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Ecosystems Restoration Strategies for the Cross River Rainforest Zones. Preparing Forest Stakeholders for the UN Decade on Ecosystems Restoration 2021 to 2030  [PDF]
Benjamin A Ambe, Udumo Bassey Obeten
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2020.81002
Abstract: This paper set out to chart a pathway for the restoration of rainforest ecosystems in Cross River State in line with the United Nations declaration of years 2021-2030 as the Decade on Ecosystems restoration. The paper looked at the essence of ecosystems restoration and zeroed-in on forest restoration, it touched on the problems such as the impairment of biodiversity and land productivity as well as causes of rainforest ecosystems degradation which included among other conversions of forests to other uses, ignorance on the part of community members. The paper proceeded to address some strategies for ecosystem restoration to include reforestation, afforestation, Environmental Education, preservation and conservation among other strategies. It was concluded that if these strategies are followed, the decades objectives will be achieved. It was recommended that government should incorporate the Cross River National Park in the implementation of the forthcoming decade, partnership should be enhanced amongst stakeholders to ensure smooth observance of the decade and that the policy of placing a moratorium on logging in the state should be re-activated and enforced effectively as a precursor to the beginning of the decade while aggressive Environmental Education should be carried out at both community and regional levels.
Coordinating Preventive Strategies and Restoration under Extreme Weather Conditions  [PDF]
Gang Chen, En Lu, Chaoyi Peng, Yunhe Hou, Zhijun Qin, Shaowei Huang, Feng Liu
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2015.34042
Abstract:

It has been well identified that the extreme events significantly impact the system operation. In this work, a comprehensive operating strategy, which coordinates the preventive strategies and system restoration, was proposed. A re-dispatch model that limits the potential loss under extreme events, as well as provides adequate resources for system restoration after the extreme events, was proposed. An optimal power flow based method was established to solve the proposed model. The availabilities of components and the remaining system due to the extreme events were restored by extending the EPRI’s System Restoration Navigator (SRN) with a little modification. Case studies demonstrate the proposed model and methods.

Restoration and fusion optimization scheme of multifocus image using genetic search strategies
Xinman Zhang,Jiuqiang Han,Peifei Liu
Optica Applicata , 2005,
Abstract: A novel and optimal algorithm is presented that is suitable for multifocus image fusion. A synergistic combination of segmentation techniques and genetic search strategies is employed in salience analysis of contrast feature-vision system. Some evaluation measures are suggested and applied to compare the performance of different fusion schemes. Two cases of the generated test images are discussed and extensive experiments demonstrate that in one case most fused images achieve reconstruction or optimized effects with respect to the reference image when the focus objectives are not overlapped blurred, and in the other case this method produces better results outperforming other conventional methods when the focus objectives are overlapped blurred. It is therefore shown that the performance of the fusion algorithm proposed optimizes further the fused image globally accomplishing absolute restoration or optimized fusion of multifocus image to the reference image. This algorithm is also suitable for the digital camera images of real scene and gets to be optimized well.
On the acceptable elements  [PDF]
Xuhua He,Sian Nie
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, we study the set $B(G, \mu)$ of acceptable elements for any $p$-adic group $G$. We show that $B(G, \mu)$ contains a unique maximal element and is represented by an element in the admissible subset of the associated Iwahori-Weyl group.
Passive and Active Restoration Strategies to Activate Soil Biogeochemical Nutrient Cycles in a Degraded Tropical Dry Land  [PDF]
Manuel F. Restrepo,Claudia P. Florez,Nelson W. Osorio,Juan D. León
ISRN Soil Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/461984
Abstract: The potential use of two restoration strategies to activate biogeochemical nutrient cycles in degraded soils in Colombia was studied. The active model was represented by forest plantations of neem (Azadirachta indica) (FPN), while the passive model by successional patches of native plant species was dominated by mosquero (Croton leptostachyus) (SPM). In the field plots fine-litter traps and litter-bags were established; samples of standing litter and surface soil samples (0–10?cm) were collected for chemical analyses during a year. The results indicated that the annual contributions of fine litterfall in FPN and SPM were 557.5 and 902.2?kg?ha?1, respectively. The annual constant of decomposition of fine litter (k) was 1.58 for neem and 3.40 for mosquero. Consequently, the annual real returns of organic material and carbon into the soil from the leaf litterfall decomposition were 146 and 36?kg ha?1?yr?1 for FPN and 462 and 111 kg ha?1?yr?1 for SPM, respectively. Although both strategies showed potential to activate soil biogeochemical cycles with respect to control sites (without vegetation), the superiority of the passive strategy to supply fine litter and improve soil properties was reflected in higher values of soil organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. 1. Introduction Land degradation in arid and semiarid lands increases as a result of soil misuse or mismanagement, which, together with climatic variations, may promote desertification and reduces soil productivity [1, 2]. In Colombia, 78.9% of dry lands show some degree of desertification, mainly due to soil erosion by overgrazing and soil salinity [3]. Passive and active restoration strategies have been proposed to restore the functioning of ecological processes [4]. Passive restoration strategies imply minimal human intervention and are based on natural succession process, and in this way the restorer has a passive role regarding the process. On the other hand, active restoration strategies include planting trees at high density and their respective management [5]; this strategy implies a more active role of the restorer. Although passive restoration strategies are simple, inexpensive, and based on natural regeneration processes, they are not always successful [6, 7]. Alternatively, active restoration strategies accelerate the restoration of ecosystem functioning through the activation of soil biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and carbon sequestration [4]. The hypothesis of this study is that the activation of soil biogeochemical nutrient cycles and soil quality improvement of
