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Cultural influence, economic security, and the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada  [PDF]
Tang, Zongli
Canadian Studies in Population , 2001,
Abstract: English This study explores interactions of cultural influence and economic insecurity and their effects on the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada. The importance of group context on the actions of individuals is measured through data from the PUST of the 1971 and1991 Canadian Censuses. Contextual analysis and random coefficient models are the major statistical tools employed to achieve the above objectives. The Chinese-Canadians are compared to the British-Canadians, who are used as the reference group. The findings suggest that Chinese reproductive norms with pronatalist endowments exert strong influence on the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada.This influence effectively counteracts the negative effects of economic insecurity and encourages Chinese immigrants to quickly recover their fertility deficit after the initial immigration stage. The effects of the origin culture on fertility diminish with increasing exposure to the host society.However, even among the native-born or Canadian-born Chinese, the influence of Chinese reproductive norms is still present though not as strong as among the foreign-born Chinese. French Cette étude explore les interactions de l'influence culturelle et de l'insécuritééconomique et leurs effets sur le comportement procréateur des Chinois auCanada. L'importance d'un contexte de groupe sur les actions des individus estmesurée au moyen de données provenant de la BEGD (bande-échantillon àgrande diffusion) des recensements canadiens de 1971 et 1991. L'analysecontextuelle et les coefficients de modèles au hasard constituent les principauxoutils statistiques employés pour atteindre les objectifs susmentionnés. Les Sino-Canadiens sont comparés aux habitants de la Colombie-Britannique qui serventde groupe témoin. Les conclusions indiquent que les normes de reproduction àaction nataliste exercent une forte influence sur le comportement procréateur desChinois au Canada. Cette influence contrebalance efficacement les effetsnégatifs de l'insécurité économique et encourage les immigrants chinois à seremettre rapidement de leur manque de fécondité après la première étape del'immigration. Les effets de la culture d'origine sur la fécondité diminuent avecl'exposition à la nouvelle société h te. Cependant, même parmi les Sino-Canadiens nés en Chine ou nés au Canada, l'influence des normes dereproduction chinoises demeure présente quoique moins forte que chez lesChinois nés à l'étranger.
Enlightenment and Countermeasures: Canada HACCP System and Chinese Food Safety Supervision  [cached]
Yu XIONG
Canadian Social Science , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/3282
Abstract: Food safety is a big issue for all countries over the world which is why strengthening food safety supervision is the inevitable choice for all governments. The Canadian federal government has used the HACCP system as the main method in food safety supervision. The system has made hazard analysis and key point control as its main tasks and it works during the whole process of food production, processing, circulation, and consumption. This system is proved to be an effective way for protecting food safety. The establishment of the Canada’s HAPPC system depends on its government’s efficient and uncorrupted supervision system, scientific and rigorous enhancement programs, open and transparent supervision process, and coordinative and cooperative resource integration. According to the enlightenment given by the Canadian HACCP system, China could construct its own independent food safety supervision organ during food safety supervision process, build public participation system for food safety supervision, and make full use of non-governmental organizations’ supporting functions during food safety supervision, and set up related HACCP system. Key words: Canada; HACCP system; China food safety supervision; Enlightenment; Countermeasures
“I am not what you thought I should be”: Learning Accounts of Chinese International Students in Canada  [PDF]
Zhihua Zhang,Wei Zhang
International Journal of Social Science and Humanity , 2013, DOI: 10.7763/ijssh.2013.v3.306
Abstract: This paper describes part of the findings of the first author’s dissertation research on the learning narratives of some Chinese international students in Canada. Based on data collected using narrative inquiry, the authors specifically pick stories on how the participants described, understood and interpreted memorization, critical thinking and classroom participation in Mountain University in Vancouver. This paper questions the assumptions of the learning approach that Asian international students may take, and points out that instructors and teaching assistants in the Mountain University lack knowledge and awareness of the academic learning experiences of Chinese international students. The voices of international students are thus silenced. The findings indicate that the participants did not display evidence of active negotiation for potential changes in the classrooms of Mountain University.
