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Acquittal of Gotovina and Marka : A Blow to the Serbian and Croatian Reconciliation Process
Radmila Nakarada
Merkourios : Utrecht Journal of International and European Law , 2013,
Abstract: On 16 November 2012, the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia ('ICTY') issued its decision on Prosecutor v Gotovina et al. The de novo review found errors in the Trial Chamber's analysis and the appellants Gotovina and Marka were acquitted of all charges. This decision has made an impact on the Serbian-Croatian reconciliation process, creating a gap between the two States' historical narratives. Highlighting the arguments in the dissenting opinions, this case note discusses the '200 Metre Standard' and the treatment of modes of liability in the alternative. Furthermore, the reception of the Appeals Judgement by Serbia and Croatia is discussed to demonstrate the political and social consequences of the decision.
The ephemeral Croatian orthodox church and its Bosnian extension  [PDF]
Besse Jean-Paul
Balcanica , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/balc0637265b
Abstract: The so-called Croatian Orthodox Church was an ephemeral creation of the Ustachi regime founded in 1942 in Croatia. The analysis of its founder Malsinov, an archbishop of the Russian Orthodox Church in exile, doubtlessly reveals his anti-communist motives, which were also behind his cooperation with the Romanian Orthodox Church through Metropolitan Bessarion. The two prelates ordained Spyridon Mifka as bishop of Sarajevo, an extension of the same Croatian Orthodox Church. The anti-communist aspect of this cooperation continued in exile following the establishment of Soviet rule in Eastern Europe. The climate and reasons that led Maslinov to become the head of this phantom institution, however, cannot be fully elucidated at present.
Violence in social memory intimate beliefs regarding operation storm in the Croatian and Serbian publics  [PDF]
?eri? Gordana
Filozofija i Dru?tvo , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/fid0801043d
Abstract: This text is part of a research conducted under the working title "What do we talk about when we are silent and what are we silent about when we are talking? - premises for the anthropology of silence about the nearest past." In the first part the author investigates the meaning of silence in the Croatian and Serbian press right before and during Croatia's Operation Storm. The ratio between silence, suppression of information and forgetting, on the one hand, and social memory, on the other, has been elaborated in the final part of the text by following reports about the anniversaries of Operation Storm in both Croatian and Serbian publics. The starting point lies in the belief that the phenomenon of silence (and suppression of information), being an immanent part of each discourse, represents an important factor in the creation of social relationships and system of value models, that it has important communication and cognitive functions and that the performance character lies in its essence. In short, silence makes it possible to form the prevailing image about this event, even if it does not construct it indirectly - through speech. The author has elaborated on the meaning of silence in the context of Operation Storm partly because studies about the breakup of Yugoslavia frequently mention silence as a manipulation strategy employed by some of the sides in the conflict (or analysts dealing with Yugoslav topics), while not a single study systematically investigates the semantic of silence and suppression of information in these conflicts. Most importantly, taking into account the frequency of direct silence in the newspaper discourse and rhetoric strategies that point at silence indirectly from the context and discourse, the author focuses on the relationship between the event (situation) and silence. In order to shed light on the way in which Operation Storm is remembered, i.e. forgotten, in the stakeholders' publics and political imageries, she follows the dailies - Ve ernje Novosti Politika, Danas (Belgrade) - Ve ernji List, Jutarnji List, Magazin supplement of the Jutarnji List (Zagreb), as well as texts about Operation Storm in weeklies such as the NIN and Vreme of Belgrade or Globus of Zagreb in the period between August 2, 1995 and mid-August 2006.
