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Review of Important Cattle Tick and Its Control in Ethiopia
Abdela Nejash
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102456
Abstract: Ethiopia has the largest livestock population in Africa, but the contribution for the economic aspect of the country is still lowest amount and disease can be considered as a major constrain. Ticks are the most important ectoparasites of livestock in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Ethiopia is not exceptional and ticks are responsible for severe economic losses both through the direct effects of blood sucking and indirectly as vectors of pathogens and toxins. Feeding by large numbers of ticks causes reduction in live weight gain and anaemia among domestic animals, while tick bites also reduce the quality of hides. However, the major losses caused by ticks are due to the ability to transmit protozoan, rickettsial and viral diseases of livestock, which are of great economic importance world-wide. This review concerns with general aspects of tick biology, the taxonomy, pathogenic effects and methods for the control of ticks. ticks belong to the suborder Ixodida, which contains a single super family, the Ixodoidea, which is divided into two major families, Argasidae (soft ticks) and Ixodidae (hard ticks), and the rare family Nuttalliellidae, with a single African species. The main tick genera found in domestic animals of Ethiopia are Amblyomma, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus). Various breeds of cattle differ in their response to tick infestations. Bos indicus pure breeds and crossbreeds are reported to be more innately resistant than Bos taurus breeds. The conventional method of controlling tick infestations in Ethiopia is application of acaricide, either by hand spraying, by hand dressing. Therefore, to minimize tick adverse effect appropriate and timely strategic control measures are crucial.
Ethnomedical survey of Berta ethnic group Assosa Zone, Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, mid-west Ethiopia
Teferi Flatie, Teferi Gedif, Kaleab Asres, Tsige Gebre-Mariam
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-5-14
Abstract: Since time immemorial, human beings have found remedies within their habitat, and have adopted different therapeutic strategies depending upon the climatic, phytogeographic and faunal characteristics, as well as upon the peculiar cultural and socio-structural typologies[1].Ethiopian traditional medicine (TM) comprises of the use of plants, animals and mineral products as well as beliefs in magic and superstition, although ethnobotany is the major one[2,3]. Studies reported that a significant proportion of the Ethiopian population still depends on TM for its health care services[4,5] and more than 95% of traditional medical preparations are of plant origin[6]. Documenting traditional medical knowledge is important to facilitate discovery of new sources of drugs and promote sustainable use of natural resources. On the other hand, the knowledge of the factors involved in the selection of treatment options at household (HH) level is important for health service planning and to incorporating herbal medicine in a country's health care delivery system.Despite its significant contributions, TM in Ethiopia has attracted very little attention in modern medical research and development, and less effort has been made to upgrade the role of TM practice[7]. This study, therefore, attempts to identify and document factors determining the use of TM and medicinal plants used by Berta ethnic groups, Assosa Zone, mid-west Ethiopia.Benishangul Gumuz Regional State (BGRS) is one of the nine Federal States of Ethiopia located in the mid-western part of the country and having a total area of about 50,382 Km2. According to the 2001 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia, the total population of Benishangul-Gumuz region was 460,459 which gives a population density of 9/Km2. Assosa zone, one of the three zones and two special Woredas (second from lowest administrative units in government structure) in the region, has a total area of 1,519 Km2 and a population of 28, 970 (population densit
Antibacterial activity of some powdered herbal preparations marketed in Kaduna metropolis
D Abba, H.I Inabo, S.E Yakubu, OS Olonitola
Science World Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the phytochemical components and the antibacterial activities of some powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal shops and retail outlets in different parts of Kaduna metropolis. Extracts obtained from the herbal preparations were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites using established procedures. Also, antibacterial activities of the extracts were evaluated. Carbohydrates and tannins were identified in 105 (70%) and 101 (67.3%) of the samples respectively. Alkaloids were found in 97 (64.7%); saponins were detected in 91 (60.7%), while anthraquinones, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were identified in 82 (54.7%), 80 (53.3%) and 60 (40%) of the herbal preparations respectively. All the methanolic extracts had inhibitory activities on the test bacterial isolates at various minimum inhibitory concentrations: 81 (54%) had inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, 74 (49.3%) on Escherichia coli, 74 (49.3%) on Salmonella typhi and 63 (42%) on Shigella spp. The uses of these products in herbal medicine are justified. However, further works are needed to identify the chemical nature of the active substances as well as their modes of actions on the bacterial cells and their roles in disease curing.
Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia
González Ruibal, Alfredo
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 2005,
Abstract: The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture. Se presentan los resultados de tres campa as etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.