Theorizing and Social Gerontology  [cached]
Bengtson, Vern
International Journal of Ageing and Later Life , 2006,
Abstract: Theory is increasingly important in social gerontology. Thus it is grati-fying to see the debut of a new journal that encourages theorizing about age and aging. The papers in Volume 1, number 1 of the International Journal of Ageing and Later Life reflect a concern for developing theory that is laudable. I hope that in the future researchers who submit manuscripts to IJAL and the reviewers who evaluate them will share this concern for building theory. This is because we are at a tipping point, a watershed, in the development of knowledge about the social and psychological dimensions of aging.
The feasibility Problem in Theorizing Social Justice  [cached]
Eugen Huzum
Sfera Politicii , 2012,
Abstract: G. A. Cohen and Andrew Mason have recently argued, against many contemporary philosophers, that feasibility is not a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice. Their main argument is that principles of justice are logically independent of issues of feasibility and, consequently, feasibility has no bearing on the correctness of these principles. This article is a critical examination of three attempts to show that Cohen and Mason’s argument is unsound. The examined attempts are those of Harry Brighouse, Collin Farrelly, and David Miller. I argue that all these arguments are based on false, unjustified or implausible, premises and/or assumptions. Consequently, they cannot discredit the soundness of Cohen and Mason’s argument and of the thesis that feasibility is not, in fact, a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice.
The ‘Final Say’ Is Not the Last Word. Gendered Patterns, Perceptions, and Processes in Household Decision Making Among Chinese Immigrant Couples in Canada  [PDF]
Shirley Sun Hsiao Li
Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology , 2010,
Abstract: The central assumption of the ‘final-say’ measure of conjugal dynamics is that reporteddecision-making outcomes reveal gender inequality within the household; since power is defined asthe ability to make decisions affecting the life of the family, the decider is often regarded as the onepossessing more power or higher status. Qualitative data collected from in-depth interviews with 16married Chinese immigrant couples in Canada, however, problematize this assumption. Drawing ondata from separate interviews with the spouses, I highlight three subtle ways in which genderinequality manifests itself. First, in a substantial proportion of households, wives rather thanhusbands made decisions about day-to-day expenses, even when the wife held no paid employmentor earned less than the husband. Second, husbands consciously avoided making such decisions. Notonly did interviewees perceive household expenditure decisions as ‘women’s business’ (nurenjia deshi), but these decisions were also trivialized by both male and female respondents. Third, interviewdata showed that there was an unequal distribution of power between spouses, even in the modelof joint decision making, because wives tended to seek their husbands’ approval, especially for realestate purchases or high-end consumption. The major findings from this study suggest thatresearchers’ conclusions about gender relations in the family may depend on the methods of datacollection.
Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: a validation study
Baiju R Shah, Maria Chiu, Shubarna Amin, Meera Ramani, Sharon Sadry, Jack V Tu
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-42
Abstract: Comprehensive lists of South Asian and Chinese surnames were reviewed to identify those that uniquely belonged to the ethnic minority group. Surnames that were common in other populations, communities or ethnic groups were specifically excluded. These surname lists were applied to the Registered Persons Database, a registry of the health card numbers assigned to all residents of the Canadian province of Ontario, so that all residents were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population. Ethnic assignment was validated against self-identified ethnicity through linkage with responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey.The final surname lists included 9,950 South Asian surnames and 1,133 Chinese surnames. All 16,688,384 current and former residents of Ontario were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population based on their surnames. Among 69,859 respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey, both lists performed extremely well when compared against self-identified ethnicity: positive predictive value was 89.3% for the South Asian list, and 91.9% for the Chinese list. Because surnames shared with other ethnic groups were deliberately excluded from the lists, sensitivity was lower (50.4% and 80.2%, respectively).These surname lists can be used to identify cohorts of people with South Asian and Chinese origins from secondary data sources with a high degree of accuracy. These cohorts could then be used in epidemiologic and health service research studies of populations with South Asian and Chinese origins.Because many secondary data sources used in health research do not include information on race or ethnicity, surnames are often used as a proxy when studying health care for ethnic populations. In the United States, the Bureau of the Census compiled a list of "Spanish surnames" in the 1950s which has since been updated every decade [1]. These lists have been used extensively to study Hispanic popu
Empiricism and Theorizing in Epidemiology and Social Network Analysis  [PDF]
Richard Rothenberg,Elizabeth Costenbader
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/157194
