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Russia, Georgia and the Responsibility to Protect  [cached]
Gareth Evans
Amsterdam Law Forum , 2009,
Abstract: In this article, Gareth Evans argues that the Russian claim that the intervention in Georgia was justified by reference to ‘Responsibility to Protect’ principles is superficial. Per Evans – who was instrumental in drafting the Responsibility to Protect Report – its doctrine does not provide a basis for the protection of citizens outside of one’s own borders. According to Evans, even if this aspect were overlooked, the threat to the South Ossetian population was nonetheless not of a sufficient nature and scale to render military force necessary.
Nokalakevi, Georgia: potential in ruins  [cached]
Kathryn Grant,Chris Russel
Archaeology International , 2008, DOI: 10.5334/ai.1114
Abstract: Global attention has focused on Georgia as a result of the recent political and military conflict. However, the country also has a rich archaeological heritage which is little known in the West. The Anglo-Georgian Expedition to Nokalakevi (AGEN), set up in 2000, aims to explore the archaeology of a major site that was occupied from at least the 8th century BC to recent times. It also offers training to Georgian archaeologists and international students and outreach work to the local community. In this article two British members of AGEN describe the aims of the project and some of the results of recent field seasons.
Globalization and National Competitiveness of Georgia  [cached]
Dr. George Ivaniashvili-Orbeliani
Caucasian Review of International Affairs , 2009,
Abstract: Despite the fact that a national competitiveness is substantially linked to globalization, only a few studies have linked these two subjects from the perspective of developing countries, which presents complex challenges to policy makers and researchers. I argue that Porter's Diamond Model is basically relevant for economically strong industrialized countries and is less applicable for developing economies. The contention is that driving forces of globalization (FDI, transnational companies and Bretton Woods Institutes) have different implications on national competitiveness according to internal capacities and external opportunities. The paper makes a critical analysis of existing theoretical aspects of national competitiveness. It also clarifies the framework of National Innovation System, which has been successfully used in OECD countries and more recently is becoming the focus of increased attention from developing nations. Attention is concentrated on defining the aspects of Georgia’s competitiveness, evaluating the country’s economic performance, and suggesting practical recommendations for reforms and development.
Thieves of the Law and the Rule of Law in Georgia  [cached]
Virginia Davis Nordin and Georgi Glonti
Caucasian Review of International Affairs , 2006,
Abstract: This article combines research on the Thieves of the Law in Georgia by a Georgian criminologist with the search for the real meeting of the Rule of Law in this former soviet country by an American lawyer. The first section of the paper cites some of the contradictory descriptions of the Thieves of the Law in the USSR and Georgia with a brief look at the functions of customary commercial law in emerging societies and concludes that the story of the Thieves of the Law is vital to understand the nature of Georgian society and the possibilities of establishing the Rule of Law in that Country. The next section illustrates the importance of and the continuing impact of the Thieves Law in national and international economic activities. A final conclusion stresses that defining law, crime and society is complex and that a knowledge of the particular stories of each is a necessary first step.
Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Georgia  [PDF]
Giorgi Babuadze ,Jorge Alvar,Daniel Argaw,Harry P. de Koning ,Merab Iosava,Merab Kekelidze,Nikoloz Tsertsvadze,David Tsereteli,Giorgi Chakhunashvili,Tamar Mamatsashvili,Nino Beria,Irine Kalandadze,Mikhail Ejov,Paata Imnadze
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002725
Abstract: This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n = 670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n = 50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5–9, 15–24 and 25–59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed.
Fluid Party Politics and the Challenge for Democracy Assistance in Georgia  [cached]
Max Bader
Caucasian Review of International Affairs , 2008,
Abstract: Party politics in Georgia since independence has suffered from a complete lack of institutionalization, reflected most visibly in the high rate of turnover of parties. Furthermore, Georgia’s elusive party system has been affected by regime changes and by abuses of executive authority. This article highlights the dilemmas inherent to studying fluid party systems such as that of Georgia and identifies a number of underlying reasons for the lack of party system institutionalization. Over the course of a brief overview of international political party assistance in Georgia, it is argued that party assistance by western actors has not been responsive to the structural problems of party and party system development.
