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Intervertebral disk width in dogs with and without clinical signs of disk associated cervical spondylomyelopathy
Steven De Decker, Ingrid MVL Gielen, Luc Duchateau, Holger A Volk, Luc ML Van Ham
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-126
Abstract: Doberman pinschers with clinical signs of DA-CSM (N=17),clinically normal Doberman pinschers (N=20), and clinically normal English Foxhounds (N=17), underwent MRI of the cervical vertebral column. On sagittal T2-weighted images, intervertebral disk width was measured from C2-C3 to C6-C7. Intra –and interobserver agreement were assessed on a subset of 20 of the 54 imaging studies.Intervertebral disk width was not significantly different between Doberman pinschers with clinical signs of DA-CSM, clinically normal Doberman pinschers or clinically normal English Foxhounds (p=0.43). Intervertebral disk width was positively associated with increasing age (p=0.029). Each monthly increase in age resulted in an increase of disk width by 0.0057mm. Intervertebral disk width was not significantly affected by gender (p=0.056), but was significantly influenced by intervertebral disk location (p <0.0001). The assessed measurements were associated with a good intra –and interobserver agreement.The present study does not provide evidence that wider intervertebral disks are associated with clinical status in dogs with and without DA-CSM. Instead, it seems that cervical intervertebral disk width in dogs is positively associated with increase in age.Cervical spondylomyelopathy, also referred to as canine wobbler syndrome, is a multifactorial neurological syndrome that generally affects large and giant breed dogs [1]. Many lesions have been attributed to this syndrome and as a consequence, many synonyms can be found in the literature [2]. Over years, a few separate entities have been recognised based on clinical presentation and imaging findings [3,4]. Probably the most common of these entities is disk associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (DA-CSM) or disk associated wobbler syndrome [5]. In DA-CSM, caudal cervical spinal cord compression is mainly caused by protrusion of one or more intervertebral disks [5]. This disk associated spinal cord compression is sometimes seen in combination
Expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in the cervical spinal cord of wobbler mice
Paolo Bigini, Fabrizio Gardoni, Sara Barbera, Alfredo Cagnotto, Elena Fumagalli, Annalisa Longhi, Massimiliano M Corsi, Monica Di Luca, Tiziana Mennini
BMC Neuroscience , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-7-71
Abstract: No differences were found in the distribution of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits at both ages. Western blots analysis showed a trend of reduction in AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits, mainly GluR1 and NR2A, exclusively in the cervical region of late symptomatic mice in the triton-insoluble post-synaptic fraction but not whole homogenates. Colocalisation experiments evidenced the expression of GluR1 and NR2A receptors in activated astrocytes from the cervical spinal cord of wobbler mice, GluR2 did not colocalise with GFAP positive cells. No differences were found in the expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in the lumbar tract of wobbler mice, where neither motoneuron loss nor reactive gliosis occurs.In late symptomatic wobbler mice altered levels of GluR1 and NR2A receptor subunits may be a consequence of motoneuron loss rather than an early feature of motoneuron vulnerability.Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motoneurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex and leading to denervation, muscular atrophy, paralysis and premature death [1]. The disease is sporadic in approximately 90% of cases [2] and the correlation between the pathology and an identified gene mutation is known only in a small percentage of cases (2%) [3].Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity may be one of the main factors in ALS pathogenesis [4]. Both glial and neuronal glutamate transporters play a pivotal role in avoiding excitotoxicity by removing the excess of glutamate released into the synaptic cleft from presynaptic neurons and consequently preventing the overstimulation of post-synaptic glutamate receptors. Evidence of abnormal glutamate metabolism and impaired expression of the glial glutamate transporter 2 (EAAT2) in ALS patients suggests that glutamate-induced excitotoxicity plays a key role in generating this disease [5]. Glutamate overstimulation can act through both the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the alpha-amino-3-hyd
