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An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd
Silva, N.;Costa, G.M.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352001000400001
Abstract: an outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the state of rio de janeiro, brazil. during a four-month period 14 fatal cases of klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. the symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by cmt. staphylococcus aureus andstreptococcus agalactiae streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of acute fatal mastitis. milking practices were also evaluated. the milking machine was being used correctly and adequate precautions for hygiene and pre-milking and post-milking teat dipping were used. the organism was sensitive to gentamicin. therapy for acute toxic mastitis required early action for the treatment of infections, involving corticosteroids and fluid therapy. the use of a klebsiella vaccine produced from the microorganisms isolated from the herd, associated with hygiene measures, resulted in the control of the outbreak.
An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd  [cached]
Silva N.,Costa G.M.
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2001,
Abstract: An outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During a four-month period 14 fatal cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. The symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by CMT. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of acute fatal mastitis. Milking practices were also evaluated. The milking machine was being used correctly and adequate precautions for hygiene and pre-milking and post-milking teat dipping were used. The organism was sensitive to gentamicin. Therapy for acute toxic mastitis required early action for the treatment of infections, involving corticosteroids and fluid therapy. The use of a Klebsiella vaccine produced from the microorganisms isolated from the herd, associated with hygiene measures, resulted in the control of the outbreak.
Outbreak of botulism in a dairy herd in Turkey
S Senturk, H Cihan
Irish Veterinary Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/2046-0481-60-8-481
Abstract: Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobe. Botulinum toxin is an exotoxin produced during the growth and autolysis phase of the organism under anaerobic conditions [12,14]. Eight known botulinum toxins, A, B, Ca, Cb, D, E, F and G, have been identified. Disease in cattle is produced primarily by types C and D. Clostridium botulinum types C and D produce potent toxins in carrion, feed contaminated with dead rodents, birds or reptiles, or any rotting material [12,14,1]. This study is the first confirmation, by direct toxin isolation, of Clostridium botulinum type C and Clostridium botulinum type D in cattle, in Turkey.The study was conducted on a Holstein Friesian breeding farm near the town of Bandirma in Balikesir. The herd consisted of 105 cattle. Clinically, 26 cattle including milking cows were found to be suffering from different degrees of suspected botulism. They ranged in age from four to eight years and had been ill for between two and eight days. A routine clinical examination of the animals, including body temperature, pulse, respiratory rates and ruminal movements, was performed. The neurological examination included an assessment of each affected animal's mental status, gait, pupillary light reflexes, anal reflexes, tongue reflexes, swallowing reflexes, tail tone and sensitivity to pricking with a needle. In the detailed history, the owner reported that the milking cows' feed, in addition to grain, haylage and silage, included ensiled poultry litter. It was reported that dry cows, heifers and calves were unaffected. These animals were fed different rations, without poultry litter. Routine haematological values, including haematocrit, haemoglobin, erythrocyte, total white cell and platelet counts, were determined by a haemocell counter (Cell Dyn 3500; Abbott Inc., USA). The concentrations of serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK) and, potassium (K
Clinical and gross pathologic findings of complicated vertical fissures with digital dermatitis in a dairy herd
Mohsen Nouri,Javad Ashrafi Helan
Veterinary Research Forum , 2012,
Abstract: Careful antemortem examination and interpretation of findings, assisted by goodclinical records, do much to throw light on the nature of vertical fissure in cattle. During aneight month period of investigation, 13 (3.2%) lame cows with vertical fissure out of 52Holstein cows with different claw fissures were selected for clinical and gross pathologicalpurposes in a commercial dairy farm with 400 milking cows in Nazarabad, Iran. The cowswere 2.5 to10.5 years old. The prevalence rate of vertical fissure was 3.2 per cent. Theprevalence rate of claw lesion in the hind limb (69.2%) was higher than that of fore limb(30.7%). The type of vertical fissures were 4 (38.4%), 5 (23.0%), 2 (23.0%) and 3 (15.3%),respectively. Locomotion scoring assessment of 13 culled lame cows showed score rangedfrom grade 3 (30.7%) to 4 (61.5%). The herd had endemic digital dermatitis infection withprevalence in the adult herd of over 34.2%. The affected claws were more boxy thannormal and the abaxial wall was convex in all directions. The lame cows had typical stancesuch as hobbyhorse or cross legged stance. This study shows that more research is neededboth on the economic impact of vertical fissures in dairy cows and on the microbiologicalstudy of spirochaetes of the genus Treponema. This study recommends that owners of dairyfarm should try to control digital dermatitis with preventative herd strategies.
