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Bone mineral response to ammonium sulphate offered as a lick supplement in beef calves  [cached]
L.E. Motsei,D.E. Beighle
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v77i1.334
Abstract: Sixteen Bonsmara calves (4 males, 12 females) between 10 and 18 months of age were blocked according to age and sex and randomly assigned to 2 groups. They were offered licks containing bone meal and salt (50:50 ratio) (control) and bone meal and ammonium sulphate (NH4SO4) at 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 18 % (treatment) to evaluate the effects of dietary anions on bone phosphate (P) concentration. Bone P concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the NH4SO4 group compared with the control group, indicating that NH4SO4 was able to increase the P content of bone at each of the 6 concentrations used in the lick relative to the control animals, thereby improving the P status of the animals. Ammonium sulphate at 15% and 18% in the lick also significantly (P <0.05) increased bone P compared with the lower concentrations of NH4SO4. Bone calcium (Ca) fluctuated as a result of the acidogenic lick. There was absorption of Ca when P was being resorbed and resorption of Ca when P was being absorbed into and out of bone. Bone Ca:P ratio ranged from 3.2 to 6.4 among the control group and 1.6 to 4.3 among the treatment group. Animals receiving the acidogenic lick had a higher percentage ash compared to the control group for most of the experimental period. Bone magnesium (Mg) fluctuated in response to the acidogenic lick, and it was difficult to show a relationship between bone Mg and Ca or P. The overall mean cortical bone thickness was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in treatment (1.60 mm) compared with control (1.43 mm) calves and this was also true at sampling periods 2, 4, 5 and 6. Bone thickness followed bone P and not bone Ca. Results from this research indicate that the addition of ammonium sulphate to a lick had a beneficial effect in improving the P status by increasing bone P and improving the mineral status of bone by increasing the thickness of cortical bone and percentage ash.
The Transient Growth of Ammonium Chloride Dendrites  [PDF]
Andrew Dougherty,Thomas Nunnally
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2006.11.301
Abstract: We report measurements of the initial growth and subsequent transient response of dendritic crystals of ammonium chloride grown from supersaturated aqueous solution. Starting from a small, nearly spherical seed held in unstable equilibrium, we lower the temperature to initiate growth. The growth speed and tip radius approach the same steady state values independent of initial seed size. We then explore the response of the growing dendrite to changes in temperature. The crystal adjusts quickly and smoothly to the new growth conditions, maintaining an approximately constant value of $v \rho ^2$ throughout. Dissolving dendrites, on the other hand, are not characterized by the same value of $v \rho ^2$.
Measurement of the Capillary Length for the Dendritic Growth of Ammonium Chloride  [PDF]
Andrew Dougherty,Franklin Stinner
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We report the results of a new method of measuring the capillary length for the dendritic crystal growth of non-faceted materials. This method uses a nearly spherical crystal held near unstable equilibrium in an oscillating temperature field. For the growth of ammonium chloride crystals from aqueous solution, previous published estimates varied by over a factor of 20. With this new method, we find a capillary length d0 of 0.224 +- 0.005 nm, similar to that obtained for ammonium bromide crystals.
Shape of ammonium chloride dendrite tips at small supersaturation  [PDF]
Andrew Dougherty,Mayank Lahiri
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.09.065
Abstract: We report detailed shape measurements of the tips of three-dimensional ammonium chloride dendrites grown from supersaturated aqueous solution. For growth at small supersaturation, we compare two different models: parabolic with a fourth-order correction, and power law. Neither is ideal, but the fourth-order fit appears to provide the most robust description of both the tip shape and position for this material. For that fit, the magnitude of the fourth-order coefficient is about half of the theoretically expected value.
The amplitude of sidebranches in the dendritic crystal growth of ammonium chloride  [PDF]
Andrew Dougherty
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We report new measurements for the amplitude of sidebranches in the dendritic crystal growth of ammonium chloride from supersaturated aqueous solutions. No simple power law is found to describe either the growth of the average sidebranch amplitude or the average sidebranch envelope. Instead, the effective power law exponent appears to increase as a function of distance from the dendritic tip. We also find that the amplitude of the sidebranches in this system is significantly larger than predicted by models of noise-driven sidebranching.
Complexation Reaction Using Ammonium Based Chloride Compounds for Preparation of Eutectic Mixtures
Ahmad Adlie Shamsuri
International Journal of Chemistry , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijc.v3n1p161
Abstract: In this study, we are interested in the eutectic processing of chloride compounds, and decided to focus on ammonium based compounds that can provide sufficient insight in the fundamental chemistry. 14 types ammonium based chloride compounds namely ammonium chloride, methanaminium chloride, dimethylammonium chloride, trimethylammonium chloride, tetramethylammonium chloride, dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride, hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride, carboxytrimethylmethanaminium chloride, phenyltrimethylammonium chloride, benzyltrimethylammonium chloride, (vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride, 2-acetoxytrimethylethanaminium chloride, (2-acetoxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride and 2-(benzoyloxy)trimethylethanaminium chloride were used in this study. This research led to a hypothesis that the ammonium based chloride compounds could be react with the urea by complexing the hydrogen groups that are hydrogen bond donor giving eutectic mixtures. However, functional groups have plays an important role to influence thermal properties of those eutectic mixtures. This is regarded to be a motivating finding that will be important to most future research work involving complexation reaction for the production of eutectic mixtures.