The role of Yugoslav ideology in suppressing the Serbian Cyrillic script  [PDF]
Njegovan Drago
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn0417147n
Abstract: The paper deals with the issue of Yugoslav ideology and its role in suppressing the Serbian Cyrillic script. There were two different approaches in the concept of Yugoslavism as developed on the grounds of Illyrism (Lj. Gaj) in the midnineteenth century: the Croatian and the Serbian ones. The Croatian Yugoslavism (J.J. Strossmayer) was of a pro-Catholic and anti-Serbian character language and writing, it was manifested through annulling of Serbian language in the domain of "Croatian state legislation" and supression, prohibition and persecution of Serbian Cyrillic script. On the other hand, Serbian approach to Yugoslavism (T. Pavlovi , J. Suboti etc) was a tolerant one: the lingual diversity of the south Slavic peoples opposing the need for their co-operation. By the beginning of the 20th century the Croatian variant of Yugoslavism (with its three-tribal nation concept) prevailed over the Serbian one and became the grounding ideology for the new, common state. Its lingual union basing on the domination of the eastern – ekavian – pronunciation variant (from the Serbian language) and Latin letters (from the Croatian) was disadvantageous to both spoken and written Serbian language: the Serbs have accepted Latin writing and the Croats have never accepted the so-called eastern pronunciation. The consequences have not for diminished the Serbian Cyrillic script with the decline of the Yugoslav ideology (which was first abandoned by the Croats) nor with the falling apart of the Yugoslav state.
Scientific Output of Croatian Universities: Comparison with Neighbouring Countries  [PDF]
Boris Podobnik,Katica Biljakovi?
Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems , 2008,
Abstract: We compared the Croatian research output with the neighboring countries and the Croatian universities with the largest Slovenian, Hungarian, and Serbian universities. As far as papers listed by Social Science Citation Index are concerned, since 2000 the University of Zagreb exhibits best results in social sciences compared to the competing universities, that is not the case in “hard” sciences. For the last 12 years, only the University of Ljubljana has shown better results in total research output than the University of Zagreb. The difference in research output between the University of Zagreb and the rest of the Croatian universities has been constantly decreasing. As a case study we compare research output at Faculty of Civil Engeenering on different Croatian universities. By analyzing European countries, we show a functional dependence between the gross domestic product (GDP) and the research output. From this fit we conclude that the Croatian science exhibits research output as expected for the given level of GDP.
THE FIRSTBOSNIAN-TURKISH/TURKISH BOSNIAN LEXICOGRAPHICWORK
Edina Ustavdi?
Human : Research in Rehabilitation , 2011,
Abstract: In this work, the authoress interprets the frst Bosnian-Turkish/Turkish-Bosnian dictionary Maqbul-i ‘Arif, or better known as Potur Shahidi written by Muhammed Hevai Uskuf, a Bosnian Muslim, born in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 1631 (Hevaji, 1724).
Purism and antipurism in present-day Serbian  [PDF]
Klajn Ivan
Ju?noslovenski Filolog , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/jfi0864153k
Abstract: As in other Balkan languages, Serbo-Croatian vocabulary is of mixed origin Ever since its earliest days, some of the commonest words were borrowed from Greek, Latin, Italian, Turkish, Hungarian, and in more recent times from Russian, Czech and German. For this reason most loanwords are received without resistance in Serbia. The same openness is shared by practically all Serbian linguists, while purist attitudes are only to be found among laymen. A less relaxed policy might prove to be advisable towards the Anglicisms of today, since global English is more universally present and more penetrating than any foreign language in the past. In Croatia, on the other hand, purism was adopted as an official policy, first as a response to the threats of Germanization (within the Austro-Hungarian empire) and later to the presumed Serbian domination (in Yugoslavia). As a consequence, the mechanisms of word formation are better developed in Croatian, but at the same time many artificial coinages and recycled archaisms have been launched, leading to what is known as the 'Croatian Newspeak'. While Croatian linguists are constantly on the guard against Serbianisms, in Serbia many Croatian words have been adopted almost without resistance, especially when they are shorter, more practical or more precise than their Serbian equivalents.
Music in Serbian literary magazine and Yugoslav ideology  [PDF]
Vasi? Aleksandar N.
