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The Determinants of Control of Commissions Executive Functions  [PDF]
Fabio Franchino
European Integration Online Papers , 1999,
Abstract: The aim of this article is twofold. First, I review the political science literature on delegation and control and apply the control side of agency theory to the activities of the Commission. Second, I test McCubbins and Pages (1987) propositions on the determinants of control. I then conclude with some comments on the impact of these procedures on Commissions autonomy, with reference to other works on the subject. Hypothesis: McCubbins and Page suggest that the stringency of ex post control is positively correlated with 1) conflict among legislators and 2) uncertainty about the benefits and costs of the policy. Methods: I use logistic regression and a cumulative logit model that test the hypotheses on a stratified sample of non amending secondary legislation adopted from 1987 to 1998. Results: Unanimity rule, conflict between Community institutions and uncertainty about the costs and benefits are key determinants for the establishment of ex post procedural control of Commissions implementation activities. Conflict and uncertainty are also important factors affecting the degree of stringency in control.
Institutionalism and Commission s Executive Discretion: an Empirical Analysis  [cached]
Fabio Franchino
European Integration Online Papers , 1998,
Abstract: Theory: The adoption of EC secondary legislation can be analyzed from the perspective of agency theory whereby Member States and the Parliament delegate policy authority to the Commission and design ex-post control procedures (i.e. Comitology). Rational choice and sociological institutionalisms differ in their predictions on the way rules and norms affect the extent of executive discretion. Hypothesis: Three institutionalist hypotheses are tested. The rationalist one derives from a Bayesian game developed by the author. It posits that Commission s executive discretion in non amending secondary legislation is a function of: 1) formal legislative procedure, 2) information asymmetry and 3) distribution of principals preferences. A fourth variable, legislative instrument, is also included. The diluted rationalist hypothesis substitutes formal with informal procedure in one policy area. The socio-rational hypothesis adds two new variables, that is the opinions of the Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee. A final co-graduation test is conducted on whether more discretion leads to more stringent ex-post control. Methods: Given the bimodal error structure of the regression model, I have bootstrapped the regression coefficients and computed the 95% confidence intervals of the null hypothesis. Bootstrapping has also been used to test the role of the European Parliament, of opinions and the co-graduation between discretion and ex-post control. A stratified sample of non amending secondary legislation adopted from 1987 to 1993 has been drawn to test the hypotheses. Results: The diluted rationalist hypothesis is the most accurate. Information asymmetry, informal legislative procedures and legislative instruments are statistically and substantively relevant in explaining executive discretion. Distribution of preferences has weak explanatory power probably because of the lack of reliable data and appropriate measurement. The Parliament and opinions do not relevantly affect Commission s discretion. More discretion leads to more confining ex-post control.
Executive Control of Attention in Narcolepsy  [PDF]
Sophie Bayard, Muriel Croisier Langenier, Valérie Cochen De Cock, Sabine Scholz, Yves Dauvilliers
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033525
Abstract: Background Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network. We characterized the executive control of attention in drug-free patients with NC to determine whether the executive deficits observed in patients with NC are specific to the disease itself or whether they reflect performance changes due to the severity of excessive daytime sleepiness. Methodology Twenty-two patients with NC compared to 22 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC) matched for age, gender, intellectual level, objective daytime sleepiness and number of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) were studied. Thirty-two matched healthy controls were included. All participants underwent a standardized interview, completed questionnaires, and neuropsychological tests. All patients underwent a polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT), with neuropsychological evaluation performed the same day between MSLT sessions. Principal Findings Irrespective of diagnosis, patients reported higher self-reported attentional complaints associated with the intensity of depressive symptoms. Patients with NC performed slower and more variably on simple reaction time tasks than patients with NwC, who did not differ from controls. Patients with NC and NwC generally performed slower, reacted more variably, and made more errors than controls on executive functioning tests. Individual profile analyses showed a clear heterogeneity of the severity of executive deficit. This severity was related to objective sleepiness, higher number of SOREMPs on the MSLT, and lower intelligence quotient. The nature and severity of the executive deficits were unrelated to NC and NwC diagnosis. Conclusions We demonstrated that drug-free patients with NC and NwC complained of attention deficit, with altered executive control of attention being explained by the severity of objective sleepiness and global intellectual level. Further studies are needed to explore whether medications that promote wakefulness can improve the executive functions in narcolepsy.
