oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Status of micronutrient nutrition in Zimbabwe: A review
TH Gadaga, R Madzima, N Nembaware
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: More than 65% of the Zimbabwean population live in the rural areas and are food insecure especially due to droughts. The population experiences fluctuating levels of malnutrition including vitamin and mineral malnutrition. This paper constitutes a review of the micronutrient malnutrition status of the Zimbabwean population, focusing on the period from 1980 to 2006, using data from nutrition surveys, the demographic health surveys, sentinel surveillance and monitoring programmes. Data collated from the numerous surveys show that a significant proportion of children under 5 years of age, school children, pregnant and lactating women experience malnutrition. In 1999, 35.8% of children 12-71 months of age were vitamin A deficient (serum retinol <0.70μmol/L). In March 2005, 22.3% of targeted children received vitamin A capsules during routine visits to clinics for growth monitoring and immunisation. However, about 82% of the targeted children received vitamin A capsules during Child Health Days, which is therefore an effective strategy. More than 95% of households in the country have access to iodised salt, while the median urinary iodine in 2005 was about 200μg/L. In 1997, about 9% of the population were found to have less than 10μg/L serum ferritin leading to the conclusion that iron deficiency anaemia was of public health significance in Zimbabwe. About 31% of women of child bearing age were found to be anaemic in a 1999 survey leading to the expansion of iron tablet distribution during ante-natal visits. However, in 2005, 43% of pregnant women were taking iron supplements during pregnancy, with women in urban areas less likely to take iron supplements than women living in rural areas. There is need, therefore, to increase efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in the country. Fortification of vegetable oil with vitamin A is technically feasible and the vitamin is stable for up to 6 months at 23oC. With increasing evidence of other micronutrient deficiencies such as the B-group vitamins, fortification of staple foods, such maize meal, could be a long term strategy of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in Zimbabwe.
In-furrow inoculation of soybean as alternative to fungicide and micronutrient seed treatment
Campo, Rubens José;Araujo, Ricardo Silva;Mostasso, Fábio Luís;Hungria, Mariangela;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832010000400010
Abstract: soybean is a major grain crop in brazil, and yields can be considerably improved by inoculation with selected bradyrhizobium strains. however, the incompatibility between inoculation and seed treatments with fungicides and micronutrients represents a major barrier to the achievement of high rates of biological n2 fixation. inoculation practices that can alleviate the negative effects of agrochemicals must therefore be found and in-furrow inoculation seems to be an attractive alternative. this study reports the results of seven field experiments conducted in three growing seasons in brazil; three in soils previously cropped with inoculated soybean (> 104 cells g-1 of soil of bradyrhizobium), and four in areas where the crop was sown for the first time (< 102 cells g-1 of soil of bradyrhizobium). the compatibility with fungicides and micronutrients was compared in seeds inoculated with peat or liquid inoculants, or treated with different doses of liquid inoculant in-furrow. in areas with established bradyrhizobium populations, seed-applied agrochemicals did generally not affect nodulation, but also did not increase yields, while inoculation always increased n grain accumulation or yield, and n fertilizer decreased both nodulation and yield. where soybean was sown for the first time, the seed treatment with agrochemicals affected nodulation when applied together with peat or liquid inoculant. in-furrow inoculation alleviated the effects of seed treatment with agrochemicals; the best performance was achieved with high bradyrhizobium cell concentrations, with up to 2.5 million cells seed-1.
Micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries: A review of seven African countries.
N Drorbaugh, CG Neumann
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: In order to identify micronutrients likely to be deficient in food aid beneficiary populations and to guide the formulation of food aid products, this review was undertaken to summarize published data about micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries as compared to the general population in seven African countries (Niger, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). These countries were identified by SUSTAIN as having received significant quantities of United States Public Law 480 (P.L. 480) Title II fortified and blended food aid products from 2001– 2006. Information was drawn from agency reports, personal communications, national survey data, and academic literature, primarily published since the year 2000. Among food aid beneficiaries in these countries, vitamin A and iron deficiencies were most prevalent. Deficiencies in zinc, folate (particularly in pregnancy), vitamins B-12, C, and D, thiamine, riboflavin, and calcium are likely prevalent based on low intake and physical signs of deficiency documented in the literature. In some cases, food aid rations provide insufficient quantity and quality of micronutrients, especially when used over extended periods of time as the sole food source. In nearly all the countries reviewed, deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, iodine, and other micronutrients are also quite common in the general population (those not receiving food aid). Micronutrient status information for food aid beneficiaries came mainly from studies in refugee/emergency settings, with few published studies found documenting the nutritional status of non-emergency food aid recipients. Useful insights were obtained by the review although limited micronutrient data were available for food aid beneficiaries. The micronutrient status of food aid beneficiaries should be monitored, with food aid products formulated to match the deficiencies present. Where possible, the use of anthropometry, simplified dietary assessment methods, and physical inspection are recommended to estimate micronutrient status where biochemical tests are not feasible. Agencies that currently monitor the nutritional status of food aid recipients are urged to make reports available to researchers, relief agencies, and the public.
