Abstract:
the utmost challenge in nuclear logs interpretations and spectroscopy comes from the complex and dynamic structure of the radiation detectors response function. to interpret accurately such logs, the energy spectra for several dimensions of nuclear logging detectors must be satisfactorily known. in this work, different incident photon track and energies owing to events occurring into the gamma ray detector are simulated by the monte carlo method. the life of a particle within a nai(tl) scintillator crystal is computed by simulating the position, direction and energy of electrons and gamma-ray photons interaction by interaction. four types of photon interactions are computed, namely, photoelectric absorption, pair production, and rayleigh and compton scattering. the specific energy loss due to ionization and excitation for electron are also computed. these pulse high spectra are determined by collecting the radiation and transforming it into current pulses. the spectral distribution of these pulses results in a matrix of detector normalized response functions for multiple and complicated source geometry linked with all gamma ray incidence normally required on borehole environment. these data are displayed in such a way that they can be readily carried out into all nuclear log modeling processes with relevant detection effects.

Abstract:
To amend the defects of traditional litho density logging tool, we propose a scheme of three detector density logging tool. It adds a backscatter detector in negative spacing range on the basis of traditional dual detector density tool. With Monte Carlo general program MCNP(3B), it starts from the mechanism of the interaction between photon and formation. Then it calculates various responses of backscatter detector, long spacing detector and short spacing detector, gains photon flux spectrum distribution, the change rules of photon flux with spacing, the relations between photon flux and formation density, the relations between spacing and detecting depth, and count window. Results show that the responses to formation of long and short spacing detectors of the three detector density tool are the same as that of traditional dual detector density tool. The backscatter detector has a high count rate and a clear response to formation, which is almost reverse to that of long and short spacing detectors. Therefore, it is feasible to put the third detector in negative spacing range, which will improve measuring precision and vertical resolution. At the same time, it indicates that the Monte Carlo method is effective in the early research of nuclear logging tool, and can direct tool design.

Abstract:
We report on the most recent applications of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) method. The equation of state (EOS) for pure neutron matter in both normal and BCS phase and the superfluid gap in the low--density regime are computed, using a realistic Hamiltonian containing the Argonne AV8' plus Urbana IX three--nucleon interaction. Preliminary results for the EOS of isospin--asymmetric nuclear matter are also presented.

Abstract:
The shell-model Monte Carlo (SMMC) technique transforms the traditional nuclear shell-model problem into a path-integral over auxiliary fields. We describe below the method and its applications to four physics issues: calculations of sdpf- shell nuclei, a discussion of electron-capture rates in pf-shell nuclei, exploration of pairing correlations in unstable nuclei, and level densities in rare earth systems.

Abstract:
In this thesis, I discuss the use of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo method to compute the ground state of nuclear Hamiltonians, and I show several applications to interesting problems both in nuclear physics and in nuclear astrophysics. In particular, the AFDMC algorithm is applied to the study of several nuclear systems, finite, and infinite matter. Results about the ground state of nuclei ($^4$He, $^8$He, $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca), neutron drops (with 8 and 20 neutrons) and neutron rich-nuclei (isotopes of oxygen and calcium) are discussed, and the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter are calculated and compared with other many-body calculations. The $^1S_0$ superfluid phase of neutron matter in the low-density regime was also studied.

Abstract:
Quantum Monte Carlo methods find fruitful application in large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in a fluctuating one-body field; the resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. After a brief review of the capabilities and general strategy of Shell Model Monte Carlo methods, I discuss results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of {\it pf}-shell nuclei, the thermal and rotational behavior of rare-earth and $\gamma$-soft nuclei, and the calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Prospects for further progress in such calculations are also discussed.

Abstract:
We present an accurate numerical study of the equation of state of nuclear matter based on realistic nucleon--nucleon interactions by means of Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations. The AFDMC method samples the spin and isospin degrees of freedom allowing for quantum simulations of large nucleonic systems and can provide quantitative understanding of problems in nuclear structure and astrophysics.

Abstract:
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

Abstract:
Analyses are carried out to assess the impact of nuclear data uncertainties on keff for the European Lead Cooled Training Reactor (ELECTRA) using the Total Monte Carlo method. A large number of Pu-239 random ENDF-formated libraries generated using the TALYS based system were processed into ACE format with NJOY99.336 code and used as input into the Serpent Monte Carlo neutron transport code to obtain distribution in keff. The keff distribution obtained was compared with the latest major nuclear data libraries - JEFF-3.1.2, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL-4.0. A method is proposed for the selection of benchmarks for specific applications using the Total Monte Carlo approach. Finally, an accept/reject criterion was investigated based on chi square values obtained using the Pu-239 Jezebel criticality benchmark. It was observed that nuclear data uncertainties in keff were reduced considerably from 748 to 443 pcm by applying a more rigid acceptance criteria for accepting random files.

Abstract:
While the shell model Monte Carlo approach has been successful in the microscopic calculation of nuclear state densities, it has been difficult to calculate accurately state densities of odd-even heavy nuclei. This is because the projection on an odd number of particles in the shell model Monte Carlo method leads to a sign problem at low temperatures, making it impractical to extract the ground-state energy in direct Monte Carlo calculations. We show that the ground-state energy can be extracted to a good precision by using level counting data at low excitation energies and the neutron resonance data at the neutron threshold energy. This allows us to extend recent applications of the shell-model Monte Carlo method in even-even rare-earth nuclei to the odd-even isotopic chains of $^{149-155}$Sm and $^{143-149}$Nd. We calculate the state densities of the odd-even samarium and neodymium isotopes and find close agreement with the state densities extracted from experimental data.