Use of certain herbal preparations in broiler feeds - A review  [cached]
Tirupathi Reddy Eevuri,Ramya Putturu
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.172-179
Abstract: The importance and use of herbal remedies (turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera etc.) has been reviewed systematically. Turmeric (curcumin), acts as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial agent and protect liver against a variety of toxicants. Tulsi (eugenol) have anticancer properties, reduced blood glucose levels, total cholesterol levels and promotes immune system function. Amla, richest source of vitamin-c and it's active tannoid principles have antimicrobial, antidiabetics, anticarcinogenic properties and enhances immune property. Aloe vera contains phytochemicals (Saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols), which is an indication of cosmetic and medicinal value. Turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera preparations increased the body weight gain, feed efficiency and decreased the feed intake. These preparations decreased the mortality rates and the cost of feed has been decreased from 6.2% to 13.5%. They have reduced the fat accumulation, increased dressing percentage, liver weight, spleen weight and whole giblet weights. Significant reduction of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and increased the humoral response against RD vaccine. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000): 172-179]
Chitrarekha Kulkarni
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development , 2010,
Abstract: Worldwide demand for therapeutic herbal and neutraceutical preparations has increased greatly in past few years. In India, like other pharmaceutical preparations, there is a need to put strict regulations over the microbial quality of such preparations since they are consumed internally and safety is of prime concern. In this work we have focused on assessing the microbial quality of few marketed herbal liquid oral preparations. These preparations were procured from retail pharmacy outlets and traditional medicine sales outlets in western Maharashtra (India). None of the test samples could comply with the safety limits prescribed by WHO. This fact certainly cannot be ignored, and thus there is an immense need to prescribe and follow stringent regulations regarding microbiological quality of such herbal preparations.
Study on Clinical Bovine Dermatophilosis and its Potential Risk Factors in North Western Ethiopia  [cached]
Meseret Admassu and Sefinew Alemu
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2011,
Abstract: A cross-sectional study of dermatophilosis was undertaken from October 2008 to March 2009 on 3456 cattle (3181 indigenous zebu and 275 Holestien-zebu cross) with the aim of determining prevalence and associated risk factors in urban and periurban areas of Bahir Dar, north western Ethiopia. Culturing of Dermatiphilus congolensis and Giemsa staining were the techniques used. Thirty six of 3456 examined animals (1.04%) had clinical dermatophilosis. Prevalence was higher in cross bred (5.5%) than in indigenous zebu (0.7%) cattle, in male cattle (1.7%) than in female (0.8% ), in adults (1.2%) than in young (0.8%) age groups, in wet (1.6%) than in dry season (0.5%), and in cattle infested with tick (2.7%) than cattle with no tick infestation (0.4%). Statistically significant difference (p# 0.05) was observed in the prevalence between breeds of cattle, between age groups, between wet and dry seasons, and between cattle with and without tick infestation. Amblyoma variegatum was identified. The study indicated dermatophilosis is a potential determinant factor for the dairy development strategy started through cross breeding in the study area. Tick control especially on crossbred cattle is suggested to reduce the risk of dermatophilosis.
Qualitative laboratory analysis for teh detaction of conventional drugs in herbal preparations supplied by healers in major towns of Ethiopia
A Debella, D Abebe, K Mudie, A Tadele, A Gebreegziabher
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2008,
Microbiological Profile of Some Ghanaian Herbal Preparations—Safety Issues and Implications for the Health Professions  [PDF]
Joseph A. Ampofo, Anthonia Andoh, Wilhermina Tetteh, Mohammed Bello
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.23018
Abstract: Thirty-one herbal preparations produced and sold on the Ghanaian market were randomly purchased from sales outlets and analyzed for their microbiological quality by testing for the presence of total coliform bacteria, faecal coliform bac- teria, and total heterotrophic bacteria count. Also tested for was detection of pathogenic bacteria such as the Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. Opportunistic bacterial pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and mould were also tested for. The herbal preparations tested came from different processing companies and in- cluded those labeled as suitable for treating arthritis, asthma, anaemia, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, cough, hypertension, dysmenorrhoea, malaria, urine retention and loss of appetite. Aliquots of the various herbal products were cultured on various selective media. Eight (8) of the products showed the presence of all microorganism analyzed for including the pathogenic ones and are recommended not be used. Five (5) of the products did not have any microorganism present. Eleven (11) products showed the presence of only total heterotrophic bacteria and the values ranged from 1 to 94 cfu per ml. These two groups of total of sixteen (16) products can be used without any microbiological risk. Another three (3) products showed presence of only total heterotrophic bacteria but the values ranged from 118 to 1648 cfu per ml. Majority of the herbal preparations showed the presence of pathogenic bacteria. These three products may pose danger to the user can be used with caution. None of the herbal products recorded the presence of Enterococcus spp.
New tick records in Rond?nia, Western Brazilian Amazon
Labruna, Marcelo Bahia;Barbieri, Fábio Silva;Martins, Thiago Fernandes;Brito, Luciana Gatto;Ribeiro, Francisco Dimas Sales;
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-29612010000300014
Abstract: in the present study, we provide new tick records from vilhena municipality, in the southeast of the state of rond?nia, northern brazil. ticks collected from a capybara, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (linnaeus), were identified as amblyomma romitii tonelli-rondelli (1 female), and amblyomma sp. (1 larva). ticks collected from a harpy eagle, harpia harpyja (linnaeus), were identified as amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) (16 nymphs) and haemaphysalis juxtakochi cooley (1 nymph). ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, chelonoidis denticulada (linnaeus), were identified as amblyomma rotundatum koch (10 females, 2 nymphs), and amblyomma sp. (2 larvae). the present record of a. romitii is the first in the state of rond?nia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. although both a. cajennense and h. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. a. rotundatum is widespread in the state of rond?nia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. the present records increase the tick fauna of rond?nia to 26 species.
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