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Robust Emergency Communications Using TxID Watermark of ATSC DTV System  [cached]
Xianbin Wang,Md. Jahidur Rahman,Sung Ik Park,Heung Mook Kim
Journal of Communications , 2009, DOI: 10.4304/jcm.4.5.339-347
Abstract: In today’s world, having a reliable communication system during emergency situations is of paramount importance to lessen the impact of the disasters. This paper proposes an emergency communication technique which is enabled by ATSC DTV transmitter identification (TxID) watermark signal. Theoretical and simulation results show that ATSC TxID watermark signal can reach a larger coverage area than the 8-VSB DTV signal and hence can be used to enable emergency communication during national disastrous situations. The coverage for this emergency communication system is predicted using popular Hata-Davidson propagation model and coverage maps clearly showing the extended and overlapped coverage for DTV stations in Huron and Stratford area in the province of Ontario, Canada is presented. Comparison with other existing emergency communication systems is carried out and performance matrices such as alerting message error rate, required no. of stations, network reliability etc. are evaluated to assess the robustness of the proposed emergency communication system.
COGRADNET: UBIQUITOUS HETEROGENEOUS WIRELESS NETWORKS  [PDF]
MOHD HASBULLAH OMAR,SUHAIDI HASSAN,AHMAD HANIS MOHD SHABLI
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: Mobile radio systems have shown rapid growth and hence increase the awareness for more efficient use of spectrum. With the advancements of technology, the development of radio systems that is dynamic and efficient in terms of spectrum usage can be realized. Cognitive radio system is one of the advancement that enhanced the adaptive capabilities of the systems that make the usage of spectrum more efficient, versatile and flexible. It also able to adapt their operations based on its internal and external factors by sensing its environment. The cognitive radio systems may be a solution for the spectrum scarcity faced by developer to tackle the issue of signal propagation and bigger coverage for broadband internet access. This paper will addressed the cognitive radio technology for ubiquitous broadband wireless internet access.
Scalable Oriented-Service Architecture for Heterogeneous and Ubiquitous IoT Domains  [PDF]
Pablo Lopez,David Fernandez,Rafael Marin-Perez,Antonio J. Jara,Antonio F. Gomez-Skarmeta
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) grows quickly, and 50 billion of IoT devices will be interconnected by 2020. For the huge number of IoT devices, a high scalable discovery architecture is required to provide autonomous registration and look-up of IoT resources and services. The architecture should enable dynamic updates when new IoT devices are incorporated into Internet, and changes are made to the existing ones. Nowadays in Internet, the most used discovery architecture is the Domain Name System (DNS). DNS offers a scalable solution through two distributed mechanisms: multicast DNS (mDNS) and DNS Service Directory (DNS-SD). Both mechanisms have been applied to discover resources and services in local IoT domains. However, a full architecture has not still been designed to support global discovery, local directories and a search engine for ubiquitous IoT domains. Moreover, the architecture should provide other transversal functionalities such as a common semantic for describing services and resources, and a service layer for interconnecting with M2M platforms and mobile clients. This paper presents an oriented-service architecture based on DNS to support a global discovery, local directories and a distributed search engine to enable a scalable looking-up of IoT resources and services. The architecture provides two lightweight discovery mechanisms based on mDNS and DNS-SD that have been optimized for the constraints of IoT devices to allow autonomous registration. Moreover, we analyse and provide other relevant elements such semantic description and communications interfaces to support the heterogeneity of IoT devices and clients. All these elements contribute to build a scalable architecture for the discovery and access of heterogeneous and ubiquitous IoT domains.
Robust Heterogeneous Network to Support Multitasking  [PDF]
Muhammad Shoaib Khan,Khaled Elleithy
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Due to emerging technology, efficient multitasking approach is highly demanded. But it is hard to accomplish in heterogeneous wireless networks, where diverse networks have dissimilar geometric features in service and traffic models. Multitasking loss examination based on Markov chain becomes inflexible in these networks owing to rigorous computations is obligatory. This paper emphases on the performance of heterogeneous wireless networks based on multitasking. A method based on multitasking of the interrelated traffic is used to attain an approximate performance in heterogeneous wireless networks with congested traffic. The accuracy of the robust heterogeneous network with multitasking is verified by using ns2 simulations.
Emergency Response Communications and Associated Security Challenges  [PDF]
Muhammad Ibrahim Channa,Kazi M. Ahmed
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: The natural or man-made disaster demands an efficient communication and coordination among first responders to save life and other community resources. Normally, the traditional communication infrastructures such as land line or cellular networks are damaged and don't provide adequate communication services to first responders for exchanging emergency related information. Wireless ad hoc networks such as mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks and wireless mesh networks are the promising alternatives in such type of situations. The security requirements for emergency response communications include privacy, data integrity, authentication, key management, access control and availability. Various ad hoc communication frameworks have been proposed for emergency response situations. The majority of the proposed frameworks don't provide adequate security services for reliable and secure information exchange. This paper presents a survey of the proposed emergency response communication frameworks and the potential security services required by them to provide reliable and secure information exchange during emergency situations.
