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Planning and equipping of the Petrovaradin Fortress lower town for touristic purposes  [PDF]
Gara?a Vuk,?ur?i? Nevena,Vukosav Svetlana,Curakovi? Danka
Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cvijic, SASA , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/ijgi1203105g
Abstract: Petrovaradin Fortress belongs into the category of unique cultural and historical objects of fortification engineering. According to the Detailed Urban Plan of the Petrovaradin Fortress and the General Urban Plan of Novi Sad, the priorities in the use of this area should contain cultural, tourist and catering facilities, with a goal of the Fortress becoming a venue and a center of cultural tourism in the region. The Fortress consists of several spatial entities, where the Lower Town, with its unique baroque edifice, is an entity that should entirely be developed for tourist and catering facilities. This paper deals with the aspect of tourism development of the Lower Town by the way of its planning, using and managing, and it also lists the temporary problems. The aim of this paper is to show the potentials of this area in the development of cultural and tourist attractions, thanks to its cultural and historical heritage, as well as to present the possible solutions for the tourist catering development of this area. The paper proposes a possible tourist decoration and furnishing of the space with the necessary urban equipment, opening of new museums and galleries, as well as converting the objects from housing facilities to the catering, craftsman or commercial function.
Costs of measures to control tuberculosis/HIV in public primary care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa
Hausler,Harry Peter; Sinanovic,Edina; Kumaranayake,Lilani; Naidoo,Pren; Schoeman,Hennie; Karpakis,Barbara; Godfrey-Faussett,Peter;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000700014
Abstract: objective: to measure the costs and estimate the cost-effectiveness of the protest package of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (tb/hiv) interventions in primary health care facilities in cape town, south africa. methods: we collected annual cost data retrospectively using ingredients-based costing in three primary care facilities and estimated the cost per hiv infection averted and the cost per tb case prevented. findings: the range of costs per person for the protest interventions in the three facilities were: us$ 7-11 for voluntary counselling and testing (vct), us$ 81-166 for detecting a tb case, us$ 92-183 for completing isoniazid preventive therapy (ipt) and us$ 20-44 for completing six months of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy. the estimated cost per hiv infection averted by vct was us$ 67-112. the cost per tb case prevented by vct (through preventing hiv) was us$ 129-215, by intensified case finding was us$ 323-664 and by ipt was us$ 486-962. sensitivity analysis showed that the use of chest x-rays for ipt screening decreases the cost-effectiveness of ipt in preventing tb cases by 36%. ipt screening with or without tuberculin purified protein derivative screening was almost equally cost-effective. conclusion: we conclude that the protest package is cost saving. despite moderate adherence, linking prevention and care interventions for tb and hiv resulted in the estimated costs of preventing tb being less than previous estimates of costs of treating it. vct was less expensive than previously reported in africa.
Acute hospitalisation needs of adults admitted to public facilities in the Cape Town Metro district
E de Vries, P Raubenheimer, B Kies, VC Burch
South African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction. Public health care delivery in South Africa aims to provide equitable access at the most appropriate level of care. We studied to what extent the acute health care needs of adults admitted to public hospitals in the Cape Town Metropole were being appropriately met. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted of the hospital records of adults admitted to medical beds in public hospitals in Cape Town between August and November 2008. Intensive care unit patients were not included. Results. Of 802 beds in use, the estimated occupancy was at least 95%. The average time elapsed since admission was 7.9 days; 94.3% of medical admissions were acute; 45% were severely to critically ill on admission; and co-morbid disease was present in 78.1%. Of all admissions, 31.9% were HIV-positive, and 17% had active tuberculosis. At least 396 (51.6%) patients were deemed to have required specialist or subspecialist consultation to expedite appropriate care; 386 (50.3%) accessed the appropriate level of medical care required; 339 (44.2%) accessed a more sophisticated level of care than required; and 42 (5.5%) did not access an adequate level of care. CT scan and ultrasound accounted for 59% of all restricted tests done. Conclusions. Our findings support the plan to provide more primary care hospital facilities in the metropolitan area. Most patients needing specialised care are accessing such care, and most patients accessing a higher level of care than needed can be addressed by ensuring that they first access primary care and are referred according to protocols.