Flea Bite Dermatitis in a Herd of Dairy Calves in Vom Nigeria
SJ Shaibu, IL Oyetunde, LD Jwander, JT Tanko, LT Ikpa, JJ Adamu
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Fleas are parasitic insects which are found all over the world. They are wingless insects 1.5-4.0mm long, have a laterally compressed body and are different from lice in they are flattened dorso-ventrally, and are covered with a hard, shiny coating, like an external skeleton, which helps them to move through an animal's fur. There are more than 2,200 species of fleas recognized worldwide (Anon, 2006). Adult fleas are usually red-brown in color and have three pairs of legs, the last pair being quite large and well-adapted for jumping. They have piercing and sucking mouth parts which are specially designed for injecting into a host and sucking blood. They feed on the blood of cats, dogs and other animals, including humans (Lyon, 1997; Kramer and Mencke, 2001). Flea infestation in cattle and other ruminants is rare; it has been more commonly reported in cats and dogs. Infestations of calves with Ctenocephalides felis felis have been reported in Israel (Yeruham et al.,1989), the USA (Dryden et al., 1993) , Japan (Otake et al., 1997) and Brazil (Araujo et al., 1998). Kraal et al. (2006), in a survey of flea infestation, reported the infestation of calves and other domestic animal species in Libya. They reported that of the 1861 fleas recovered, 1857 were Ctenocephalides felis strongylus and 4 were Pulex irritans. Yeruham and Braverman (2004) reported Seasonal allergic dermatitis in sheep associated with Ctenocephalides and Culicoides bites. Ctenocephalides felis felis is a flea of cats and dogs, which is responsible for skin irritation and anaemia (Dryden and Rust, 1994) and transmission of the tape worm Dipylidium caninum (Pugh, 1987). This flea can also infest other mammals including humans (Genchi, 1992).
A study of duration of digital dermatitis lesions after treatment in a Danish dairy herd
Bodil H Nielsen, Peter T Thomsen, Jan T S?rensen
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-51-27
Abstract: Digital dermatitis (DD) is a contagious disease of cattle affecting the skin of the distal extremities. The inflammation causes varying degrees of irritation and pain and may cause severe lameness [1]. The transition between different stages of DD based on lesion development have been described [2-4] and in one study, the duration of a single case of DD has been reported to be approximately 70 days [5]. Somers et al. [4] reported that ulcerative lesions may persist for several months. An estimate of the duration of lesions would be a valuable parameter in the evaluation of the economic impact of the disease. Additionally, knowledge about the duration of lesions is of value in allowing estimates of incidences from prevalence data.The aim of this study was to estimate the duration of lesions due to DD and to evaluate parity and lactation stage as risk factors for longer duration of such lesions. The hypotheses were that lesions in primiparous cows have a longer duration than in multiparous cows and that the duration of lesions occurring early in the lactation is longer than the duration of lesions with a later onset.In the period from May 2007 until November 2008, DD associated lesions in hind legs of Danish Holstein (DH) cows (N = 151) at the Danish Cattle Research Centre, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Denmark, were clinically scored on 15 occasions with approximately five week intervals. The dairy herd was housed in a loose housing system with cubicles and slatted floor in the alleys as well as behind the feeding rack. At each recording all lactating and non-lactating cows were observed. Information about the individual animal (parity and days in milk (DIM)) was obtained from the herd database. Clinical examinations were performed by an experienced veterinarian or a trained technician. All examinations were done in a chute and the hind hooves were either fully trimmed or, where this was unnecessary, washed with water for recording. The lesions were recorded usin
An outbreak of winter dysentery caused by bovine coronavirus in a high-production dairy cattle herd from a tropical country
Takiuchi, Elisabete;Barry, Aline Fernandes;Alfieri, Alice Fernandes;Filippsen, Patrícia;Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132009000700008
Abstract: bovine coronavirus (bcov) is a known cause of winter dysentery (wd) in adult cattle. the morbidity of the disease is high, that results in a significant decrease in milk production and consequently, economic losses. in the present study, we report on a classical outbreak of wd that affected a high-production holstein dairy herd raised in a tropical country. the lactating batch included 154 cows, and 138 (90%) presented diarrhea in a short (nine days) period of time. three (2%) cows died. the other batches of animals did not become ill. the evolution of the disease in the herd, including the clinical signs and epidemiological features, strongly suggested a wd case. semi-nested pcr and rflp confirmed that bcov was the cause of the infection. samples tested negative for all other enteric pathogens. this case report highlights the importance of bcov in wd even in tropical countries such as brazil.
Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of Korean orf virus from dairy goats: case report
Jae-Ku Oem, In-Soon Roh, Kyung-Hyun Lee, Kyoung-Ki Lee, Hye-Ryoung Kim, Young-Hwa Jean, O-Soo Lee
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-167
Abstract: Contagious ecthyma (contagious pustular dermatitis; orf) is a common epitheliotrophic viral disease of sheep, goats, and wild ruminants and is characterized by the formation of papules, nodules, or vesicles that progress into thick crusts or heavy scabs on the lips, gingiva, and tongue. Orf virus is an oval, enveloped virus containing dsDNA genome within the genus Parapoxvirus, family Poxviridae [1]. The genus also includes pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) in cattle and parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand. Zoonotic infection with orf virus is characterized by nodular and papillomatous lesions mainly on the hands, face, and mouth [2,3].To reveal the genetic variation and characterization of parapoxvirus, the major virus envelope protein B2L and virus interferon resistance (VIR) genes have been used recently [4-8]. Orf virus infection has been diagnosed occasionally in Korea since the outbreak of orf was reported clinically in the 1990s. Although a few studies have been conducted, molecular epidemiology based on gene sequences of orf virus has not been performed because the population of sheep and goats is low in Korea. In the present study, orf virus infection in dairy goats was identified by clinical diagnosis and PCR. The complete B2L and VIR genes were sequenced, and their phylogenetic trees were constructed.In April 2009, an exanthematic outbreak occurred in a farm with 400 dairy goats in the Chungbuk province. Sixty dairy goats presented with wart-like lesions on the lips, tongue, and around the anus (Fig. 1A and 1B). The clinical diagnosis was contagious ecthyma. Morbidity was 15% (60/400), and goats of all the ages ranging from 2 weeks to 1 month were affected. Dried scabs collected from affected goats were stored in a -70°C freezer until the samples were used for further study.The tissue samples were either fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histological examination, or were homogenized mechanically in PBS in a tube usi
Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows
Rodrigues, Celso A.;Luvizotto, Maria C.R.;Alves, Ana Liz G.;Teodoro, Piero H.M.;Gregório, Elisa A.;
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-736X2010000300010
Abstract: this report characterizes the digital dermatitis (dd) lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. fifteen holstein cattle with dd affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of dd were evaluated. lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline im (20mg/kg). tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (tem). lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. overal, most dd lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. tem revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for dd.
AN OUTBREAK OF FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE IN A HERD OF CROSSBRED CATTLE  [cached]
Rashid Ahmad, Javaid Iqbal and Ghu1am Akbar1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2002,
Abstract: During the months of December 200 I and January 2002, an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease (Foot and Mouth Disease type-A virus) was recorded in a crossbred dairy herd at Livestock Experiment Station, Qadirabad. The sick animals showed only the oral lesions except one, which developed foot lesions after 10 days. The overall morbidity rate was 52.13% while the same was recorded as 7.95, 14.06, 97.36, 80.14, 62.68, 62.68, 62.50, and 7.14% in milking cows, dry cows, male young stock, female young stock, male sucklers, female sucklers and bullocks, respectively. Recovery was noticed on seventh day from the onset of out break. No mortality was recorded.
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