Abstract: The connection between theory and data is an iterative one. In principle, each is informed by the other: data provide the basis for theory that in turn generates the need for new information. This circularity is reflected in the notion of abduction, a concept that focuses on the space between induction (generating theory from data) and deduction (testing theory with data). Einstein, in the 1920s, placed scientific creativity in that space. In the field of social network analysis, some remarkable theory has been developed, accompanied by sophisticated tools to develop, extend, and test the theory. At the same time, important empirical data have been generated that provide insight into transmission dynamics. Unfortunately, the connection between them is often tenuous and the iterative loop is frayed. This circumstance may arise both from data deficiencies and from the ease with which data can be created by simulation. But for whatever reason, theory and empirical data often occupy different orbits. Fortunately, the relationship, while frayed, is not broken, to which several recent analyses merging theory and extant data will attest. Their further rapprochement in the field of social network analysis could provide the field with a more creative approach to experimentation and inference. 1. Introduction Theory and empirical data are in principle intimately interwoven. Yet in the practice of social network analysis, there appears to be a disconnect: theorizing and empiricism often seem to occupy separate orbits, and these separate discussions may be difficult to relate to each other. The root of the problem may lie in the different skill sets required by each, or perhaps in the substantial obstacles to collection of human network data. The following exploration of the distance between theory and empiricism suggests that a rapprochement would be of considerable benefit to the field. The mid-19th Century American philosopher Charles Peirce coined the term “abduction” (which he also called “retroduction”) to fill a gap he perceived in the territory occupied by induction and deduction. As distilled by Professor Burch [1], Peirce used syllogisms to explain this term, substituting Rule, Case, and Result for the more familiar Major Premise, Minor Premise, and Conclusion. But perhaps more interesting to epidemiologists and social network analysts, he related this logical process to sampling. As Professor Burch explains it, a standard valid syllogism would progress as follows.Rule: All balls in this urn are red.Case: All balls in this particular random sample are
Theorizing the Implications of Gender Order for Sustainable Forest Management  [PDF]
Jeji Varghese,Maureen G. Reed
International Journal of Forestry Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/257280
Abstract: Sustainable forest management is intended to draw attention to social, economic, and ecological dimensions. The social dimension, in particular, is intended to advance the effectiveness of institutions in accurately reflecting social values. Research demonstrates that while women bring distinctive interests and values to forest management issues, their nominal and effective participation is restricted by a gender order that marginalizes their interests and potential contributions. The purpose of this paper is to explain how gender order affects the attainment of sustainable forest management. We develop a theoretical discussion to explain how women's involvement in three different models for engagement—expert-based, stakeholder-based, and civic engagement—might be advanced or constrained. By conducting a meta-analysis of previous research conducted in Canada and internationally, we show how, in all three models, both nominal and effective participation of women is constrained by several factors including rules of entry, divisions of labour, social norms and perceptions and rules of practice, personal endowments and attributes, as well as organizational cultures. Regardless of the model for engagement, these factors are part of a masculine gender order that prevails in forestry and restricts opportunities for inclusive and sustainable forest management. 1. Introduction In Canada, it can no longer be assumed that timber is the sole product of forestry. The broadening of interests in forests has been characterized by increased pressures from diverse interest groups to be involved in sustainable management of public resources. For example, forestry advisory committees across the country have been established to contribute directly into management decisions about forestry and thereby contribute local knowledge to the social, economic, and ecological dimensions of forest sustainability. Social sustainability includes consideration of society’s responsibility, which is one of six criterion of sustainable forest management (SFM) in Canada. This criteria “addresses the effectiveness of institutions in managing resources in ways that accurately reflect social values, the responsiveness of institutions to change as social values change, how we deal with the special and unique needs of particular cultural and/or socio-economic communities, and the extent to which the allocation of our scarce resources can be considered to be fair and balanced (page 17 [1])”. This social sustainability criterion includes fair and effective decision making (Criteria 6.4) and raises
(Over-)Stylizing Experimental Findings and Theorizing with Sweeping Generality  [PDF]
Werner Gueth,Hartmut Kliemt,M. Vittoria Levati
Rationality, Markets and Morals , 2009,
Abstract: Human decision making is a process guided by different and partly competing motivations that can each dominate behavior and lead to different effects depending on strength and circumstances. 'Over-stylizing' neglects such competing concerns and context-dependence, although it facilitates the emergence of elaborate general theories. We illustrate by examples from social dilemma experiments and inequality aversion theories that sweeping empirical claims should be avoided.
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