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Project cost analysis under risk  [PDF]
Florica LUBAN,Daniela HINCU
Economia : Seria Management , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, an integrated approach based on Monte Carlo simulation and Six Sigma methodology is used to analyze the risk associated with a project's total cost. Monte Carlo simulation is applied to understand the variability in total cost caused by the probabilistic cost items. By Six Sigma methodology the range of variation of the project cost can be reduced by operating on the input factors with the greatest impact on total cost to cover the variation of 6 between the limits that were established in the design phase of Six Sigma.
Research on Cost Control and Management of Real Estate Project  [cached]
Qun Gao
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v4n12p142
Abstract: This paper takes the cost control and the management of real estate project as the object in research, and analyzes and studies relevant issues. By analyzing the cost structure of real estate construction, this paper identifies problems in cost control and management of real estate construction at present. Besides, this paper puts forward measures for cost control and management of real estate construction, with the hope of offering useful ideas for this issue.
SYNERGIC IMPACT ON SLIPPAGE, COST AND TIME IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT  [PDF]
C. K .Georgekutty,Dr .George Mathew
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Construction Industry in Kerala has a physical environment which influence cost, time. This is a peculiar issue of a developing country, which leads to many setbacks in completion of projects. This approach has made many challenges in the growth of construction. Material management is an important aspect in project planning andcontrol. It contributes a major portion of expense in construction projects. Controlling procurement and carrying cost can reduce total project cost. To identify the reason for setbacks and suggest an appropriate workable solution under the special circumstances is the aim of this study. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among hundred selected ongoing housing projects in Kochi and nearby districts. Based on the study, only 15% of the projects are expected to complete in time. Though all materials are equally important in construction, some of the key materials specifically control the project cost. A dynamic control over the materials can control project cost. Continues process will optimize the total project cost.
REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL AND AGILE COST ESTIMATION SUCCESS FACTOR IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT  [PDF]
Zulkefli Mansor,Saadiah Yahya,Noor Habibah Hj Arshad
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications , 2011,
Abstract: Software development project is one of the important areas in software engineering. Many researches have been conducted and looked into issues in software development project such as methodology used, costing, challenges, type of project and many more. However, the most crucial issues in software development project are costing. Moreover, current trend in software development project is adopting agile as methodology. Therefore, this paper aimed to discuss success factors that influence in traditional and agile cost estimation process for software development project. Literature survey is carried out from the past researches. Then, this paper presents the success factors that bring to the successful of traditional and agile cost estimation in software development project. Realisation these factors will help software development communities contribute positively to the success of traditional or agile cost estimation process in software development project.
Cost-Benefit Analysis in Public Project Appraisal
Krystyna Brzozowska
Engineering Economics , 2007,
Abstract: The main problem in the most public projects appraisal is their uneconomic nature and impossibility to measure such data, like as turnover and current costs, necessary for NPV or IRR calculation. An appraisal of economic effi-ciency, as a measure of the net contribution of a project to overall social welfare, should be conducted to each single case. Standard appraisal methods based on projected profits and investment expenditures are not applicable because of intangible nature of pure public projects. In such cases Cost – Benefit Analysis (CBA) has been applied. The purpose of CBA is to ensure that the public sector allocates scarce re-sources efficiently to competing public sector projects. A basic assumptions of CBA is an identification the crucial benefits effected from a project and their valuation to con-duct project appraisal in terms of its effectiveness. A mixture of benefits and costs will be differentiated, because of pro-ject purpose and designing. The cost of a project should be somehow related to the benefit expected from it. The rule that has evolved over many years is that benefits must ex-ceed the costs from a project. CBA estimates and totals up the equivalent money value of the benefits and costs to the community of projects to establish whether they are worth-while. This means that all benefits and costs of a project should be measured in terms of their equivalent money value and in particular time.The most useful financial results in a CBA appear in a time-based cash flow summary. The basic rule of CBA is that project should be performed only then, when dis-counted benefits would be higher than discounted invest-ment expenditures. As the investment expenditures are treated exact cost of investment and operation costs after project putting into life.After some years of CBA exercising such analysis has still prompted some doubts connected mainly to choice of appropriate discount rate, externalities, risk and irre-versibility. Their override is a subject of research of many economists. Despite of critical remarks and some simplifications CBA has still been treated as a simple tool with numerous applications in various spheres, especially in environmental and other pure public projects, used commonly by banks and investors, more rarely by state agendas and local governments – especially in less de-veloped countries.The aim of a paper is to present problems and con-troversies with Cost–Benefit Analysis application to pub-lic project appraisal. The paper consists of five parts, in which there are distinguished public goods, key assump-tion
The Design of Cost Estimating Model of Construction Project: Application and Simulation  [PDF]
Abdelhak Challal, Mohamed Tkiouat
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2012.11003
Abstract: Construction projects are encountered with serious risks in the completion of the project. One of these risks is the inaccuracy of cost estimate; the project is carried out under conditions of uncertainty, it is whether the over- or underestimate of construction works. This is due to inadequate knowledge of current existing costs, so it leads to a set of difficulties hindering, the smooth progress of the project. Hence, it arises the need to set out a cost estimating model in line with major studies made locally and internationally in terms of estimating methods and a common relationships between various expenses so that the cost estimate would be more realistic.
