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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesions in the Central Nervous System of a Dog with Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis
Linda G. Lang,John F. Griffin,Jonathan M. Levine,Edward B. Breitschwerdt
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/379627
Abstract: A ten-year-old neutered male dog was examined for tetraparesis, vestibular dysfunction, ataxia,and vertebral column hyperesthesia of 10 days duration. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),there were multifocal, punctate, T2-hyperintense lesions in the brain and cervical spinal cord andintracranial leptomeningeal contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed apredominantly mononuclear pleocytosis and mildly elevated protein. Ehrlichia canis wasdiagnosed by serum immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) testing. The dog improved withadministration of doxycycline. This report describes MRI central nervous system findings in a dogwith ehrlichiosis.
Multicentric lymphoma with metastasis in the central nervous system in a dog
Aptekmann, K.P.;Okamoto, C.E.;Campos, K.C.H.;Takahira, R.K.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352005000300005
Abstract: multicentric lymphoma was diagnosed in a two-year-old dog with respiratory distress, dysorexia, abdominal enlargement and generalized lymphadenopathy. immunohistochemical examination showed t-cell origin with cd3+ e cd79- expression. after five weeks, progressive neurological deficits and neoplastic lymphocytes were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid. histopathological examination showed neoplastic cell invasion in the spleen, lymph nodes, cerebrum and cerebellum.
Toxoplasma gondii genotyping in a dog co-infected with distemper virus and ehrlichiosis rickettsia
Moretti, Leandro d'Arc;Silva, Aristeu Vieira da;Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia;Paes, Antonio Carlos;Langoni, Hélio;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652006000600012
Abstract: this paper reports a toxoplasmosis, erhlichiosis and distemper co-infection in a dog with an exuberant neuropathological clinical picture. primary involvement was discussed based on information collected in the analysis of the clinical case, such as neurological impairment, epidemiological data, poor immunoprophylactic scheme of the dog affected and the role of these diseases on immunosuppression. canine distemper and ehrlichiosis were diagnosed based on epidemiologic data, clinical signs, hematological and cytological evaluation. toxoplasma gondii was isolated and genetically characterized as type i using restriction analysis (rflp) with sag-2 genes. immunosuppression features of both dogs and human beings are discussed, as well as implications on animal and public health. this is the first report on toxoplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and distemper co-infection in a dog in brazil, associated with genotyping determination of the t. gondii strain involved.
Risk factors and clinical disorders of canine ehrlichiosis in the South of Bahia, Brazil
Carlos, Renata Santiago Alberto;Carvalho, Fábio Santos;Wenceslau, Amauri Arias;Almosny, Nadia Regina Pereira;Albuquerque, George Rêgo;
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-29612011000300006
Abstract: the aim of this work was to study the clinical disorders and risk factors of canine ehrlichiosis in ilhéus and itabuna, bahia, and compare different diagnostic methods. blood samples were collected from 200 dogs. each dog was clinically examined. a questionnaire was used to evaluate the risk factors. the blood samples were analyzed using the dot-elisa test; hematometry, platelet counts and searches for morulae on blood smears were performed. nested pcr was carried out on 50 serologically positive samples and 50 negative samples. three positive pcrs were sequenced. thirty-six percent were serologically positivity and 5.5% from blood smears. the animals were anemic and thrombocytopenic. presence of ticks and living in areas on the urban periphery were considered to be risk factors (p < 0.05). nested pcr identified 11 positive dogs of which nine were serologically positive and two were negative. the dna sequencing was consistent with the presence of ehrlichia canis.
Canine ehrlichiosis: clinical, hematological, serological and molecular aspects
Nakaghi, Andréa Cristina Higa;Machado, Rosangela Zacarias;Costa, Mirela Tinucci;André, Marcos Rogério;Baldani, Cristiane Divan;
Ciência Rural , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782008000300027
Abstract: the aim of the present study was to compare the direct detection methods of ehrlichia canis (blood smears and nested pcr), serological tests (dot-elisa and immunofluorescent antibody test - ifat), and demonstrate the most suitable test for the diagnosis of different stages of infection. blood samples and clinical data were collected from 30 dogs examined at the veterinary teaching hospital, unesp, jaboticabal, sp, brazil. the clinical signs most frequently observed were apathy, anorexia, pale mucous membrane, fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hemorrhages and uveitis. evaluating the humoral immune response, 63.3% of the sera were ifat positive, while 70% were dot-elisa positive. by nestedpcr 53.3% of the samples were positive. comparing these techniques it was concluded that serology and npcr are the most suitable tests to confirm the diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis, however it should be always treated as a complementary data to clinical and hematological evaluation. serology has an important role in the subclinical and in the chronic phase, npcr is recommended in the acute stage, and, especially, to identify the ehrlichia specie.