Muzikologija , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/muz0404039v
Abstract: It is worth noting that the important journal of the history of Serbian literature and music, the Serbian Literary Magazine (1901 - 1914, 1920 1941), became more Yugoslav-oriented within a relatively short period following its inception. From its early beginning to 1906, the Magazine’s musical critics did not actively express its Yugoslav ideology. But from 1907 there was an increase of interest in both the music and the musicians from Croatia and Slovenia. In 1911 the Croatian Opera spent almost two weeks in Belgrade performing; the composer and musicologist, Miloje Milojevi began to develop the idea of union with Slavs from the South in a critical analysis he rendered of their performance. Until the end of the first/old series, SLM highlighted a noticeable number of texts about Croatians and Slovenians: critical reviews of Croatian musical books, concerts of Slovenian artists in Belgrade, score editions of Slovenian music performances of instrument soloists from Zagreb in Belgrade - as well as notes about the musical work of Croatian Academy (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb). Echoes of rare tours of Serbian musicians in South Slavs cultural centers did not go unheard, either. In the older series of the journal, lasting and two-fold relations had already begun to lean towards Yugoslav ideology. From one side, even before World War I, Yugoslav ideology in the Magazine was accepted as a program objective of Serbian political and cultural elite. On the other, the journal does not appear to have negotiated any of its aesthetic criterion when estimating musical events that came from Zagreb and Ljubljana to Belgrade - at least not "in the name of Yugoslav ideology". In later series of SLM, the Yugoslav platform was being represented as official ideological statehood of newly created Kingdoms of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (1918), i.e., the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929). At that time, the Magazine had occasional literary cooperation from Croatian musical writers such as Lujo afranek-Kavi , Bo idar irola and Antun Dobroni . Their articles described activities of the Croatian National Theatre and evaluated new works of Croatian composers. But they were not at all remiss about acknowledging great masterpieces of European music being performed in Zagreb in their day, either. The works of Claude Debussy, Pelléas et Mélisande; Ludwig van Beethoven, Missa solemnis Richard Wagner, Lohengrin were also followed through reviews, albeit within a curious Croatian-paradigm of musical history which included musical and dramatic theatre from Ljubljana, Zagreb
The Contribution of Ruling Bosnian and Herzegovinian Political Parties to the Outbreak of War in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sa?a Mrdulja?
Suvremene Teme : Contemporary Issues , 2011,
Abstract: According to the essential part of its constitutional makeup (1974 Constitution)the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B-H) was defined as an entity of three constitutional, sovereign and mutually equal peoples: Croats, Serbs and Muslims (Bosniaks). Such a political and legal model was meant to ensure full protection of national interests of all three peoples. However, until its very end, the League of Communists of Bosnia and Herzegovina could not establish an internal makeup of Bosnia and Herzegovina according to these principles. Such a makeup should have, in the event of a breakup of Yugoslavia, enabled the best possible protection of Bosnian-Herzegovinian multiethnicity and peace in that republic. Thus, the issue of regulation of national interests and relations was, according to results of elections held in November 1990, was “left over“ to the winning political parties: Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ) and Serb Democratic Party (SDS), as well as Muslim/Bosniak Party of Democratic Action (SDA). These parties practically did not even try to find solutions to national interests and relations according to the mentioned principles. On the contrary, by pursuing their egotist state-building goals they, each in its own way, gave a major contribution to the escalation of an atmosphere of conflict. This eventually led to an open armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina in April 1992.
Dynamics of linguistic and social change: Minority languages in Hungary and the sociolinguistic situation of Serbian  [PDF]
Ili? Marija
Ju?noslovenski Filolog , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/jfi0965331i
Abstract: Over the past decades, minority languages and processes of language shift/maintenance have become an important scholarly concern. This paper aims to describe in brief the sociolinguistic situation of the Serbian minority language in Hungary with special attention paid to the relation between language ideology and processes of language shift/maintenance. The first section of this paper presents the current socio-political framework for protection of minority languages in Hungary. The second paper's section provides an overview of the main sociolinguistic surveys of the minority languages in Hungary that have had many centuries of contact with Serbian i.e. German, Romanian, Bulgarian, and Croatian. Finally, the paper provides a quick recapitulation of the Serbian language research in Hungary, and depicts the current sociolinguistic situation of Serbian.
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