Luciana Araujo Lins,Janaína da Rosa Velho,Luiz Paiva Carapeto,Márcio Nunes Corrêa
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2009,
Abstract: In this case report, methods to accomplish differential diagnosis for Cervical Stenotic Myelopathy with other diseases with similar symptomatology are described. Cervical Stenotic Myelopathy is an affection characterized by the narrowing of the cervical vertebrae canal, causing a spinal cord compression. This abnormality usually results of a cervical vertebral malformation during the development of the animal. Nutritional imbalances are straightly related to the development of this syndrome. Genetic influence is also described as an etiologic factor. In spite of being an orthopedic disease, it appears through nervous symptomatology, as a result of the spinal cord compression. Thus, the accomplishment of differential diagnosis is necessary for traumatic lesions, Equine Protozoal Mieloencephalitis, Equine Herpesvirus Mieloencephalitis and Equine Degenerative Mieloencephalitis. In this study diagnosis methods, like radiography and myelogram, were used to detect Cervical Stenotic Myelopathy in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The simple radiological examination showed disorders at the bone conformation, while the myelogram was important in the recognition of the site of spinal cord compression. The histopathological examination was conclusive on the detection of spinal cord compressive lesions. KEY WORDS: Cervical stenosis, equine, myelopathy, spinal cord, Wobbler. Keywords: Equine, Spinal Cord, Myelopathy, Cervical Stenosis, Wobbler Neste relato s o descritos métodos para a realiza o do diagnóstico diferencial de mielopatia cervical estenótica com outras doen as que cursam com sinais clínicos semelhantes. A mielopatia cervical estenótica é uma afec o caracterizada pelo estreitamento do canal medular das vértebras cervicais, causando compress o na medula espinhal. Essa altera o resulta geralmente de má forma o das vértebras cervicais durante o desenvolvimento do animal. Distúrbios nutricionais est o diretamente relacionados com o desenvolvimento da síndrome. A influência de fatores genéticos também é descrita como fator etiológico. Apesar de ser uma doen a ortopédica, ela se manifesta por meio de sinais nervosos, resultantes da compress o da medula. Dessa forma é necessária a realiza o do diagnóstico diferencial com les es traumáticas, mieloencefalite equina por protozoário, mieloencefalite equina por herpes-vírus e mieloencefalite degenerativa equina. Neste estudo foram utilizados métodos de diagnóstico, como radiografia e mielografia, para a detec o de mielopatia cervical estenótica em sete equinos da ra a Puro Sangue Inglês. O exame radiológico simples demon
Ehler Danlos syndrome with cervical dislocation: An unusual case  [cached]
Awasthy Neeraj,Chand Karam
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences , 2008,
Abstract: Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is heritable connective tissue disorders with varied manifestations whose primary clinical features include soft, hyperextensible skin, dystrophic scarring, easy bruising, and joint hypermobility. Os odontoideum describes a condition in which the dens is separated from the axis body. The exact frequency is unknown. Known cases are either incidentally detected or are diagnosed when patients become symptomatic. Cervical dislocation has been described with type VI lesions but no association with Os odontoideum was found in the English literature. We describe a case of 5-year-old boy a case of Ehler Danlos syndrome presenting with features of cervical dislocation due to Os odontoideum.
Isolated Cervical Rib Fracture: A Rare Etiology of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Rayees Ahmad Dar,Sabiya Hamid Wani,Majid Mushtaque
Case Reports in Surgery , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/163792
Abstract: Isolated fracture of a cervical rib is a very rare entity and usually presents as a painless swelling or as thoracic outlet syndrome. We describe a case of a 45-year-old woman with history of fall two months back. She presented with symptoms of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome for one month. Isolated left cervical rib fracture was documented on X-ray cervical spine. Her fractured cervical rib was resected through a supraclavicular approach, and symptoms resolved completely in the postoperative period.