Missed opportunities for earlier HIV testing and diagnosis at the health facilities of Dessie town, North East Ethiopia
Netsanet W Fetene, Amsalu D Feleke
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-362
Abstract: A confidential client exit interview and medical record review was made on 427 clients who attended health facilities of Dessie town between November-December 2008. Data collection was done by counselors trained on Provider Initiated Counseling and Testing (PICT) and data collection tool included demographics, reason for visit to health facilities, HIV test initiation by service providers, clients self risk perception, clients willingness and acceptance of HIV test, HIV test result and review of client medical records.Among 427 clients, missed opportunities for HIV testing were found in 76.1% (325) of clients. HIV test initiation was made by data collecting counselors during interview period and 80.0% (260) of clients not initiated by service providers were found to be willing to have HIV test. Large number, 43.0% (112), of the willing clients actually tested for HIV. Of the tested clients, 13.4% (15) were found to be HIV positive. Most, 60% (9), of HIV positive clients who lost the opportunities of diagnosis felt themselves as having no risk for HIV infection. Missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis of 51.7% (15), overall HIV test acceptance rate of 36.5% (154) and positivity rate of 6.9% (29) were found.The missed opportunities for earlier HIV test and diagnosis of patients attending health facilities were found to be high and frequent. Testing only clients with HIV risk misses large number of HIV positive patients. Asking clients' willingness for HIV testing should be conducted by all service providers irrespective of the clients' risk behaviors for HIV infection or the type of services they need.AIDS is the gravest global pandemic of our time. It has already claimed over 20 million lives, with another 39 million individuals currently estimated to be living with HIV worldwide, and millions more becoming newly infected each year[1]. Sub-Saharan Africa continues to bear the brunt of the global epidemic. Two thirds (63%) of all adults and children with HIV globally l
Anemia and Its Associated Risk Factors at the Time of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Public Health Facilities of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Andamlak Gizaw Alamdo, Temesgen Fiseha, Amanuel Tesfay, Mesfin Kote Deber, Zemedu Mehamed Tirfe, Tizta Tilahun
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.712179
Abstract: Background: Anemia is the most common hematologic abnormality in HIV patients and is associated with disease progression and decreased survival. This study aims to describe the prevalence and predictors of anemia in HIV positive patients at the time of ART initiation at public health facilities of Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 411 adults (?15 years) HIV positive patients with complete information on hemoglobin levels and CD4 count and clinical characteristics registered from 2006 to 2013 were assessed for anemia prevalence and risk factors at the ART clinic of the Arba Minch hospital and health center. The measurements of Hemoglobin and CD4 + T cell count were performed using standard methodology at baseline of ART initiation. Results: A total of 411 HIV positive patients (195 males and 216 females) with a mean ± SD age of 33.9 ± 9.0 years were assessed. Hemoglobin levels were between 6.0 and 16.5 mg/dL. The overall prevalence of anemia at the time of ART initiation was 52.3%; with 28.1%, 22.9% and 1.3% mild, moderate and severe anemia respectively. The overall prevalence of anemia was 62.4% among males and 46.7% among females (P < 0.001). An increased risk of anemia was seen in males (adjusted OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.77 - 4.35); low CD4 cell counts (adjusted OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 2.09 - 5.79); and history of TB (adjusted OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.28 - 6.54). Conclusions: Anemia in HIV-positive patients was highly prevalent at the time of ART initiation. Male gender, low CD4 count and history of TB were associated with higher risk of baseline anemia.