Review of the current treatments for leishmaniases
Lindoso JA, Costa JM, Queiroz IT, Goto H
Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRTM.S24764
Abstract: f the current treatments for leishmaniases Review (1779) Total Article Views Authors: Lindoso JA, Costa JM, Queiroz IT, Goto H Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:3 Pages 69 - 77 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRTM.S24764 Received: 12 March 2012 Accepted: 23 May 2012 Published: 27 July 2012 José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso,1 Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa,2 Igor Thiago Queiroz,3 Hiro Goto4 1Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas-SES- SP, S o Paulo, S o Paulo, Brazil; 2Centro de Pesquisas Gon alo Moniz, Funda o Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 3Departament of Infectious Diseases, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de S o Paulo, S o Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 4Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S o Paulo, and Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de S o Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Leishmaniases are vector-borne zoonotic diseases that are prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas in the world, with two million new cases occurring yearly. Visceral and tegumentary forms of leishmaniasis are known. The latter form may present as localized cutaneous or mucosal forms, disseminated, diffuse forms, or leishmaniasis recidiva cutis. Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by parasites of the species Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani and L. (L.) infantum, and tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by 15 other species, with distinct distributions in the Old and New World. The varied clinical manifestations, the multitude of Leishmania species, and the increasing incidence of HIV coinfection make the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniases complex. Since there are no solid data relating clinical manifestations, treatment outcomes and Leishmania species the decision regarding the best therapeutic option is almost entirely based on clinical manifestations. Because most of the literature is focused on leishmaniasis in the Old World, in this review we present data on the treatment of New World leishmaniasis in more detail. Ranked therapeutic options, clinical trials, and also observations, even with a restricted number of subjects, on treatment outcome of visceral and different forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis, are presented. Treatment for leishmaniasis in HIV-coinfected patients is addressed as well. Some of these data strongly suggest that the differences in the outcome of the treatment are related to the Leishmania species. Therefore, although it is not possible at most points of care to identify the species causing the infection – a process that requires a well equipped laboratory – the infecting species should be identified whenever possible. More recent approaches, such as the use of immunomodulators and immunotherapy, and the lines for development of new candidate drugs are mentioned.
Review of the current treatments for leishmaniases  [cached]
Lindoso JA,Costa JM,Queiroz IT,Goto H
Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso,1 Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa,2 Igor Thiago Queiroz,3 Hiro Goto41Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas-SES- SP, S o Paulo, S o Paulo, Brazil; 2Centro de Pesquisas Gon alo Moniz, Funda o Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 3Departament of Infectious Diseases, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de S o Paulo, S o Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 4Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S o Paulo, and Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de S o Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Leishmaniases are vector-borne zoonotic diseases that are prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas in the world, with two million new cases occurring yearly. Visceral and tegumentary forms of leishmaniasis are known. The latter form may present as localized cutaneous or mucosal forms, disseminated, diffuse forms, or leishmaniasis recidiva cutis. Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by parasites of the species Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani and L. (L.) infantum, and tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by 15 other species, with distinct distributions in the Old and New World. The varied clinical manifestations, the multitude of Leishmania species, and the increasing incidence of HIV coinfection make the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniases complex. Since there are no solid data relating clinical manifestations, treatment outcomes and Leishmania species the decision regarding the best therapeutic option is almost entirely based on clinical manifestations. Because most of the literature is focused on leishmaniasis in the Old World, in this review we present data on the treatment of New World leishmaniasis in more detail. Ranked therapeutic options, clinical trials, and also observations, even with a restricted number of subjects, on treatment outcome of visceral and different forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis, are presented. Treatment for leishmaniasis in HIV-coinfected patients is addressed as well. Some of these data strongly suggest that the differences in the outcome of the treatment are related to the Leishmania species. Therefore, although it is not possible at most points of care to identify the species causing the infection – a process that requires a well equipped laboratory – the infecting species should be identified whenever possible. More recent approaches, such as the use of immunomodulators and immunotherapy, and the lines for development of new candidate drugs are mentioned.Keywords: tegumentary, visceral, therapy, HIV