A Case Of Cervical Disc Herniation Presented With Brown-Sequard Syndrome  [cached]
Ferda CAGAVI,Murat KALAYCI,Zeynep CAGAVI,Hüseyin Tu?rul ATASOY
Journal of Neurological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The Brown-Sequard syndrome is most commonly seen with spinal trauma. A herniated servical disc has rarely been considered to be a cause of Brown-Sequard syndrome. We presented a 46-year-old man with 2 weeks history of pain in the neck and right arm. On neurologic examination revealed Brown-Sequard syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed a large right extradural lateral C4-5 disc herniation. The simple discectomy was performed to C4-5 by standart microsurgical anterior approach. On the second postoperative day, right hemiparesis completely recovered. A follow-up examination at 1 month revealed a slight residual diminishing of pain and temperature sensitivity in the left leg. Brown-Sequard syndrome caused by ekstradural cervical disk herniation is an extremely rare condition. Early surgical treatment is recomended in cervical disk herniation causing Brown-Sequard syndrome. Cervical disc herniation is one of the disorders which must be remembered in the differential diagnosis of patients presented with Brown-Sequard syndrome. By rewiev of the literature, prognostic factors in cervical disk herniation causing Brown-Sequard syndrome was evaluated.
Rare association of hyper IgE syndrome with cervical rib and natal teeth  [cached]
Roshan Anupama,Janaki C,Parveen B,Gomathy N
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2009,
Abstract: Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by a triad of cutaneous abscesses, mostly caused by Staphylococus aureus; pneumonia; and raised IgE levels. Nonimmunological associations include course facial features, multiple bone fractures, joint hyperextensibility, and retained primary dentition. Patients require long-term antibiotic therapy. We report here a classical case of HIES with rare associations of natal teeth, bilateral cervical ribs, and conductive deafness. The patient was being treated with monteleukast and dapsone.
Central Cord Syndrome Due to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis of the Cervical Spine  [cached]
Türkiye Fiziksel Tip ve Rehabilitasyon Dergisi , 2012,
Abstract: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systemic skeletal disease of unknown etiology characterized by ligamentous ossification of the anterolateral spine and the extraspinal ligaments. In generally, it has been reported to be associated with diabetes mellitus and obesity. The most common symptoms of cervical DISH are compression of the trachea and esophagus, however, neurological deficits are rare. In this article, we present an 85-year-old male patient who had non-traumatic central cord syndrome due to compression of the spinal cord and the nerve roots because of cervical DISH. Turk J Phys Med Re-hab 2012;58:326-8.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with small intestinal malignancy and cervical carcinoma  [cached]
Lian-Jie Li, Zhi-Qing Wang, Bao-Ping Wu
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: We report a case of 30-year-old woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). Because of small intestinal obstruction, she received the small intestinal polypectomy in 2001, and the pathological diagnosis was Peutz-Jeghers polyp canceration (mucinous adenocarcinoma, infiltrating full-thickness of the intestine). The patient did not feel uncomfortable after 6 mo of chemotherapy and other management. We kept a follow-up study on her and found that she suffered from cervical cancer in 2007, with a pathological diagnosis of cervical adenosquamous carcinoma.The patient presented with typical features of PJS, but without a family history. The PJS accompanied with both small intestinal and cervical malignancies has not been reported so far in the world.
Involvement of the cervical cord and medulla in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
Choh Naseer,Jehangir Majid,Rasheed Muddassir,Mira Tajamul
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by patchy cortical and subcortical lesions in the distribution of the posterior circulation. The lesions are classically reversible. This syndrome has multiple etiologies, most of which cause acute hypertension. We present a case of PRES with involvement of the medulla and cervical cord (apart from the typical parieto-occipital lesions)-an extremely rare imaging manifestation of PRES. It is important to recognize the imaging findings of PRES in spinal cord, and avoid misdiagnosis as myelitis by proper clinical correlation. Typically patients with myelitis have a profound neurodeficit, while patients with spinal manifestations of PRES are asymptomatic. Involvement of the cord in PRES has probably been an underrecognized entity as spinal imaging is not routinely performed in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.
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