An Architecture for Robust Sensor Network Communications  [PDF]
Ossama Younis,Sonia Fahmy,Paolo Santi
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2005, DOI: 10.1080/15501320500330786
Abstract: Node clustering in sensor networks increases scalability, robustness, and energy-efficiency. In hostile environments, unexpected failures or attacks on cluster heads (through which communication takes place) may partition the network or degrade application performance. We propose REED (Robust Energy-Efficient Distributed clustering), for clustering sensors deployed in hostile environments in an interleaved manner with low complexity. Our primary objective is to construct a k-fault-tolerant (i.e., k-connected) clustered network, where k is a constant determined by the application. Fault tolerance is achieved by selecting k independent sets of cluster heads (i.e., cluster head overlays) on top of the physical network, so that each node can quickly switch to other cluster heads in case of failures. The independent cluster head overlays also give multiple vertex-disjoint routing paths for load balancing and security. Network lifetime is prolonged by selecting cluster heads with high residual energy and low communication cost, and periodically re-clustering the network. We prove that REED asymptotically achieves k-connectivity if certain conditions on node density are met. We also discuss inter-cluster routing and MAC layer considerations, and investigate REED clustering properties via extensive simulations.
Interoperability and Information Brokers in Public Safety: An Approach toward Seamless Emergency Communications
Kuehn,Andreas; Kaschewsky,Michael; Kappeler,Andreas; Spichiger,Andreas; Riedl,Reinhard;
Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-18762011000100005
Abstract: when a disaster occurs, the rapid gathering and sharing of crucial information among public safety agencies, emergency response units, and the public can save lives and reduce the scope of the problem; yet, this is seldom achieved. the lack of interoperability hinders effective collaboration across organizational and jurisdictional boundaries. in this article, we propose a general architecture for emergency communications that incorporates (1) an information broker, (2) events and event-driven processes, and (3) interoperability. this general architecture addresses the question of how an information broker can overcome obstacles, breach boundaries for seamless communication, and empower the public to become active participants in emergency communications. our research is based on qualitative case studies on emergency communications, workshops with public safety agencies, and a comparative analysis of interoperability issues in the european public sector. this article features a conceptual approach toward proposing a way in which public safety agencies can achieve optimal interoperability and thereby enable seamless communication and crowdsourcing in emergency prevention and response.
Emergency Response Communications and Associated Security Challenges  [PDF]
Muhammad Ibrahim Channa,Kazi M. Ahmed
International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications , 2010,
Abstract: The natural or man-made disaster demands an efficient communication and coordination among firstresponders to save life and other community resources. Normally, the traditional communicationinfrastructures such as landline or cellular networks are damaged and don’t provide adequatecommunication services to first responders for exchanging emergency related information. Wireless adhoc networks such as mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks and wireless mesh networks arethe promising alternatives in such type of situations. The security requirements for emergency responsecommunications include privacy, data integrity, authentication, key management, access control andavailability. Various ad hoc communication frameworks have been proposed for emergency responsesituations. The majority of the proposed frameworks don’t provide adequate security services for reliableand secure information exchange. This paper presents a survey of the proposed emergency responsecommunication frameworks and the potential security services required by them to provide reliable andsecure information exchange during emergency situations.
A Robust and Secure Methodology for Network Communications  [PDF]
Mayank Srivastava,Mohd. Qasim Rafiq,Rajesh Kumar Tiwari
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2010,
Abstract: With the rapid development of a network multimedia environment, digital data can now be distributed much faster and easier. To maintain privacy and security cryptographic alone is not enough. In recent years, steganography has become attractive vicinity for network communications. In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a methodology which calculate the variance of secret message (which the sender wishes to send) and accordingly create a carrier file. This carrier file can be sent in any network (secure and unsecure) without giving any doubt in the attackers mind. The practical implementation of this has been done on Microsoft platform. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed techniques.
Disaster and emergency communications prior to computers/Internet: a review
John W Farnham
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3944
Abstract: It is a virtually immutable universal law that when communications are needed the most desperately and urgently, the difficulty of effecting the desired communication increases exponentially. Examples in our immediate experience include the South Asia tsunami, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the USA, the South Asian earthquake in Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan, and the mudslides in Guatemala.The history of disaster communications before computers or the Internet (or outside the realm of the Internet) provides us with a long-standing testament to this sad fact. The English word 'disaster' comes from a Greek prefix and root word meaning 'bad star'. This harks back to the notion that calamitous things happen under the influence of bad star alignment. No matter the level of faith one puts in the alignment of stars as affecting events on earth, the history of the effort to communicate over distances is inextricably rooted in the motivation to avoid, or at least mitigate, the effects of various disasters. The modern ability to chat casually or to be entertained by communication technology is but an offshoot of the development of that technology which first permitted priority communication about more urgent matters.Acknowledging some of the earlier aspects of disaster or emergency communications can be interesting and engaging, and it can enable us to understand the fundamental need to communicate about emergent events. Although much of this review is oriented to history in the USA, there were parallel activities occurring in all countries in which the new technology of radio existed. Hopefully, my geocentrism in this review in an international medium can be understood and pardoned in light of that fact.Considerably predating the discovery of radio waves, many peoples had developed means of telegraphy within the broadest sense of the word. The word 'telegraph' has as its origin the union of another two Greek words that essentially mean 'long-distance writing'. Smoke signa
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