing pressure densifies the material, analogous to lowering the temperature, a non-linear dependence of relaxation transitions on pressure is also expected and observed as shift to higher temperatures.
Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits  [PDF]
Nektaria Tsantila,Haralabos C. Karantonis,Despina N. Perrea,Stamatios E. Theocharis,Dimitrios G. Iliopoulos,Smaragdi Antonopoulou,Constantinos A. Demopoulos
Mediators of Inflammation , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/36204
Abstract: Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL) extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL) extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.
Characterization of Some Jordanian Crude and Exhausted Olive Pomace Samples  [PDF]
Khalid M. Tawarah, Rajaa A. Rababah
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2013.34018
Abstract:

In an attempt to provide a set of specifications for the use and trade of the olive pomace in Jordan, several samples of the crude and laboratory-prepared exhausted (oil-free) olive pomace have been subjected to a thorough thermochemical characterization. Such characterization included determination of fat content by using n-hexane and Soxhlet extractor, ultimate and proximate analyses obtained by using an elemental analyzer and a thermogravimetric procedure, respectively, gross and net calorific values obtained by using adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimetry, mineral content (ash), and analysis of the pyrolysis thermograms in terms of specified temperatures and residual masses associated with such temperatures as obtained under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen gas at a flow rate of 100 ml per min and a heating rate of 20°C per min from room temperature up to 600°C. The properties of both the crude and the exhausted olive pomace were compared. The gross calorific values and the results of the ultimate analyses for the two pomace types were found to correlate very well as indicated by the use of a literature correlation formula usually used for estimating the gross calorific value of a fuel when its ultimate analysis is known. Other literature correlation formulas used for estimating the gross calorific value from the proximate analysis data were also used to check the adequacy of our procedure for getting the proximate analysis from the thermogravimetric pyrolysis thermograms.

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