Growth and Characterization of ULMA Single Crystals Doped with Ammonium Chloride  [PDF]
B. Sivasankari,P. Selvarajan
Journal of Materials , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/216732
Abstract: Single crystals of pure and ammonium chloride-doped urea L-malic acid (ULMA) were grown by slow evaporation technique. Many interesting results on several properties of ammonium chloride impurity added to ULMA single crystals have been observed and studied. The different morphology of ammonium chloride-doped ULMA crystals was noticed and the effect of ammonium chloride doping on the growth, optical, and hardness properties has been investigated. The presence of functional groups has been estimated by FTIR analysis. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the diffraction planes of the grown crystals. The UV-visible spectrum shows the cutoff wavelength at 220?nm. A study on the thermal properties has also been carried out. The NLO property of the grown crystals was confirmed by SHG studies. 1. Introduction Crystalline salts of amino acid complexes have recently attracted considerable interest among researchers due to its wide range of applications [1, 2]. Urea L-malic acid (ULMA) is one such material and few reports are available on ULMA crystal in the literature [3–7]. However, there is no report available, to the best knowledge of the authors, on the doping of this material. ULMA crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P21. The reported lattice parameters are = 9.0335(8)??, = 6.9356(5)??, = 6.8008(6)??, and = 94.67(0)° at 295?K [3, 4]. ULMA crystal has a wide transmission range in the visible region and could be used as a nonlinear optical (NLO) material. Microelectronics need low dielectric constant materials and ULMA crystal has low values of dielectric constant, and hence it can be used to reduce the RC delay, reduce power consumption, and reduce cross talk. It is reported that doped NLO materials have more advantages than undoped materials [8, 9]. Urea L-malic acid (ULMA) is an organic material, and if an inorganic material like ammonium chloride is used as the dopant, it is expected that the physical and chemical properties of the host crystal; namely, urea L-mailc acid may be altered and NLO properties of ULMA crystal may be improved, and hence in the present investigation, pure and ammonium chloride-doped urea L-malic acid (ULMA) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by FTIR, single crystal XRD and powder XRD studies, UV transmission, hardness, TG/DTA, and SHG studies. The results obtained from various studies of undoped and ammonium chloride-doped ULMA crystals are here
Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Ammonium Acetate and Ammonium Chloride: An Impact of Biofield Treatment
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Khemraj Bairwa and Snehasis Jana
Modern Chemistry & Applications , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/2329-6798.1000163
Abstract: Ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride are the white crystalline solid inorganic compounds having wide application in synthesis and analytical chemistry. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of inorganic salt like ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride. The study was performed in two groups of each compound i.e., control and treatment. Treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated groups were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectrum of treated ammonium acetate showed the shifting in wavenumber of vibrational peaks with respect to control. Like, the N-H stretching was shifted from 3024-3586 cm-1 to 3033-3606 cm-1, C-H stretching from 2826-2893 cm-1 to 2817-2881 cm-1, C=O asymmetrical stretching from 1660-1702 cm-1 to 1680-1714 cm-1, N-H bending from 1533-1563 cm-1 to 1506-1556 cm-1 etc. Treated ammonium chloride showed the shifting in IR frequency of three distinct oscillation modes in NH4 ion i.e., at ν1, 3010 cm-1 to 3029 cm-1; ν2, 1724 cm-1 to 1741 cm-1; and ν3, 3156 cm-1 to 3124 cm-1. The N-Cl stretching was also shifted to downstream region i.e., from 710 cm-1 to 665 cm-1 in treated ammonium chloride. UV spectrum of treated ammonium acetate showed the absorbance maxima (λmax) at 258.0 nm that was shifted to 221.4 nm in treated sample. UV spectrum of control ammonium chloride exhibited two absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e., at 234.6 and 292.6 nm, which were shifted to 224.1 and 302.8 nm, respectively in treated sample. Overall, FT-IR and UV data of both compounds suggest an impact of biofield treatment on atomic level i.e., at force constant, bond strength, dipole moments and electron transition energy between two orbitals of treated compounds as compared to respective control.
Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats  [PDF]
M. Mohamed Essa,P. Subramanian
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nel087
Abstract: Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg−1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP). However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS.
Antioxidant Potential of Momordica Charantia in Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats
A. Justin Thenmozhi,P. Subramanian
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep227
Abstract: The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of Momordica charantia fruit extract (MCE) in ammonium chloride-induced (AC) hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced in adult male Wistar rats (180–200 g) by intraperitoneal injections of ammonium chloride (100 mg kg−1 body weight) thrice a week. The effect of oral administration (thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks) of MCE (300 mg kg−1 body weight) on blood ammonia, plasma urea, serum liver marker enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers in normal and experimental animals was analyzed. Hyperammonemic rats showed a significant increase in the activities of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and liver markers (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase), and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were decreased in the liver and brain tissues. Treatment with MCE normalized the above-mentioned changes in hyperammonemic rats by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during AC-induced hyperammonemia, and offered protection against hyperammonemia. Our results indicate that MCE exerting the antioxidant potentials and maintaining the cellular integrity of the liver tissue could offer protection against AC-induced hyperammonemia. However, the exact underlying mechanism is yet to be investigated, and examination of the efficacy of the active constituents of the M. charantia on hyperammonemia is desirable.
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