Handicapped people in China
Tobias Tretter,Sabine Buchacher
Empirische Sonderp?dagogik , 2009,
Abstract: This article deals with the situation and living conditions of handicapped people in China. It describes the school and educational system, training and working conditions, rehabilitative and preventive activities as well as the public view and the view of the Chinese government on disabled persons.All in all it can be noticed that living conditions of handicapped people have improved a lot in China by, amongst others, national models of integration and local support. Nevertheless, there is still a big difference between rural and urban areas.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy among Recently Delivered Women in Public Health Facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia
Tariku Laelago, Tefera Belachew, Meseret Tamrat
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100997
Abstract: Background: Intimate partner violence is recognized as a worldwide serious public health problem. It can cause serious injury, disability or death. Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy are often similar to risk factors for intimate partner violence in general. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy among recently delivered women in public health facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2014. Methods: Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 195 recently delivered women in public health facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia from March 31-April 30, 2014. The data were collected by pretested structured questionnaire. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were done to identify predictors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Results: Twenty three percent (23%) of women experienced at least one form of Intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form (20%) followed by physical (15%) and sexual violence (12%). Alcohol drinking by the partners (AOR = 22 (7.4, 65.6), no formal education of the partners (AOR = 10.8 (1.06, 108.5) and planned pregnancy (AOR = 0.23 (0.08, 0.67) were significantly associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Conclusion: Our study established that intimate partner violence during pregnancy was a common experience. Partners’ alcohol drinking, no formal education of partners and planned pregnancy were associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Health sector, police, lawyers and advocators should give due emphasis to the victims of this problem.
Revista de Turism : Studii si Cercetari in Turism , 2011,
Abstract: This study shows how the entrepreneurs in the Sucevi a tourism area managed to build their business and how they try to fit it within the whole area, taking into account existing natural and manmade touristic potential. The study focused on four objectives which aimed at: knowing the motivation for the establishment and development of tourist activities, quantifying the influence of formal education and practical experience on managing a business in tourism, finding out how the tourism entrepreneur is aware of the potential area Sucevi a and how it can be sold, knowing the role and place of infrastructure, and relational capital. The four objectives were reflected in a questionnaire that was used as a tool in the investigation on a sample of tourist facilities in the mentioned area.
Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Adult Individuals Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Health Facilities of Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia
Mekuria Asnakew, Chernet Hailu, Habtamu Jarso
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101289
Abstract: Background: In resource limited settings, many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals lack access to sufficient quantities of nutritious foods, which poses additional challenges to the success of anti-retroviral therapy. Morbidity and mortality related to human immune deficiency virus infection in the developing world remain unacceptably high, despite major advances in human immune deficiency virus therapy and increased international funding for care. Objective: To determine magnitude of malnutrition and identify factors associated with it among adult people on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in health facility of Hosanna town. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 20 to April30, 2014 on 340 adult people on anti-retroviral therapy at antiretroviral therapy clinics of Hosanna town. Sample clients were selected by simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using structured pretested questionnaire, record review using check list and anthropometric measurements. Bi-variate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models were done using SPSS version 16 to identify factors associated with malnutrition. Results: Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2) in this study was 31.2%. House- hold food insecurity (AOR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.31 - 4.81), inadequate diversified diet (AOR = 0.44,  95% CI: 0.23 - 0.84), low meal frequency (AOR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.76), clinical staging four (AOR = 5.23, 95% CI: 1.42 - 19.35), clinical staging three (AOR = 3.91, 95% CI: 1.57, 9.73), presence of opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.49 - 4.59) and nutritional support (AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23 - 0.89) were independent predictors of malnutrition. Conclusion: Malnutrition (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) was high in adult people on anti-retroviral therapy at anti-retroviral therapy clinics of Hossana town. Only Anti-Retroviral Therapy is not enough to improve the health status of people on HAART. Further, interventional initiatives should focus in improving household food security, diversity of diet, meal frequency, clinical staging and prevention and control of opportunistic infections in adult HIV infected individuals receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy.
City as a (touristic) product
Lebo?, Sonja
PASOS : Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural , 2005,
Abstract: Urban areas and socio-cultural aspects of urban processes are important subjects for development of Cultural Tourism. This article argues for multidisciplinary approach to urban planning, stresses the importance of quality of life of citizens, which implies the quality of staying of their guests. In complex attempt of mapping the sites of interest (while having in view different models of typologies of a tourist), emphasis has been put on strategy that involves the contemporary art-praxis connected to cultural and visual anthropology. In the continuance, through blending anthropological and semiotical concepts, the most important issues that have been raised are: coexistence of the most distinctive cultural features even in the smallest urban units, studies of social and aesthetic signs that represent those features and production of meaning in cooperation of host and tourist in projecting a city as a (touristic) product. The article extensively uses arguments derived from numerous case-studies of the urban area of the city of Zagreb, Croatian capital

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