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Sustainability Indicators Integrating Consumption Patterns in Strategic Environmental Assessment for Urban Planning  [PDF]
Valentina Castellani,Serenella Sala
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5083426
Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practices in Europe have been traditionally applied to assess potential environmental impacts due to socio-economic drivers implying specific land use ( viz. infrastructure, building and industrial development). However, other socioeconomic drivers related to citizen behavior, such as household consumption, may significantly contribute to the overall local impacts, but are usually neglected in SEA. Aiming at enlarging the traditional approaches adopted in SEA, the present study integrates two environmental sustainability indicators capturing different aspects of consumption patterns: ecological footprint and carbon balance. The two indicators are calculated in addition to a more traditional set of environmental indicators in order to: (i) understand if the level of consumption of the local community exceeds the limits of natural resources of the area (in a perspective of self-sustainment at the local scale); and (ii) identify the role of spatial planning choices in determining the environmental sustainability of the entire system. The two indicators are calculated and discussed in the context of the SEA of the urban master plans of four municipalities in northern Italy. The two indicators may represent a good proxy for lifestyle impacts, even if some strengths and weaknesses arose from the application to the case study.
Improving Environment Through Strategic Environmental Assessment  [PDF]
Naufil Naseer
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: This study explains both strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and environmental impact assessment (EIA) as decision-making tools and argues that EIA at the project level does not suffice with maintaining and improving environmental assessment. The emphasis of this study was on regional planning as an example of SEA. The objective was to define SEA based on its strategic characteristics and to distinguish SEA form EIA. The research has attempted to present the argument through examples as to how SEA is a better option for improving environmental quality than EIA when it comes to integrating environmental assessment with regional planning and management. In this study it has suggested that SEA is a better tool in assessing the consequences of policies and plans at an early stage of decision-making as it considers a much "broader picture" of the environment. The study initially provides an overview of EIA and its flaws, discusses SEA and how it gives a better understanding of the environmental issues and finally some examples of integrating regional planning with SEA.
Calibration and Validation of Strategic Freight Transportation Planning Models with Limited Information  [PDF]
Bart Jourquin
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2016.65023
Abstract: Strategic transportation network models are often used as support tools in the framework of decisions to be taken at the policy level, such as the Trans-European Network projects. These models are mostly setup using aggregated or limited data. If their calibration is regularly mentioned in the literature, their validation is barely discussed. In this paper, several modal choice model specifications that make only use of explanatory variables available at the network level are described and applied to a large scale case. A validation exercise is performed at three levels of aggregation. The paper is designed from a strategic transport planning perspective, and does not present new modal choice formulations or assignment procedures. Its main added value is the focus on calibration and validation considerations. Despite the limited explanatory information used, the global performance of the best models can be considered as satisfactory. However, the quality of the models varies from mode to mode, the use of railway transport being the most difficult to predict without more specific input.
A Multimodal Automated Fare Collection Solution for Facilitating Strategic Information Technology Planning of Public Transportation in Malaysia  [cached]
Saadiah Yahya,Noriani Mohammed Noor
Communications of the IBIMA , 2008,
Abstract: This paper explores the essential to integrate effective information technology management into the public transportation strategic information technology planning and recommend a framework for constructing a strategic information technology planning for multi-modal automated fare collection solution, which it will be adaptable to allow the public transportation agencies to fine-tune their strategy to the internal and external environmental changes and to align with their business vision and objectives. The organizational analysis shall study the current position of public transport companies within internal and external environments structures and the development of public transport strategic goals. The development of strategic information technology planning for public transport multi-modal automated fare collection solution includes the assessment of strategic organizational and information technology objectives, requirements analysis and strategic information systems modeling. The planning includes the technological, environmental, social, business and legislative framework assessment that include fare collection service, personnel management, resources administration, financial and fiscal, environment and market dynamics, institutional and legislative, multi-modal system integration and enabling technological dimensions.
Strategic Environmental Assessment of Industrial Development Scenarios Through Multi-criteria Decision Making Technique in Iran
Jafar Nouri,Bizhan Maghsoudlou Kamali
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: In this study, the ways in which the multiple criteria decision making technique is applied was considered in order to appraise strategic environmental scenarios of industrial development. The main purpose of the study was to systematize the environmental considerations in policies, plans and programs of industrial development of Iran through a strategic environmental assessment approach and further determine the environmental strategies of stable industrial development. The analytical hierarchy process was employed in order to integrate evaluation of industrial development scenarios. The results show that the most suitable scenario of industrial development of Iran is the development of industries such as: electronics, biotechnology and new material manufacturing as well as the innovation of fully grown industries according to environmental considerations. The least suitable scenario of industrial development is the continuation of the existing industrial strategies which consist of export development, privatization, energy consuming industries and machinery technology development without environmental considerations.