Identification of Factors Influencing the Restoration of Cyanobacteria-Dominated Biological Soil Crusts  [PDF]
Chongfeng Bu, Shufang Wu, Yongsheng Yang, Mingguo Zheng
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090049
Abstract: Biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover >35% of the Earth’s land area and contribute to important ecological functions in arid and semiarid ecosystems, including erosion reduction, hydrological cycling, and nutrient cycling. Artificial rapid cultivation of BSCs can provide a novel alternative to traditional biological methods for controlling soil and water loss such as the planting of trees, shrubs, and grasses. At present, little is known regarding the cultivation of BSCs in the field due to lack of knowledge regarding the influencing factors that control BSCs growth. Thus, we determined the effects of various environmental factors (shade; watering; N, P, K, and Ca concentrations) on the growth of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs from the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States. The soil surface changes and chlorophyll a concentrations were used as proxies of BSC growth and development. After 4 months, five factors were found to impact BSC growth with the following order of importance: NH4NO3 ≈ watering frequency>shading>CaCO3 ≈ KH2PO4. The soil water content was the primary positive factor affecting BSC growth, and BSCs that were watered every 5 days harbored greater biomass than those watered every 10 days. Groups that received NH4NO3 consistently exhibited poor growth, suggesting that fixed N amendment may suppress BSC growth. The effect of shading on the BSC biomass was inconsistent and depended on many factors including the soil water content and availability of nutrients. KH2PO4 and CaCO3 had nonsignificant effects on BSC growth. Collectively, our results indicate that the rapid restoration of BSCs can be controlled and realized by artificial “broadcasting” cultivation through the optimization of environmental factors.
Strategies identification in an experimental reading comprehension task
Stankovi? Sanda,Lalovi? Dejan
Zbornik Instituta za Pedago?ka Istra?ivanja , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/zipi1002232s
Abstract: Standardized reading comprehension tests (RCTs) usually consist of a small number of texts each accompanied by several multiple-choice questions, with texts and questions simultaneously presented. The score the common measure of reading comprehension ability in RCTs is the score. Literature review suggests that strategies subjects employ may influence their performance on RCT, however the score itself provides no information on the specific strategy employed. Knowledge of test-taking strategies could have impact on understanding of the actual purpose and benefits of using RCTs in pedagogical and psychological practice. With the ultimate objective of constructing a first standard RCT in Serbian language, the preliminary step we took was to conduct an experimental reading comprehension task (ERCT) consisting of 27 short texts displayed in succession, each followed by a single multiplechoice question. Using qualitative analysis of subjects’ responses in semi-structured postexperimental interview, we identified four overall strategies used on ERCT. Our results show that groups of students who used specific strategies differed significantly from one another in text reading time, with no differences found regarding the question reading and answering time. More importantly, there were no significant between-group differences found in terms of ERCT score. These findings suggest that choice of strategy is a way to optimize the relation between one’s own potential and ERCT task requirements. RCT based on ERCT principles would allow for a flexible choice of strategy which would not influence the final score.
From Scientific Speculation to Effective Adaptive Management: A case study of the role of social marketing in promoting novel restoration strategies for degraded dry lands  [cached]
Frances Westley,Milena Holmgren,Marten Scheffer
Ecology and Society , 2010,
Abstract: This article focuses on the role of social marketing, in particular the analysis of the motivations and capabilities of stakeholder groups, in encouraging acceptance of an innovative experimental approach to semiarid shrub land restoration in Chile. Controlled scientific experiments involving herbivory control during El Ni o events have proved promising, but have not yet been introduced into ecosystem management approaches. Social marketing, as a lens for focusing on and understanding stakeholders' motivations, provides a valuable framework in which strategies may be developed for diffusing promising scientific experiments into regional management contexts.
The sociologically acceptable definition of religion
Blagojevi? Mirko
Filozofija i Dru?tvo , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/fid0525213b
Abstract: In this article the author has presented several important issues regarding the sociology of religion, but primarily the issue of the sociologically acceptable definition of religion both in theoretical and empirical research. Bearing in mind the sociology of religion in former Yugoslavia the author has first discussed the possibility of a general definition of the sociology of religion, but has stated the opposite view as well. Then he has dealt with the two basic approaches towards religion and two general definitions of sociology, namely substantial and functional ones. Finally the author has tried to define the religiousness in terms of sociological empirical research of human attachment to religion and church in post-socialism.
Acceptable Complexity Measures of Theorems  [PDF]
Bruno Grenet
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: In 1931, G\"odel presented in K\"onigsberg his famous Incompleteness Theorem, stating that some true mathematical statements are unprovable. Yet, this result gives us no idea about those independent (that is, true and unprovable) statements, about their frequency, the reason they are unprovable, and so on. Calude and J\"urgensen proved in 2005 Chaitin's "heuristic principle" for an appropriate measure: the theorems of a finitely-specified theory cannot be significantly more complex than the theory itself. In this work, we investigate the existence of other measures, different from the original one, which satisfy this "heuristic principle". At this end, we introduce the definition of acceptable complexity measure of theorems.
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