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Reclaimed Water for Turfgrass Irrigation  [PDF]
Gregory Evanylo,Erik Ervin,Xunzhong Zhang
Water , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/w2030685
Abstract: Sustainable irrigation of turfgrass grown on coarse-textured soils with reclaimed water must avoid detrimental effects of soluble salts on plant growth and soil quality and groundwater enrichment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the effects of irrigating with municipal reclaimed water containing higher concentrations of soluble salts than potable water on turfgrass growth and quality and (2) to compare the effects of reclaimed and potable water on turfgrass assimilation and leaching of N and P. A sand-based medium plumbed to supply potable and reclaimed water and instrumented with lysimeters to collect leachate was planted with hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis var. Tifsport) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. L-93). Both species produced high quality turfgrass with the reclaimed water. Although both grasses are moderately or highly salt tolerant when fully established, the bermudagrass growth and quality were reduced by the reclaimed water upon breaking dormancy, and its N use during this period was reduced. Continuous use of reclaimed water of the quality used in the study poses a potential soil Na accumulation problem. Both turfgrasses assimilated high amounts of N and P with minimal potential losses to groundwater.
An overview of reclaimed water reuse in China
Lili Yi,Wentao Jiao,Xiaoning Chen,Weiping Chen,
Lili Yi
,Wentao Jiao,Xiaoning Chen,Weiping Chen

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2011,
Abstract: China is facing severe water problems including scarcity and pollution which are now becoming key factors restricting developments. Creating an alternative water resource and reducing effluent discharges, water reuse has been recognized as an integral part of water and wastewater management scheme in China. The government has launched nationwide efforts to optimize the benefits of utilizing reclaimed water. This article reviewed the water reuse activities in China, including: (1) application history and current status; (2) potentials of reclaimed water reuse; (3) laws, policies and regulations governing reclaimed water reuse; (4) risks associated with reclaimed water reuse; (5) issues in reclaimed water reuse. Reclaimed water in Beijing and Tianjin were given as examples. Suggestions for improving the efficiencies of reusing urban wastewater were advanced. Being the largest user of reclaimed wastewater in the world, China's experience can benefit the development of water reuse in other regions.
Use of Reclaimed Water in China: management issues and strategies
Xue-jian XUAN,He XU
Management Science and Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: As one of the fastest economic growing country in the world, China faces many water challenges. While there is no magic bullet to solving those challenges, a diversified selection of alternative water resources to help stretch traditional freshwater supplies is one of the optimal solutions. For this reason, the view of managing wastewater is moving from safe disposal of the treated product to incorporating it into the water supply. Since reclaimed water is increasingly consider being a valuable resource, the management of reclaimed water is also going to play a significant role in China’s future water management. This paper aims to give an overview of reclaimed water used activities in China and outline some issues arise from the management defect. And the innovative management strategies relevant to the management that put forward in this paper may become a part of the journey towards sustainable management of water resources in China. Key words: Reclaimed water; Historic and modern applications; Issues; Strategies
早熟花椰菜新品种‘京研60’  [PDF]
园艺学报 , 2007,
Abstract: ‘京研60’花椰菜是以胞质雄性不育系cms60-2为母本,自交系37-2a为父本配制而成的早熟一代杂种,植株生长势强,从定植至收获约60d,单球质量0.8~1.0kg,花球洁白,紧密,呈半圆球形;杂交纯度可达100%,耐热,抗病,适合秋季栽培。
Golf Course Irrigation with Reclaimed Water in the Mediterranean: A Risk Management Matter  [PDF]
Miquel Salgot,Gerda K. Priestley,Montserrat Folch
Water , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/w4020389
Abstract: Controversy regarding the amount of water consumed or saved as a result of human activity is currently paramount in water-scarce areas. In recent decades, golf—a land and water consuming activity—has been implanted in several areas of the Mediterranean basin, where the scarcity of water resources is well-known. As a result, the use of conventional water resources for golf course irrigation is increasingly contested and its replacement by reclaimed water has become essential. This paper examines the wide range of issues involved in its use on golf courses, including hazards—due to the presence of microorganisms and pollutants—and the corresponding risks that can appear. The resulting biological, chemical and physical water quality concerns are analyzed. Legal aspects related to the use of reclaimed water are also discussed and good reuse practices are suggested, including a detailed examination of risk assessment procedures and tools through observation or chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The HACCP system—which focuses on quality determination in water samples from relevant control points—is described in detail, as it is generally accepted as one of the most scientific ways to detect health problems on a golf course. The paper concludes that, given the increasing availability of treated and reclaimed water and the water needs of golf courses, the future development of the sport in areas without surplus water resources—such as the Mediterranean basin—will predictably depend upon the use of reclaimed water. In recent years, risk assessment or analysis has emerged as an essential tool to guarantee the application of reclaimed water at an acceptable risk level. There certainly have been considerable advances and improvements in the tools that guarantee the safe use of reclaimed water, although current methods available require simplification for their practical application. Nevertheless, protocols applied at present seem to be adequate in order to address the key issue of enhancing the development of reclaimed water use on golf courses.
Assessment of reclaimed water irrigation on growth, yield, and water-use efficiency of forage crops
S. A. Alkhamisi,H. A. Abdelrahman,M. Ahmed,M. F. A. Goosen
Applied Water Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13201-011-0009-y
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of water quality (reclaimed and fresh water), water quantity, and their interactions on the growth, yield, and water use efficiency of forage maize during two winter seasons in the Arabian Gulf. The plants irrigated with the reclaimed water had higher plant height than those irrigated with the fresh water. The leaf length and leaf area (cm2) did not show any significant differences among the interaction. Reclaimed water had shorter time for 50% male and female flowering of forage maize plants, indicating earlier maturity. Plants irrigated with reclaimed water had higher chlorophyll content for all levels of water applications. A significant difference in green forage yield was found among the interactions. Reclaimed water gave the highest green forage yield of 72.12 and 59.40 t/ha at 1.4ETo and 1.0ETo, respectively. Plants irrigated with the reclaimed water used water more efficiently [3.65 kg/m3 of DM (dry matter)] than those irrigated with the fresh water [2.91 kg/m3 of DM (dry matter)] for all water quantities. The enhanced growth in wastewater-irrigated crops, compared with fresh water-irrigated crops, was attributed primarily to higher nutrient content (e.g., nitrogen) and lower salinity of the reclaimed water. The study concluded that treated wastewater irrigation increased yields of forage crops and their water use efficiency. Cost-benefit analysis, studies on the use these forage crops as animal feed, and more in depth evaluation of possible crop and soil contamination were recommended.
Study on the Guideline for Groundwater Recharge with Reclaimed Water

