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Violent Video Games and Aggression
暴力电子游戏对攻击行为及相关变量的影响

Zheng Hongming,Sun Yanjun,
郑宏明
,孙延军

心理科学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: This article reviewed the recent empirical findings concerning the effects of violent video games on aggression and the measurement method, discussed its psychological mechanism and features, and summarized the past theoretical discussion of the psychological mechanism as four stages. The meta analysis indicated that the violent video games increased the aggressive behavior, cognition, affection and the physiological arousal. Finally the limitations of the past studies and the possible research directions were discussed.
Revisiting violent videogames research: Game studies perspectives on aggression, violence, immersion, interaction, and textual analysis  [PDF]
Kyle Kontour
Digital Culture & Education , 2009,
Abstract: Thus far, the bulk of effects research on violent video games demon-strates troubling correlations between playing violent video games and increases in (or primers for) aggressive behavior, which suggests that overall, violent video games may be detrimental to society. However, there may be significant weaknesses in this body of research, concerning not only methodological issues such as study design and the ways in which ‘aggression’ or ‘violence’ are conceptualized, but also containing fundamental misunderstandings of games as text, apparatus, or cultural artifact. Because these studies may not have a sophisticated enough un-derstanding of games as objects or gaming as an activity, we must there-fore reconsider the conclusions and implications thus far arrived at in this research and look for new ways forward for assessing violence in/and video games.
I Am Right, You Are Wrong: How Biased Assimilation Increases the Perceived Gap between Believers and Skeptics of Violent Video Game Effects  [PDF]
Tobias Greitemeyer
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093440
Abstract: Background Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N = 662) indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases.
Biased Estimation of Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression: Contributing Factors and Boundary Conditions  [PDF]
Jens Bender,Tobias Rothmund,Mario Gollwitzer
Societies , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/soc3040383
Abstract: In order to improve the understanding of media violence effects, it is crucial to extend knowledge about factors that threaten the validity of such effects in empirical research. Research artifacts can be expected when participants are (a) aware of a scientist’s hypothesis, (b) motivated to confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis, and (c) capable of manipulating their responses in line with their motivation. Based on social identity theory (SIT) and self-categorization theory (SCT), we assumed that identifying with the social group of video game players would provide a motivation to disconfirm the “violent video games increase aggression” hypothesis. We further assumed that the use of nontransparent aggression measures and cover stories would prevent research artifacts. Our results showed that highly identified (compared to lowly identified) players of video games reported less aggression on a transparent aggression measure but not on a nontransparent aggression measure. However, providing participants with a cover story did not prevent hypothesis awareness nor eliminate hypothesis-disconfirming response patterns. These results provide empirical support for the ideas that (a) motivational factors may contribute to a biased estimation of media violence effects, (b) cover stories may not always be effective, and (c) the use of nontransparent aggression measures can provide a valid methodological approach for avoiding biases in media effects research.
Are Boys More Aggressive than Girls after Playing Violent Computer Games Online? An Insight into an Emotional Stroop Task  [PDF]
Jingjin Tian, Zhang Qian
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.51006
Abstract:

The study was to examine the gender differences in aggression among Chinese children after playing violent computer games by using emotional STROOP task. 98 children participated in this study, with 49 assigned to violent computer game group and the other 49 assigned to nonviolent computer game group. The results demonstrated that there were significant differences in main affect of game type, and significant Game Type × Gender interaction as well. In particular, boys’ aggression was significantly impacted by violent games, whereas girls’ aggression was not significantly impacted by violent games. The implication of this research is that, the significant difference in aggression to gender is activated, and that boys were more aggressive and sensitive to violent games than girls.

Failure to Demonstrate That Playing Violent Video Games Diminishes Prosocial Behavior  [PDF]
Morgan J. Tear, Mark Nielsen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068382
Abstract: Background Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in virtual environments, more connection with characters, etc.) and it may be that playing violent video games impacts prosocial behavior only when contemporary versions are used. Methods and Findings Experiments 1 and 2 explored the effects of playing contemporary violent, non-violent, and prosocial video games on prosocial behavior, as measured by the pen-drop task. We found that slight contextual changes in the delivery of the pen-drop task led to different rates of helping but that the type of game played had little effect. Experiment 3 explored this further by using classic games. Again, we found no effect. Conclusions We failed to find evidence that playing video games affects prosocial behavior. Research on the effects of video game play is of significant public interest. It is therefore important that speculation be rigorously tested and findings replicated. Here we fail to substantiate conjecture that playing contemporary violent video games will lead to diminished prosocial behavior.
暴力电子游戏对攻击行为的影响及其争论
The Debate of Violent Video Game Impact on Aggression
 [PDF]