Hypermethylation of the DLC1 CpG island does not alter gene expression in canine lymphoma
Jeffrey N Bryan, Mohamed Jabbes, Linda M Berent, Gerald L Arthur, Kristen H Taylor, Kerry C Rissetto, Carolyn J Henry, Farah Rahmatpanah, Wendi V Rankin, Jose A Villamil, Michael R Lewis, Charles W Caldwell
BMC Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-10-73
Abstract: The mRNA sequence of canine DLC1 is highly similar to the human orthologue and contains all protein functional groups, with 97% or greater similarity in functional regions. Hypermethylation of the 5' and 3' flanking regions of the promoter was statistically significantly associated with the NHL phenotype, but was not associated with silencing of expression or differences in survival.The canine DLC1 is constructed highly similarly to the human gene, which has been shown to be an important tumor suppressor in many forms of cancer. As in human NHL, the promoter CpG island of DLC1 in canine NHL samples is abnormally hypermethylated, relative to normal lymphoid tissue. This study confirms that hypermethylation occurs in canine cancers, further supporting the use of companion dogs as comparative models of disease for evaluation of carcinogenesis, biomarker diagnosis, and therapy.Dogs with spontaneously arising lymphoma represent a large animal model of naturally occurring non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a species which shares the human household environment and potential carcinogen exposure[1]. Lymphoma in dogs is common and shares similarities in cellular morphology and clinical behavior with the human disease [2-7]. The indolent forms of human NHL have a protracted course of disease that ultimately leads to therapy resistance and death[8,9] Lymphoma in dogs has a similar course of response to therapy followed by terminal resistance. As such, the dog has been proposed as a model for preclinical evaluation of novel diagnostics and therapeutics intended for human use[3,4]. To date, only p53, p16, and retinoblastoma tumor suppressor genes have been evaluated for mutation in canine NHL [10-12]. No published examination of possible hypermethylation of a tumor suppressor gene in a dog with NHL exists.The DLC1 gene possesses tumor suppressor function[13,14]. The coded protein is a Rho-GTPase Activating Protein (RhoGAP) that counteracts the feed forward signaling of RhoA and Cdc
Retrospective study (1998-2001) on canine ehrlichiosis in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
Moreira, S.M.;Bastos, C.V.;Araújo, R.B.;Santos, M.;Passos, L.M.F.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352003000200003
Abstract: the present work describes a retrospective study of clinical cases of ehrlichiosis in dogs examined from march 1998 to september 2001. from the clinical records with laboratorial confirmation of ehrlichia canis or e. platys infections, the following parameters were analyzed: demographic aspects (age, race, sex, period of the year and origin), clinical characteristics (body temperature, exposure to ticks and clinical signs), and hematological characteristics (blood cell counts and type of infected cell). a total of 194 clinical records were analyzed, from which 31 animals were infected with e. canis and 21 animals with e. platys. the number of cases of canine ehrlichiosis increased considerably from the year 2000 onwards, and 24.4% of the cases occurred in 13- to 24-month-old animals, in different urban and per-urban regions of the municipality of belo horizonte. the most frequent symptoms were fever, anorexia, apathy, abdominal pain, lymphadenopathy and dispnea. regarding hematological alterations, 70.3% of the animals presented anemia, 50% presented thrombocytopenia and 30% leukopenia, and most e. canis morulae were seen in monocytes. the results point to the importance of canine ehrlichiosis, as 35.9% of the dogs with suspected hemoparasitic diseases were infected with ehrlichia canis or e. platys.
Retrospective study (1998-2001) on canine ehrlichiosis in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil  [cached]
Moreira S.M.,Bastos C.V.,Araújo R.B.,Santos M.
