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Enlightening the enlightenment: On the permanent concept crisis  [PDF]
Bajovi? Tijana
Filozofija i Dru?tvo , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/fid1002003b
Abstract: Two hundred and twenty years after the French Revolution, the problem of defining the concept of the Enlightenment still persists. Considering the lack of agreement over the defining features of this movement or epoch, our aim is to show that it has never been fully and clearly defined and understood. The author therefore suggests making a distinction between enlightenment (enlightening) and the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment as a period linked to 18th century Europe, can be understood as part of a broader process of enlightenment or enlightening. The Enlightenment should not be viewed as a homogenous whole, an integral process, but as a (still living) tissue, that still exerts considerable influence on Western thought and culture. The author argues, however, that the accusations of projecting or inventing the Enlightenment have not proved very useful, because they interfere with our understanding of this complex phenomenon and important movement in European history.
Enlightenment of “The Spiral of Silence” Theory to Enterprise Crisis Management  [cached]
Wenzhou Zhang
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n8p191
Abstract: The formation of network society multiplies crisis spreading of enterprises, so crisis management in network times has become a significant task for enterprises to discover and study. Herein we claim “The Spiral of Silence” Theory continues to play a role in network spreading, which provides enterprise crisis management with a new perspective.
Emrah Akbas
Academic Research International , 2013,
Abstract: This study is on the transformation of the idea of childhood in a peripheral neighborhood of Istanbul where the reference point to understand this transformation is the emergence of a twilight culture in between the traditional and the new following the phenomena of urbanization and modernization.
Enlightenment on the Crisis of Confucian Hermeneutics in Song Dynasty and the Establishment of the Ultimate Concern in Confucianism  [cached]
Liqin LI
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.css.1923669720120802.788
Abstract: “Scholars are determined to follow Dao.” Confucianists conform to “Dao”, which transcends their realm of cognition. “Dao” is inevitably represented through the medium of the “studies” on Confucianism. Therefore, the Confucian Hermeneutics as the ultimate concern for the Confucianists is designed to be Existential Hermeneutics from the very beginning, part of which is the Technical Hermeneutics. When Zhu Xi set a self-evident Absolute Presupposition for the benevolent Dao with his hermeneutics about “heart-nature-reason”, the ultimate concern in Confucianism which the Confucianists had been seeking was fully established on an ontological sense. The piety and veneration contained in it might enlighten the contemporary academics and thoughts on beliefs. Key words: Confucian Hermeneutics; Crisis; Ultimate concern; Zhu Xi Résumé “Shi zhi yu dao,” le “dao” et le confucianisme et au-delà même, la présentation du “dao” sera inévitablement la capacité de compter sur ”par les médias. Par conséquent, concernant quant à la préoccupation ultime des classiques l’herméneutique confucéenne, depuis le début de la série, c’est qu’il ya des théories herméneutique, c’est plut t que de simplement sur les compétences herméneutique. Lorsque l’interprétation de la raison des conceptions de Zhu Xi “pour le chemin de la vertu et de défi nir la base absolue pour un ensemble de soi du confucianisme, des lettres confucéens a cherché à construire dans le sens ontologique d’y terminer par la préoccupation ultime. L’implication de ces crainte pieuse, ou peut être une révélation de penser académique d’aujourd’hui et de la foi. Mots clés: Interprêtations du classique; Dangers; Attachement fi nale; Zhu Xi
Field Approach in the Transformation Optics Concept
Andrey V. Novitsky;Sergei V. Zhukovsky;Leonid M. Barkovsky;Andrei V. Lavrinenko
PIER , 2012, DOI: 10.2528/PIER12050902
Abstract: An alternative, field-based formulation of transformation optics is proposed. Field transformations are expressed in the language of boundary conditions for the electromagnetic fields facilitated through the introduction of generalized potential functions. It is shown that the field-based approach is equivalent to the conventional coordinate-transformation approach but is preferable when looking for specific field distribution. A set of example devices such as invisibility cloaks, concentrators, rotators, and transformation optics lenses capable of creating light beams with predetermined field distribution (e.g., Gaussian and sinusoidal) is studied to validate the effectiveness of the field-based formulation. As for the boundary conditions for the cloaked region the absence of the normal component of the Poynting vector is justified. In the frames of the field-based approach the physical reasons behind infinite components (singularities) of the material parameters of transformation optics devices are straightforwardly revealed.