Executive Functions and Prefrontal Cortex: A Matter of Persistence?  [PDF]
Gareth Ball,Subrata K. Bose,Iead Rezek,Alle-Meije Wink,Louis-David Lord,Mitul A. Mehta,Federico E. Turkheimer
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2011.00003
Abstract: Executive function is thought to originates from the dynamics of frontal cortical networks. We examined the dynamic properties of the blood oxygen level dependent time-series measured with functional MRI (fMRI) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to test the hypothesis that temporally persistent neural activity underlies performance in three tasks of executive function. A numerical estimate of signal persistence, the Hurst exponent, postulated to represent the coherent firing of cortical networks, was determined and correlated with task performance. Increasing persistence in the lateral PFC was shown to correlate with improved performance during an n-back task. Conversely, we observed a correlation between persistence and increasing commission error – indicating a failure to inhibit a prepotent response – during a Go/No-Go task. We propose that persistence within the PFC reflects dynamic network formation and these findings underline the importance of frequency analysis of fMRI time-series in the study of executive functions.
Muhammad Iqbal,Khurram Hayat,Khalid Zaman,Muhammad Rafaqat
International Journal of Information, Business and Management , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop and test a model of the determinants of executive compensation and its impact on organizational performance for a unique sample of Pakistani Companies. A questionnaire was developed for the proposed study and was used to measure Executive Compensation against these determinants. The sample consists of 63 executives from the organizations of Pakistan i.e., Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi. The result indicated that measures job complexity, employer’s ability to pay and executive human capital gives details of a significant explanation of the variance in the executive compensation. After data collection process, the given data was tabulated. Data was analyzed through Regression Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis and Correlation tests. Collectively the independent variables accounted for almost 67% of the variance. The result indicates that company size is closely related to job complexity and employer’s ability to pay. Both these variables succeed to capture the variance in executive compensation accounted for company size.
Attentional performance and executive functions in children with learning difficulties
Lima, Ricardo Franco de;Azoni, Cíntia Alves Salgado;Ciasca, Sylvia Maria;
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-79722011000400008
Abstract: studies have described changes in visual attention and executive function in children with developmental dyslexia. this study intended to compare the performance of children with and without learning difficulties on tasks of visual attention and executive functions. the participants were 23 students, aged between 9 and 14 years old, with a mean age of 10.8 years. they were divided into three groups: (a) with learning difficulties; (b) with dyslexia; and (c) control (without any difficulty). for the evaluation, tests of cancellation, trail making test, stroop color-word test and tower of london test were used. the results indicated that children with dyslexia had the worst performance on different measures of attention and executive functions, indicating that such changes may be characteristic of the disorder and keep the deficit in the phonological component of language.
The Role of Executive Functions in Language Comprehension in Preschool Children  [PDF]
Sanja ?imle?a, Maja Cepanec, Marta Ljube?i?
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.82013
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among various aspects of executive functions (inhibitory control, working memory, planning and cognitive flexibility) and language comprehension in preschool children. The final sample included 203 children, four or five years old, with average nonverbal cognitive development. The measuring instruments for assessment of the children’s executive functions were Grass/Snow task; Inhibition task (NEPSY-II); Digit Span task; CANTAB tasks and Dimensional Change Card Sort. The Reynell Developmental Language Scales were used for the assessment of language comprehension. The results showed that the only significant predictors of language comprehension were verbal working memory, as measured by the Digit Span task, and inhibitory control, as measured by the Grass/Snow task. This study emphasises the importance of inhibitory control and working memory for language comprehension in preschool children.
