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The Global Diffusion of Regulatory Instruments: The Making of a New International Environmental Regime  [PDF]
Kerstin Tews
European Integration Online Papers , 2004,
Abstract: During the 1990s a new regulatory pattern in domestic environmental policymaking has been emerging which is characterized by an increasing use of cooperative, informational and marked-based instruments. This pattern is to an important extent a result of international policy diffusion the cross-national spread of policy innovations driven by information flows rather than hierarchical or collective decision-making within international institutions. Based on four case studies, the paper demonstrates empirically how horizontal diffusion processes accompanied by information and recommendations from international organizations have led to the adoption of new regulatory instruments in an increasing number of countries and how these individual national adoptions add up to an emerging regulatory structure at the international level. At the macro-level, the case studies explore how diffusion interacts with the other two major international mechanisms of domestic policy change: legal harmonization and coercive imposition. Especially within the European Union a typical pattern of horizontal diffusion between individual member states, followed by vertical diffusion from the national to the EU-level and finally leading to an EU-wide legal harmonization through EC-directives can be identified. At the micro-level, the paper investigates which factors promote or obstruct the diffusion of new environmental policy instruments. While the endorsement of regulatory instruments by international organizations or transnational advocacy networks often facilitates their diffusion, the instruments' characteristics determine the extent and speed by which regulatory instruments spread across countries. As regards policymakers' motivation for voluntarily adopting regulatory instruments, the paper argues that it cannot be exclusively explained by rational attempts to improve policy effectiveness. In addition, policy adoption is often motivated by concerns of legitimacy and perceived pressure to conform with international norms.
The Global Diffusion of Regulatory Instruments: The Making of a New International Environmental Regime  [cached]
Busch,Per-Olof; J?rgens,Helge; Tews,Kerstin
European Integration Online Papers , 2004,
Abstract: During the 1990s a new regulatory pattern in domestic environmental policymaking has been emerging which is characterized by an increasing use of cooperative, informational and marked-based instruments. This pattern is to an important extent a result of international policy diffusion the cross-national spread of policy innovations driven by information flows rather than hierarchical or collective decision-making within international institutions. Based on four case studies, the paper demonstrates empirically how horizontal diffusion processes accompanied by information and recommendations from international organizations have led to the adoption of new regulatory instruments in an increasing number of countries and how these individual national adoptions add up to an emerging regulatory structure at the international level. At the macro-level, the case studies explore how diffusion interacts with the other two major international mechanisms of domestic policy change: legal harmonization and coercive imposition. Especially within the European Union a typical pattern of horizontal diffusion between individual member states, followed by vertical diffusion from the national to the EU-level and finally leading to an EU-wide legal harmonization through EC-directives can be identified. At the micro-level, the paper investigates which factors promote or obstruct the diffusion of new environmental policy instruments. While the endorsement of regulatory instruments by international organizations or transnational advocacy networks often facilitates their diffusion, the instruments' characteristics determine the extent and speed by which regulatory instruments spread across countries. As regards policymakers' motivation for voluntarily adopting regulatory instruments, the paper argues that it cannot be exclusively explained by rational attempts to improve policy effectiveness. In addition, policy adoption is often motivated by concerns of legitimacy and perceived pressure to conform with international norms.
Social education politics in a Europe of inequalities  [cached]
Javier Bascu?an Cortés
Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research , 2013, DOI: 10.7821/naer.2.2.102-108
Abstract: The aim of this research is to analyse some indicators which allow us to understand the current state of social education politics in Europe, with special reference to Spain. Some European and Spanish social and educational policies which try to confront the challenges of the current financial crisis are also explained. Some deficiencies, failures and contradictions attached to the process of the construction of European citizenship are pointed out. Some key topics which seem to foresee a deeper social and democratic crisis apart from the economic one are tackled. It is explained how the new forms of inequality evidence the failure of some of the important declarations of intent and objectives of the European Union. The subjection of social and democratic aspects to neoliberal economy —i.e. the negation of ideologies— is questioned. To conclude, some key topics are proposed as the central axis through which it could be possible to redefine the content of social education politics in Europe and Spain and to set the bases of a new democratic European citizenship
Book Review: Making Politics Thinkable  [PDF]
Kerry H. Whiteside
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 1997,
Abstract: Kerry Whiteside takes up an arduous task in attempting to locate a “foundation” of political thought for these postmodern times of cynicism and negativism such as we experience in the late 20th century. The straight forward manner in which he declares his intent lies in the very title of his book. Presenting the notionof foundations in an age characterized by a progressive loss of faith in master narratives, an antirealism inontology, and an antifoundationalism in epistemology, is indeed an audacious undertaking. The measure of his success, or not, comes in the contribution of his argument to the dialogue and debate which is itself “politics.”
Beyond Ethnic Politics in Central and Eastern Europe
Stefan Wolff
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2002,
Abstract: In his article 'Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East', Will Kymlicka argues, among others that a key condition for the success of legal and political reforms in the area of minority rights is a fundamental change in public attitudes towards and acceptance of the legitimacy and normality of nationalist mobilization by substate national groups. Following a brief overview of the complexity of ethnic relations in Central and Eastern Europe and the intricacy of minority-state relations, the author of this article contends that, contrary to Kymlicka, the region might even be better off if political spaces were constructed around other than ethnic identities. In line with Kymlicka, it is nevertheless conceded that there may be a need in several cases for lengthy transition periods in which ethnic identities are given institutional space ans security to play an important role in everyday politics.