Integrating Building Energy Efficiency with Land Use and Transportation Planning in Jinan, China  [PDF]
Manish Shirgaokar,Elizabeth Deakin,Nicolae Duduta
Energies , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/en6020646
Abstract: With the rapid growth occurring in the urban regions of China, it is critical to address issues of sustainability through practices that engender holistic energy efficient solutions. In this paper, we present results from a collaborative design project carried out with planning officials from the city of Jinan (population 3.4 million), for the Luokou district, a 3.1 km 2 (1.2 mi 2) area to the north of the CBD that is expected to house 100,000–130,000 people by 2020. By integrating sustainable building design, land use, urban design, and transportation, our proposal identified opportunities for improving energy efficiency that might have been overlooked by considering buildings and transportation separately. Mixed land uses and walkable neighborhoods were proposed along with highly differentiated street designs, intended to carry different traffic loads and prioritize diverse travel modes. Street widths and building heights were adjusted to maximize the potential for passive solar heating and daylight use within buildings. The district’s environmental performance, analyzed using building energy evaluation and traffic micro simulation models, showed that the design would reduce energy loads by over 25% compared to business as usual. While the proposal complied with national and local policies, and had far better energy performance than conventional designs, the proposal ultimately was not accepted by local officials because initial costs to the developers were higher than for conventional designs.
Application and Prospect of Geographical Information System in Strategic Environmental Assessment  [cached]
Hong-tao BAI,He XU
Advances in Natural Science , 2008, DOI: 10.3968/37
Abstract: Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is a new and promising tool to evaluate the possible environmental impacts and other sustainability aspects of government policies, plans and programs as well as their alternatives, aiming at the effectively integration of environmental concerns into their decision-making processes. It is recognized that spatial issues are always evolved in the SEA process for the reason that the strategic decision-maker pays much attention to the geographical distribution of various impacts. The essential features of strategic decisions, such as the macro-scale on time and geography, complexity of spatial information and social-economic-environmental multiplex system, are leading to the insufficiency of traditional EIA-based methods in assisting strategic decision-making. SEA practitioners have to seek for more effective approaches to handle the spatial uncertainties. Geographical information system (GIS), integrating computer design and database technology, is able to gather, simulate, analyze and display spatial information effectively, and provides a technological support to the synthesized evaluation and quantitative analysis. Based on the statement of SEA conception and characteristics, the author employs a detailed discussion on the advantages of GIS in SEA process and finds that GIS can not only help SEA operators to grasp the macro-scale of time and geography of strategic decisions much better, but also provide visible and intuitionistic displays on the spatial information to make decision-makers and publics understanding and accepting final conclusions much easier. Meanwhile, the author indicates that GIS with various tools, simulation models and powerful spatial analysis functions, can contribute to a more scientific, synthetic forecast and cumulative effects evaluation; provide much more quantitative analysis and improve the reliability of SEA results. Finally, the challenges and prospects of GIS in SEA process are presented in this paper. Key words: Strategic environmental assessment; Geographical information system; Information display; Spatial analysis Financial supports from National Social Sciences Fund (NSSF) in China: Research on Circular Economy Based on Win-win of Economic Development and Ecological Environmental Protection (06&ZD029) are highly appreciated.
Integrating fluctuations into distribution of resources in transportation networks  [PDF]
Shan He,Sheng Li,Hongru Ma
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2010-00169-3
Abstract: We propose a resource distribution strategy to reduce the average travel time in a transportation network given a fixed generation rate. Suppose that there are essential resources to avoid congestion in the network as well as some extra resources. The strategy distributes the essential resources by the average loads on the vertices and integrates the fluctuations of the instantaneous loads into the distribution of the extra resources. The fluctuations are calculated with the assumption of unlimited resources, where the calculation is incorporated into the calculation of the average loads without adding to the time complexity. Simulation results show that the fluctuation-integrated strategy provides shorter average travel time than a previous distribution strategy while keeping similar robustness. The strategy is especially beneficial when the extra resources are scarce and the network is heterogeneous and lowly loaded.
Integrating Strategic and Tactical Rolling Stock Models with Cyclical Demand  [PDF]
Michael F. Gorman
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2013.32016
In the transportation industry, companies position rolling stock where it is likely to be needed in the face of a pronounced weekly cyclical demand pattern in orders. Strategic policies based on assumptions of repetition of cyclical weekly patterns set rolling stock targets; during tactical execution, a myriad dynamic influences cause deviations from strategically set targets. We find that optimal strategic plans do not agree with results of tactical modeling; strategic results are in fact suboptimal in many tactical situations. We discuss managerial implications of this finding and how the two modeling paradigms can be reconciled.
Corporate Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Study of the Importance of Strategic Considerations in the Creation of Radical Innovation  [PDF]
Astrid Heidemann Lassen
Managing Global Transitions , 2007,
Abstract: The recognition of the importance of entrepreneurial dynamics in corporate context is increasingly acknowledged in both entrepreneurship and strategic management literature, as firms today face a reality in which frame-breaking innovation is an important element of survival. From this understanding, the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) has arisen, arguing a logic of focusing on the intersections between the two fields. This paper sets out to explore the SE construct empirically. Through seven case studies evolving around radical technological innovations, evidence is found of the importance of incorporation of strategic considerations taking place at several different levels of the organization, in order to obtain a desirable balance between entrepreneurial and strategic forces. An Integrative Model of Strategic Entrepreneurship is suggested based on this evidence.
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