Climbing the Mountain of Languages: Language Learning in Georgia  [cached]
Hans Gutbrod,Malte Viefhues,CRRC
Caucasian Review of International Affairs , 2010,
Abstract: In 2008, CRRC-Georgia and the American Councils conducted a small online census among mostly English-native, engaged expatriates who are either currently living in Georgia, or did so in the past. The questions were about attitudes toward and aptitude for learning Georgian or Russian, and the importance of these languages in Georgia. With 90 completed questionnaires the number of respondents was small, and the findings cannot be generalized to cover the whole expatriate community. However, they provide insight into the incentives to language learning, and the importance of Georgian and Russian for foreigners in Georgia. The results show that Georgian is important for daily life in Georgia, while Russian is more useful in a professional context. On average, the respondents have a better level in Russian than in Georgian. In addition, knowing one language did not keep the respondents from learning the other: 87 percent of the respondents with Russian skills also know some Georgian
Georgia and the Systemic Impact of the Financial Crisis  [cached]
Marco Giuli
Caucasian Review of International Affairs , 2009,
Abstract: This paper analyses the potential effects that the systemic developments stemming from the global financial crisis and the August war are likely to have in Georgia, within a context of hegemonic stability theoretical fundamentals. According to this perspective, both events have undermined the role of the US as the sole world hegemon. As a result, the Western strategic priorities toward the Caucasus are likely to shift, to the detriment of the special relationship between the Saakashvili administration and the US. To demonstrate this, the analysis will focus on the case study provided by energy- and transit-related Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), as the Georgian political and economic dependence on a geopolitical rent is strongly connected to them and is likely to disappear in the aftermath of the recent events.
The Role and Importance of the Energy Saving in Georgia  [PDF]
Demuri Chomakhidze, Omari Zivzivadze, Petre Kachkachishvili, Akaki Kiladze
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.810113
Abstract: The role and importance of the energy saving in the conditions of Georgia are analyzed in this article. Based on the specific materials, the impact of the public labor fruitfulness and energy saving is compared to the volume of the whole inside product (WIP). It is said, that the reduction of the energy volume of WIP on 1% is giving approximately the same and in separate years even more effect in the augment of the volume of the WIP, compared to the rising the public labor productivity in the same way. In reference to this, the level of the main macroeconomic indicators of the development of the Georgian economy and the dynamics for 2013-2016 is studied in this article.
Health Reforms and Public Health in Georgia  [PDF]
Raminashvili, D.,Zarnadze, I.,Zarnadze, Sh.,Lomtadze, L.
Tobacco Control and Public Health in Eastern Europe , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Starting from 90‘th, the Government of Georgia (GoG) made several attempts to transform Georgian health care system into one with improved efficiency, accessibility, and quality services. Mandatory social health insurance which was introduced in the 1990s was abolished and private health insurance has been promoted as its replacement. The main principle of health care reform since 2006 was the transition towards complete marketization of the health care sector: private provision, private purchasing, liberal regulation, and minimum supervision.This paper aims to analyze an impact of ongoing reforms on public health and population health status.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was conducted through national and international organization reports; key informant interviews were conducted with major stakeholders. RESULTS: The country has attained critical achievements in relation to improved maternal and child health, national responses to HIV, TB and Malaria. Life expectancy has increased from 70.3 years in 1995 to 75.1 years in 2010. Under-5 mortality indicator has improved from 45.3 to 16.4 per 1000 live birth in 2005-2010 meaning a 64% decrease. However, Georgia is still facing a number of critical challenges securing better health for the population. Cardiovascular diseases are by far the largest cause of mortality, respiratory diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and have doubled during last decade. Georgia has one of the highest rates of male smoking in the world (over 50%).CONCLUSION: Governmental efforts in health promotion and disease prevention can have significant impact on health status by preventing chronic diseases and detecting health problems at a treatable stage. Government should consider increasing funding for public health and prevention programmes with the focus on prevention of the main risk factors affecting the population’s health: tobacco and drug use and unsafe sexual behaviour.
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