Effect of Seed Treatments and Root Pathogens on Seedling Establishment and Yield of Alfalfa, Birdsfoot Trefoil and Sweetclover  [PDF]
Sheau-Fang Hwang,Heping Wang,Bruce D. Gossen,George D. Turnbull
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Soil-borne fungal pathogens can reduce stand density in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) by reducing seedling establishment and subsequent stand longevity. Fungicide seed treatments containing metalaxyl and fludioxonil were examined in inoculated greenhouse and field tests to determine their efficacy against seedling blight and root rot caused by Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani. Inoculation increased disease severity and reduced establishment, especially in field trials inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani. Under controlled conditions, fludioxonil (alone or in a formulation with metalaxyl) was effective against either pathogen in inoculated trials-seed treatment consistently increased seedling survival and reduced root rot on all three forage species. However, seed treatment had little impact on subsequent forage yield under field conditions. Metalaxyl alone was not efficacious. In fields with high pathogen populations, application of fludioxonil seed treatment on forage legume species could improve seedling establishment substantially.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Seed Oil Methods of Extraction and its Prospects in Cosmetic Industry: A Review
AA Warra
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The relative abundance of sesame seed oil coupled with the little knowledge of its cosmetic usage prompted the need for this review. The aim is to discuss the various extraction methods of the sesame seed oil and its industrial applications particularly its application in cosmetic production. The review focused mainly on the traditional African methods of extraction and the utilization of the seed oil in soap making and production of skin moisturizers.
Comparison the Effect of Different Treatments for Breaking Seed Dormancy of Citrullus colocynthis  [cached]
Morteza Saberi,Alireza Shahriari,Farajollah Tarnian,Soheila Noori
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v3n4p62
Abstract: Citrullus colocynthis is one of the major medic plants and it has many medical values. This plant adopts in desert regions and specifically in sand dunes. Forasmuch as seeds of this plant germinate not easily, so in this research tried to study about effect of different treatments for breaking seed dormancy, germination stimulus and growth of Citrullus colocynthis seeds. The treatments were include sulfuric acid 98% in 20 and 40 minutes time intervals, potassium nitrate 0.2% within 72 hours, hot water in 90 centigrade degree during 10 minutes and scratching by sand paper. For comparing this treatments and normal germination is used distilled water for control. Experiments were performed in a completely randomized design with four repetitions and six treatments. Results of variance analysis and mean comparison showed that there are significant statistical differences (0.01 levels) between treatments for percentage and velocity of germination, length of the Root and Shoot. The maximum percentage and velocity of germination and length of the Shoot obtain in scratching by sand paper treatment and results of other treatments were in lower level than this one. According to got results determined that scratching is the most suitable method for dominance on seed dormancy of Citrullus colocynthis species.
Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots  [cached]
Hossein Reza ROUHI,Ali ABBASI SURKI,Farzad SHARIF-ZADEH,Reza Tavakkol AFSHARI
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2011,
Abstract: Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h) with control (none prime) were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. ‘Sari’ (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture). Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar) at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h) were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. ‘Sari’.
Effect of Genotypes and Pre-Sowing Treatments on Seed Germination Behavior of Jatropha  [PDF]
A.K.M.A. Islam,N. Anuar,Z. Yaakob
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The objective of the study was to explore the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on germination behaviour and to assess the possibilities of increasing the germination rate of Jatropha curcas. Seeds of twenty jatropha accessions obtained from seven different sources were subjected to three pre-sowing treatments viz., control (T0): unsoaked seeds directly sown in the polybag and apply water up to saturation; T1: seed placed on filter paper in the petridis and moistened once with the water; and T2: seeds kept under stone sand and moistened once with the water. Seeds in T1 and T2 were kept for 72 h before sown in the polybag. The study was conducted in the Glass House of Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Study revealed that pre-sowing treatments significantly (p<0.01) enhanced seed germination parameters of Jatropha. Seed germination started 5 days after sowing and continued up to 12 days. The highest germination percentage (95.85%) was observed in T2 and 100% germination was observed in the genotypes viz., UKM-JC-011, UKM-JC-012, UKM-JC-014, UKM-JC-016 and UKM-JC-020 in T1 and T2. None of the genotypes showed 100% germination in T0. The highest Germination Index (GI) and Seedling Vigor Index (SVI) was found in T2 and the lowest in T0. T2 was found more effective in respect to faster germination, high germination percentage, germination index, seedling vigor index, speed and energy of germination. Five accessions viz., UKM-JC-012, UKM-JC-014, UKM-JC-016, UKM-JC-017 and UKM-JC-019 were found suitable in all the treatments including control.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.