The Concept of Mahathiriskonomisme: An Economic Recovery Model during Crisis  [cached]
Md. Shukri Shuib,Mohamad Faisol Keling,Mohd Na’eim Ajis
Journal of Politics and Law , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v2n1p75
Abstract: Mahathiriskonomism is a thought concept in an effort to save the economy under crisis and has proven successful. This model was a manifestation of idea and an action plan used by Malaysia during the economic crisis, which was an initiative of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad during his reign as Malaysia's Prime Minister. With experience in handling two great economic crises, in 1982 and 1997, the birth of an economic management under stress by Tun Dr Mahathir can clearly be called as Mahathiriskonomism. Therefore, the thought perspective and idea with the actions that were used in 1997 was perceived as an important effective experiment in handling the economic crisis which has defied western believes, applied by the International Money Fund (IMF) and also the World Bank under the Washington Consensus. The global economic crisis 2008 made Malaysia an important subject as alternative management in economy under stress. In this ever challenging world, no country in this world can escape from menaces and threats. The threats that emerge can come in various forms. One of the threats and menaces that can manifest is in terms of economy and national development. Currently, in this globalised era, international institutions are also used as instruments to threaten and menace a country’s sovereignty. The westerner’s are supposed to use international institutions as agents, design to shake the stability and present an impact to the government of a country. Consequently the countries being threaten are compelled to accept the injection from the International Money Fund (IMF) which is perceived by some leaders and the public as a proxy to United State and westerners. The IMF had succeeded in confusing the local financial and political system. In the quest to defend the integrity and sovereignty of Malaysia, under the leadership of former Prime Minister, Y.Bhg Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad had successfully minimized the impact of threats and maintained economic management and national politic towards stability. Hence, this approach which can also be referred as 'Mahathiriskonomisme' is identified as a successful approach that amazed the world, furthermore it is observed and studied not only by economy and political researchers in Malaysia, but also international researchers.
The concept of gene is in crisis. Does it affect pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics?
Vanessa Fontana,Ana Cristina Puhl,Fernanda Pedrini,Miriam Falkenberg
Biotemas , 2006,
Abstract: It is well known that the efficacy of certain drugs varies from individual to individual, depending in part on variation in the genes that encode drug metabolizing enzymes or target proteins. Like many other branches of the biomedical sciences, pharmacogenetics has been invigorated by recent advances in genomics, which has led to expectations that the safety and efficacy of medicines will soon be notably improved by personalization of therapeutics based on genetic data. Here we discuss how the crisis of the molecular gene concept affects the premise traced by pharmacogenetics and how the sprouting of new paradigms in molecular and developmental biology points out the impossibility of reducing biological complexity to a DNA strand and single nucleotide polymorphism, affecting the main aim of pharmacotherapy which is to provide the right drug for the right patient at the right dose.
The concept of transformation as resignified by high-school students  [PDF]
Michele Marcelo Silva Bortolai,Daisy de Brito Rezende
Investiga??es em Ensino de Ciências , 2012,
Abstract: This article presents results of an investigation developed as part of a Master's Thesis (Bortolai, 2010) that aimed to report on the resignification of the concept of transformation by first-year students of a governmental high school located in the city of S o Paulo (S o Paulo State, Brazil). The activities selected for analyzing the reframing of this concept were, at first, performed individually by the students. Afterwards, a discussion was held among the students, together with the school teacher, to prepare a collective synthesis, pointing to more specific features of the systems before and after the transformation process. Then, two other activities were proposed that aimed to probe the redefinition, by the students, of the concept under study. This provided the data for verifying the stages of thought processes for concept formation in adolescents, along the lines of Vygotsky’s proposals (2005). It was observed that some of the students require further discussions to change their ideas in order to achieve the stage of conceptual thought, through the mobilization of their superior mental functions.
Between the cross and the sword: the crisis of the gene concept
El-Hani, Charbel Ni?o;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572007000300001
Abstract: challenges to the gene concept have shown the difficulty of preserving the classical molecular concept, according to which a gene is a stretch of dna encoding a functional product (polypeptide or rna). the main difficulties are related to the overlaying of the mendelian idea of the gene as a ?unit?: the interpretation of genes as structural and/or functional units in the genome is challenged by evidence showing the complexity and diversity of genomic organization. this paper discusses the difficulties faced by the classical molecular concept and addresses alternatives to it. among the alternatives, it considers distinctions between different gene concepts, such as that between the ?molecular? and the ?evolutionary? gene, or between ?gene-p? (the gene as determinant of phenotypic differences) and ?gene-d? (the gene as developmental resource). it also addresses the process molecular gene concept, according to which genes are understood as the whole molecular process underlying the capacity to express a particular product, rather than as entities in ?bare? dna; a treatment of genes as sets of domains (exons, introns, promoters, enhancers, etc.) in dna; and a systemic understanding of genes as combinations of nucleic acid sequences corresponding to a product specified or demarcated by the cellular system. in all these cases, possible contributions to the advancement of our understanding of the architecture and dynamics of the genetic material are emphasized.
Facing Crisis: Saving a Company via Cultural Transformation  [cached]
Pim Soonsawad
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n2p52
Abstract: Crisis may require an organization to transform itself; however, transformation may not necessarily help the organization overcome the crisis. Two crises occurred in Taiwan that forced many businesses to change their operating style. The earthquake on September 21, 1999 and the outbreak of SARS in 2003 forced organizations to change. These two calamities exposed companies to a series of challenges which often required creativity and change to overcome. This research is a case study of how a Taiwanese company overcame the challenges caused by these crises, transforming itself from a customer-led business to a market-oriented business. Specifically, we extend Lewin’s planned change model to investigate the storytelling and organizational communication styles used in different stages of this company’s transformation. The findings reveal that a company can actively respond to crisis thereby providing guidelines for organizations facing catastrophe and chaos.
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