滕召军,刘衍玲,郭成
- , 2015, DOI: 10.16187/j.cnki.issn1001-4918.2015.04.14
Abstract: 以Anderson为核心的研究者通过数十年研究发现, 暴力电子游戏是攻击行为产生的前因变量, 并且提出可以用一般攻击模型(General Aggression Model, GAM)来解释这一结论。然而, Ferguson等人的研究表明, 暴力电子游戏不是攻击行为产生的前因变量, 而是攻击行为产生的催化剂, 并提出催化剂模型(Catalyst Model, CM)来解释该结论。由于社会心理研究中, 实验研究难以严格控制, 导致研究结果大径相庭, 暴力电子游戏影响攻击行为的争论还在不断扩大。未来要加强对暴力电子游戏和攻击行为的测量, 同时还需整合一般攻击模型和催化剂模型指导实证研究, 最后从认知偏差以及社会认知神经科学视角寻求暴力电子游戏对攻击行为影响的新证据。
It had indicated that exposed to violent video game could increase aggression by Anderson and his colleagues' decade research. General Aggression Model, which had put by Anderson and Bushman (2002), could be applied to explain the causality of violent video game associated with aggression. However, Ferguson had found that aggression weren't affected by violent video game, and Catalyst Model also accounted for this result. It was vary difference of the results due to slack experiment in social psychological research, and whether violent video game could affect aggression was hot debate. Therefore, we should do standardized and rigid measurements of violent video game and aggression, and then we ought to integrate the General Aggression Model and Catalyst Model, which conduct studying for violent video game linked to aggression, at last, we need to forward debates from others perspective evidence, such as cognitive bias or social cognitive neuroscience.
The Short-Term Effect of Online Violent Stimuli on Aggression  [PDF]
Jingjin Tian, Qian Zhang, Jian Cao, Philip Rodkin
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2016.52005
Abstract:

The significance of this study was to find whether violent stimuli exposure could escalate the following levels of aggression in order to better cultivate aggression education among contemporary undergraduates in China. This study mainly tested the effects of violent stimuli on aggression by employing modified Stroop task. A total of 188 undergraduates participated in this study. Results showed that undergraduates exposing to violent stimuli exhibited high levels of aggression, whereas undergraduates who exposed to non-violent stimuli displayed low levels of aggression. Specifically, males, but not females, manifested high levels of aggression after exposure to violent stimuli. Moreover, viewers with high-aggressiveness (HA), but not with moderate-aggressiveness (MA) and low-aggressiveness (LA), showed high levels of aggression after exposure to violent stimuli via internet.

Aggression questionnaire scores in extremely violent male prisoners, male bodybuilders, and healthy non-violent men  [PDF]
Henning V?r?y
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.33029
Abstract:

Two aggression questionnaires, the Revised Swedish Version (AQ-RSV) of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) and the shortened and refined version by Bryant and Smith (BS-AQ) were compared. Both questionnaires identified subscore levels of aggression and there were significant differences between the groups. On the AQ-RSV subscales, the violent inmates showed statistically significantly more aggression for Hostility (p = 0.000), Anger (p = 0.000), Physical Aggression (p = 0.000) and Verbal Aggression (p = 0.01) than the healthy (non-violent) men. The bodybuilders, all “on” performance-enhancing substances, scored significantly higher on the Physical Aggression subscale than the healthy men (p = 0.000). Compared to the bodybuilders, the violent inmates scored significantly higher on the Anger (p = 0.02) and Hostility (p = 0.002) subscales. For the BS-AQ, where general variance was higher than for the original AQ, some of the above mentioned relationships were different. The violent inmates still scored significantly higher than the healthy men for Hostility (p = 0.000), Anger (p = 0.006) and Physical Aggression (p = 0.000), but not for Verbal Aggression. The inmates scored significantly higher than the bodybuilders for Anger (p = 0.006) and Verbal Aggression (p = 0.006), and the bodybuilders scored higher than the healthy men on the Physical Aggression (p = 0.002) subscale only. These and other more complex relationships are discussed in the light of previous findings. Thus the BS-AQ resulted in more sharply defined relationships and, at the same time, showed some important differences between the groups studied. Verbal Aggression does not seem to distinguish violent inmates from healthy men. Angry bodybuilders tend to express their aggression through Physical Aggression.

The Link between Facets of Impulsivity and Aggression in Extremely Violent Prisoners  [PDF]
Henning V?r?y, Elin Western, Stein Andersson
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2016.61010
Abstract: Evidence is growing that aggressive behavior and impulsivity have subgroups. The subscales of the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation seeking (UPPS) impulsivity scale and the Bryant and Smith shortened and refined version of the Aggression Questionnaire were used to describe and compare impulsive and aggressive behavior in extremely violent and aggressive male inmates and non-violent healthy male controls. The Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference (p< 0. 006) in the total UPPS impulsivity scale scores between the aggressive inmates and the controls. The subscales revealed that this difference was based mainly on the urgency score (p< 0. 003). On the aggression subscales, the inmates scored significantly higher for physical aggression than the controls (p< 0.001), but no significant difference was seen between inmates and controls for verbal aggression, anger and hostility, although the exactp-value was very close to statistical significance at 0.054. Regression analysis revealed a strong relationship between urgency and the aggression subscales hostility (p= 0.0004) and anger (p= 0.003) and that urgency was also linked to symptoms of anxiety (
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