Public Health in Europe: Power, Politics, and Where Next?  [cached]
Stuckler David,Basu Sanjay,McKee, Martin
Public Health Reviews , 2010,
Abstract: Health policy in Europe is at a crossroads. Longstanding challenges, such as persisting social and geographical inequalities, ageing populations, and rising burdens of chronic diseases, are being compounded by new, global threats, such as pandemic influenza and crises in the world’s financial markets. Significant improvement in the health of Europe’s population has been driven by factors both inside and outside the health sector. Key obstacles to improving population health in Europe result from underlying failures to overcome political and economic issues, including those shaping healthcare financing and delivery systems. How can the public health community respond to these challenges? This paper discusses three examples of how power and politics have shaped the world in which public health works. The focus on individual risk factors diverts attention from underlying determinants, such as the dominance of the market in healthcare, and the political decision to favour a rapid transition from communism in the 1990s. Effective public health policy requires addressing these political forces, seeking to understand the dominant paradigms, how they have been defined and shaped, and how they might be changed. Their effects are often subtle but powerful, shaping the language that is used, the assumptions that are made, and the rules that are implied. We can formulate key policy options to help improve health outcomes by reshaping the critical forces that affect public health risk factors among those populations currently most burdened by significant disease in Europe today.
Study of the Regulatory Model in Europe and Ways of its Transformation Исследование регуляторной модели в Европе и пути ее трансформации  [PDF]
Strizhichenko Konstantin Anatolievich
Business Inform , 2013,
Abstract: The existing in Europe regulatory model showed its inability and impossibility to realise traditional mechanisms of regulation of the financial market under conditions of the changing economic paradigm due to the financial crisis. The article studies the principle of partition of the fiscal and credit policy of the European Union and control over performance of banking obligations, which would allow singling out strong and weak sides of the existing regulatory model. It analyses the mechanism of regulation, on the basis of which the ways of change of the structure of the existing system of regulation are formed. Synthesis of the shown ways allowed construction of an organisational model of regulation of the financial market on the basis of the four-peak model. Существующая регуляторная модель в Европе, вследствие финансового кризиса, показала свою несостоятельность и невозможность реализовывать традиционные механизмы регулирования финансового рынка в условиях меняющейся экономической парадигмы. В статье исследован принцип разделения денежно-кредитной политики Евросоюза и контроля за выполнением банковских обязательств, что позволило выделить сильные и слабые стороны существующей регуляторной модели. Проведен анализ механизмов регулирования, на основе которого сформированы пути изменения структуры существующей системы регулирования. Синтез представленных путей позволил построить организационную модель регулирования финансового рынка на основе четырехпиковой модели.
Why Study Problematizations? Making Politics Visible  [PDF]
Carol Bacchi
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2012.21001
Abstract: This paper introduces the theoretical concept, problematization, as it is developed in Foucauldian-inspired poststructural analysis. The objective is two-fold: first, to show how a study of problematizations politicizes taken-for-granted “truths”; and second, to illustrate how this analytic approach opens up novel ways of approaching the study of public policy, politics and comparative politics. The study of problematizations, it suggests, directs attention to the heterogenous strategic relations – the politics – that shape lives. It simultaneously alerts researchers to their unavoidable participation in these relations, opening up a much-needed conversation about the role of theory in politics.
Advocacy Networks and Romani Politics in Central and Eastern Europe
Peter Vermeersch
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2001,
Abstract: This article explores the impact of the activity of international solidarity and human rights organizations on the political involvement of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe. It will conclude that the increase of an international advocacy network focussing on the plight of the Roma has offered new opportunities to domestic Romani organizations for pressuring governments to change state behaviour or to introduce new policy. In some cases, governments have even appointed Romani personalities from well-known advocacy organizations to advisory positions. However, the influence of a growing advocacy network has not been able yet to create a better democratically elected representation of the Roma in the central arenas of political decision-making on domestic level. Moreover, within domestic Romani movements there is growing discussion about the legitimacy and accountability of Romani advisors.
Oligarchical Politics and Its Implications on Regime Stability  [cached]
Felipe Miranda
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1986,
Abstract: After the overthrow of the Marcos government, the expectation from the Aquino government veered towards the evolution of a more liberal democratic political regime. To pursue this ideal requires a national struggle against a longstanding tradition of oligarchical politics, which have been present form the advent of the Spanish conquest. In most cases, the growth of state power and the strengthening of the position of government authorities often lead to greater political stability but the opposite happened in the Philippines during the Marcos regime. The imposition of public order during the Martial Law did not serve the public interest but that of the oligarchical interest. However, the real strength of the government lies on the support of its citizens, which maybe equated with popular perceptions of regime legitimacy. To attain political stability, the government must not only be able to govern but must govern well. But the Marcos presidency had weakened public accountability of the ruling authorities. Thus, oligarchical politics and effective mechanisms for public accountability of the political authorities became incompatible realities. This in turn diminished the people’s confidence in the political institutions and ruling authorities which resulted to the ouster of the Marcos regime. The challenges of the Aquino government is to cultivate legitimacy before the citizenry, consolidate its national political authority and address the economic crisis
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