Physical and Motor Fitness, Sport Skills and Executive Function in Adolescents: A Moderated Prediction Model  [PDF]
Rosalba Marchetti, Roberta Forte, Marco Borzacchini, Spyridoula Vazou, Phillip D. Tomporowski, Caterina Pesce
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.614189
Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that fitness and sport expertise jointly benefit cognition and that expertise in cognitively demanding strategic sports enhances both domain-specific cognition and domain-general cognitive function, the executive. However, research focusing on whether physical and motor fitness and sport skill are independent determinants of executive function efficiency, or interact with each other is still lacking. The present study investigated this issue in adolescents. Four hundred and eleven boys and girls aged 12 to 15 years were recruited from Italian schools. They were tested for 1) physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscle power); 2) motor control and perceptual-motor adaptation ability (kinaesthetic discrimination and response orientation ability); 3) core executive functions (inhibition and working memory updating); 4) game skills in team sport (decision making and support). While working memory updating was predicted only by physical fitness, inhibition was predicted by game skill, physical fitness and response orientation ability, and by the interaction of these latter ones. Fitness level significantly moderated the prediction accrued by response orientation ability, with inhibition predicted only in the presence of higher physical fitness. The present findings support the view that there are other pathways through which sport practice influences executive function beside the well-known physical fitness/executive function relationship. Alternatives include those linking executive function to the ability to perform coordinated movements in response to environmental cues and to the ability to perform cognitively challenging, strategic actions as needed in sport game situations. Also, the findings highlight that different executive functions are differently linked to physical fitness, motor fitness and sport proficiency.
Civil Society Report to the Commission on Social Determinants of Health  [cached]
Representatives of Civil Society
Social Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: A hundred and fifty years after his death we continue to be reminded of Virchow’s comment: “Do we not always find the diseases of the populace traceable to defects in society”? We continue to seek “defects in society” that need to be remedied if health is to be given its rightful place. Today, more so than ever before, we are reminded that, ultimately, politics played out at the global scale, determines whether people live or die. Civil Society welcomes the opportunity provided by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) to explore these issues in detail. Civil Society has been consistent in arguing for an approach to health that echoes Virchow’s famous words.
Executive Functions in Chronic Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  [PDF]
Laura Zamarian,Eugen Trinka,Elisabeth Bonatti,Giorgi Kuchukhidze,Thomas Bodner,Thomas Benke,Florian Koppelstaetter,Margarete Delazer
Epilepsy Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/596174
Abstract: There is no consensus as to whether mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) leads to executive function deficits. In this study, we adopted an extensive neuropsychological test battery and assessed different executive functions in chronic, unilateral MTLE. Performance of MTLE patients was compared with that of healthy peers and with normative data. Several MTLE patients had scores below cut-off or below the 10th percentile of normative data. Scores of the whole patient group were overall in the average range of normative data. Relative to controls, MTLE patients performed poorly in tests of working memory, cognitive flexibility, categorical verbal fluency, set-shifting, categorization, and planning. These findings raise an important methodological issue as they suggest that executive function deficits in chronic MTLE may be individually variable and that their assessment should include different tests. Deficits in chronic MTLE are not limited to temporal lobe functions, such as memory, but may extend to extra temporal cognitive domains, such as executive functions. 1. Introduction Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is possibly the most frequent form of epilepsy [1] and is associated with overt or subtle structural abnormalities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala [2]. Recent investigations have suggested that functional and structural abnormalities in MTLE may extend beyond the temporal lobes. Volume reduction has been observed in extratemporal areas such as thalamus, caudate nuclei, lenticular nuclei, corpus callosum, and frontal lobes (for a review, see [3]). Alterations of frontotemporal white matter tracts [4] and of neurotransmitter systems [5] have also been reported. Metabolic changes have been observed not only in mesial and lateral temporal areas, but also in the prefrontal cortex [6] and in subcortical structures [7, 8]. Thalamus, basal ganglia, and frontal lobes are part of corticosubcortical circuits that are involved in the regulation of motor functions, behavior, and cognitive functions such as set-shifting, planning, and inhibitory control [9, 10]. As increasing evidence points to functional and structural alterations of these corticosubcortical circuits, it may be expected that MTLE patients experience executive function deficits. The term “executive functions” refers to high-order cognitive functions which allow adaptation to nonroutine situations such as novel, conflicting, or complex tasks [11, 12]. Planning, set-shifting, strategic behavior, response initiation, and response inhibition are some of the cognitive
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