Contingency for Cost Control in Project Management: A Case Study  [cached]
Gary Jackson
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building , 2012,
Abstract: This paper provides a case study of the application of cost management techniques for project management of capital works within a major Australian electricity corporation. Historical data was collected from the corporation's archived files to establish the performance status of completed capital works projects. A survey of the corporation's project staff was also conducted to determine the current usage of cost management techniques and further explore the findings of the historical data search.The research indicates a reluctance to utilise formal cost management procedures on minor projects, estimated to cost less than $1 million. The time constraints allocated to project management planning and the perceived cost to implement procedures were identified as contributing to the limited use of formal cost management on minor projects.The paper concludes that increased risk of poor budget performance is inevitable if formal cost control is not applied to capital works projects, and recommends informal risk assessment and cost contingency measures to address this issue.
PROJECT RELIABILITY: PROBABILITY OF A PROJECT MEETS ITS QUALITY-COST-TIME TARGET UNDER UNCERTAINTY  [PDF]
Yudha Andrian Saputra,Ode Siti Andini Ladamay
International Journal of Electronic Business Management , 2011,
Abstract: For so long, Quality, Cost, and Time become an Iron Triangle for measuring project success. Many researchers have investigated about Quality-Cost-Time in a Project Network under uncertainty, particularly it focuses on single parameter (Quality/Cost/Time only) or combination between parameters (trade off or relation between parameters). Knowing the probability to meet these three targets is important, especially during the project planning. Management can gain information insights about the confidence level to meet the target and potential risk in the future. However, none of the previous research has combined these three parameters under uncertainty. If we define quality as: 1) a standard or requirement to be met with failed and successful probability; 2) it has consequences or impact on additional cost and/or additional time for nonconformity; and 3) the time and cost have their own relationship and form of uncertainty, here our proposed method to evaluate probability of a project whether it met its Quality-Cost-Time target under uncertainty. We call this as Project Reliability. A Monte Carlo Simulation and Generalized Activity Network are utilized. A numerical example is provided to support and validating the propose method.
Research on Reliability and Cost Integrated Optimization Algorithm of Construction Project Logistics System  [PDF]
Xiaoping Bai,Xiaomin Gu
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2013,
Abstract: The structure of the construction project logistics system is decomposed in detail; some uncertain factors affecting system reliability are analyzed. This paper applies the probability-influence coordinate graph to screen out the logistics subsystem that has great influence on system reliability under the conditions of occurring failure, and establishes an allocation model of the reliability index in construction project logistics system based on the restriction of cost, makes use of the presented model and algorithm to calculate the cost-based reliability, contrasts it with the index reliability assigned by the scoring method to the optimal distribution value of reliability index and the optimal cost. The presented detailed methods and steps can offer the meaningful reference for reliability optimization management of the logistics system in the construction project.
The Application of SOFM Fuzzy Neural Network in Project Cost Estimate  [cached]
WenFeng Feng,WenJuan Zhu
Journal of Software , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jsw.6.8.1452-1459
Abstract: Applications of neural network were widely used in construct project cost estimate. Aim at handling weakness of poor convergence and insufficient forecast, an improved fuzzy neural network method based on SOFM (self-organizing feature map) was proposed to replace the fashionable T-S fuzzy neural network. The method illustrated how to apply SOFM to improve the fault such as poor convergence and insufficient forecast. After optimizing of T-S fuzzy neural network model, construct project cost estimate model had been built up. Finally, the model was set up with the purpose of comparing generalization ability by 18 examples and 2 testing samples. Comparing the simulation, a positive result was found that SOFM fuzzy neural network had a better performance in reducing the forecast error and iterating times than BP, and GA-BP. Therefore, this model is fit for handling construct project cost estimate.
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