HE Xing hai,MA Shi hao,

环境科学 , 2004,
Abstract: Groundwater recharge with reclaimed water is the most beneficial way to extend reuse applications, and has the vast development foreground. In this paper, the domestic and international applications and guidelines for groundwater recharge with reclaimed water were summarized. Based on the quality of reclaimed water and the conditions of hydrological geology, the reclaimed water quality criteria for groundwater recharge was suggested including 22 basic controlling items and 52 selective controlling items, and the control technology was presented.
Effects of reclaimed water on seed germination, growth and antioxidant system in crops

GUO Xiaoyu,DONG Zhi,GONG Huili,ZHOU Xi''An,

环境科学学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Researches were conducted to understand the germination, the growth and the physiological characteristics of crops in response to irrigation with reclaimed water, and to assess the feasibility of using the reclaimed water as an alternative irrigation source for crops. Irrigation with reclaimed water had different effects on germinations of different materials but improved seed establishment and growth. There is no negative effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on the balance of antioxidant system of crops, while some measures must be adapt to keeping the effects of reclaimed water irrigation in optimization.
Assessing Risk of Injection of Reclaimed Water into the Biscayne Aquifer for Aquifer Recharge Purposes  [PDF]
Frederick Bloetscher, Daniel E. Meeroff, Pollop Phonpornwithoon
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.77013
The recharge of non-potable water into a drinking water aquifer is one means to overcome decreasing groundwater supplies and maintain availability of these resources for current and future generations. However, health concerns exist regarding the use of waters of “impaired quality” such as reclaimed wastewater for aquifer recharge. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential risk to drinking water from the use of reclaimed water for recharge purposes using computational modeling with MODFLOW and MT3D groundwater transport simulation based on an actual situation using rotavirus as a surrogate. The results from the simulation showed that after seven months, the risk of contamination based on concentration contours from the injection well to the production wells was stabilized below 10-6.
A biological safety evaluation on reclaimed water reused as scenic water using a bioassay battery
Dongbin Wei,Zhuowei Tan,Yuguo Du,
Dongbin Wei
,Zhuowei Tan,Yuguo Du

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2011,
Abstract: An assessment method based on three toxicity tests (algae growth inhibition, daphnia immobilization and larval fish toxicity) was used to screen the biological safety of reclaimed water which was reused as sole replenishment for scenic water system in a park (SOF Park) in northern China. A total of 24 water samples were collected from six sites of water system in the SOF Park in four different seasons. The results indicated that: (1) the reclaimed water directly discharged from a reclamation treatment plant near the SOF Park as influent of park had relatively low biological safety (all samples were ranked as C or D); (2) the biological safety of reclaimed water was improved greatly with the ecological reclamation treatment processes composing of artificial wetland system and followed oxidation pond system; (3) the biological safety of reclaimed water in the main lake of SOF Park kept at a health status during different seasons (all samples were ranked as A); (4) there was some certain correlation (R2 = 0.5737) between the sum of toxicity scores and dissolved organic carbon for the studied water samples. It was concluded that the assessment method was reliable to screen the safety of reclaimed water reused as scenic water, and the reclaimed water with further ecological purification processes such as artificial wetland and oxidation pond system can be safely reused as scenic water in park.
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