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2003,
Abstract: The present work describes a retrospective study of clinical cases of ehrlichiosis in dogs examined from March 1998 to September 2001. From the clinical records with laboratorial confirmation of Ehrlichia canis or E. platys infections, the following parameters were analyzed: demographic aspects (age, race, sex, period of the year and origin), clinical characteristics (body temperature, exposure to ticks and clinical signs), and hematological characteristics (blood cell counts and type of infected cell). A total of 194 clinical records were analyzed, from which 31 animals were infected with E. canis and 21 animals with E. platys. The number of cases of canine ehrlichiosis increased considerably from the year 2000 onwards, and 24.4% of the cases occurred in 13- to 24-month-old animals, in different urban and per-urban regions of the municipality of Belo Horizonte. The most frequent symptoms were fever, anorexia, apathy, abdominal pain, lymphadenopathy and dispnea. Regarding hematological alterations, 70.3% of the animals presented anemia, 50% presented thrombocytopenia and 30% leukopenia, and most E. canis morulae were seen in monocytes. The results point to the importance of canine ehrlichiosis, as 35.9% of the dogs with suspected hemoparasitic diseases were infected with Ehrlichia canis or E. platys.
Frequency and Clinical Epidemiology of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Dogs Infested with Ticks from Sinaloa, Mexico  [PDF]
Carolina Guadalupe Sosa-Gutierrez,Maria Teresa Quintero Martinez,Soila Maribel Gaxiola Camacho,Silvia Cota Guajardo,Maria D. Esteve-Gassent,María-Guadalupe Gordillo-Pérez
Journal of Veterinary Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/797019
Abstract: Ehrlichia canis is a rickettsial intracellular obligate bacterial pathogen and agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The prevalence of this disease in veterinary medicine can vary depending on the diagnostic method used and the geographic location. One hundred and fifty-two canine blood samples from six veterinary clinics and two shelters from Sinaloa State (Mexico) were analyzed in this study. All animals were suspected of having Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME). The diagnostic methods used were the ELISA (Snap4Dx, IDEXX) together with blood smear and platelet count. From all dogs blood samples analyzed, 74.3% were positive to E. canis by ELISA and 40.1% were positive by blood smear. The sensitivity and specificity observed in the ELISA test were 78.8% and 86.7%. In addition, thrombocytopenia was presented in 87.6% of positive dogs. The predominant clinical manifestations observed were fever, anorexia, depression, lethargy, and petechiae. Consequently, this is the first report in which the morulae were visualized in the blood samples, and E. canis-specific antibodies were detected in dogs from Sinaloa, Northwest of Mexico. 1. Introduction Ehrlichia canis is the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Moreover, CME is an emerging disease in veterinary medicine, and E. canis has been considered in the last decade as a potential zoonotic pathogen [1, 2]. It is a worldwide disease transmitted by a tick bite. The competent vector for its transmission is the Ixodidae ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis [3]. In dogs, the CME is a multiphase disorder that progresses in three stages: acute, subclinical, and chronic. Each phase is characterized by several clinical and hematologic abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in E. canis infected dogs and many clinicians tend to use it as an indication for antibiotic treatment, and it is observed in 84% of the cases and its severity varies in the different disease phases [4]. During the subclinical stage a moderate thrombocytopenia is observed, while the chronic phase is characterized by severe leukopenia and anemia. In this stage dogs show other complications such as hypocellular marrow, suppressed splenic sequestration, decreased life of platelets, and an increase of circulating migration-factor platelet inhibitor [3, 4]. The relationship between the magnitude of thrombocytopenia and prevalence of E. canis has been established in countries such as Brazil in 2004 where 84.1% of infected dogs showed thrombocytopenia [3]. Taken together, more data is necessary to
Ehrlichiosis in Brazil
Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa;Biondo, Alexander Welker;Guimar?es, Ana Marcia Sá;Santos, Andrea Pires dos;Santos, Rodrigo Pires dos;Dutra, Leonardo Hermes;Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva;Morais, Helio Autran de;Messick, Joanne Belle;Labruna, Marcelo Bahia;Vidotto, Odilon;
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-29612011000100002
Abstract: ehrlichiosis is a disease caused by rickettsial organisms belonging to the genus ehrlichia. in brazil, molecular and serological studies have evaluated the occurrence of ehrlichia species in dogs, cats, wild animals and humans. ehrlichia canis is the main species found in dogs in brazil, although e. ewingii infection has been recently suspected in five dogs. ehrlichia chaffeensis dna has been detected and characterized in mash deer, whereas e. muris and e. ruminantium have not yet been identified in brazil. canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by e. canis appears to be highly endemic in several regions of brazil, however prevalence data are not available for several regions. ehrlichia canis dna also has been detected and molecularly characterized in three domestic cats, and antibodies against e. canis were detected in free-ranging neotropical felids. there is serological evidence suggesting the occurrence of human ehrlichiosis in brazil but its etiologic agent has not yet been established. improved molecular diagnostic resources for laboratory testing will allow better identification and characterization of ehrlichial organisms associated with human ehrlichiosis in brazil.
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