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Bioactive Metabolites from Spilanthes acmella Murr.  [PDF]
Supaluk Prachayasittikul,Saowapa Suphapong,Apilak Worachartcheewan,Ratana Lawung,Somsak Ruchirawat,Virapong Prachayasittikul
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14020850
Abstract: Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Compositae) has been used as a traditional medicine for toothache, rheumatism and fever. Its extracts had been shown to exhibit vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities. Herein, its antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated. Agar dilution method assays against 27 strains of microorganisms were performed. Results showed that fractions from the chloroform and methanol extracts inhibited the growth of many tested organisms, e.g. Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC 10356 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64-256 mg/mL and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 with MIC of 128-256 mg/mL. The tested fractions all exhibited antioxidant properties in both DPPH and SOD assays. Potent radical scavenging activity was observed in the DPPH assay. No cytotoxic effects of the extracts against KB and HuCCA-1 cell lines were evident. Bioassay-guided isolation resulted in a diverse group of bioactive compounds such as phenolics [vanillic acid (2), trans-ferulic acid (5) and trans-isoferulic acid (6)], coumarin (scopoletin, 4) and triterpenoids like 3-acetylaleuritolic acid (1), b-sitostenone (3), stigmasterol and stigmasteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides, in addition to a mixture of stigmasteryl-and b-sitosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides. The compounds 1–6 represent bioactive metabolites of S. acmella Murr. that were never previously reported. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the potential benefits of this medicinal plant as a rich source of high therapeutic value compounds for medicines, cosmetics, supplements and as a health food.
Vasorelaxant and Antioxidant Activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr.  [PDF]
Orapin Wongsawatkul,Supaluk Prachayasittikul,Chartchalerm Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya,Jutamaad Satayavivad,Somsak Ruchirawat,Virapong Prachayasittikul
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijms9122724
Abstract: This study reports the effect of Spilanthes acmella Murr. extracts on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as their antioxidant activity. Results show that the extracts exert maximal vasorelaxations in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects are less than acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. Significant reduction of vasorelaxations is observed in both NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). In the presence of L-NAME plus INDO, synergistic effects are observed, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both acetylcholine and the extracts. Similarly, the vasorelaxations of the extracts are completely abolished upon the removal of endothelial cells. This demonstrates that the extracts exhibit vasorelaxation via partially endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin in a dose-dependent manner. Significantly, the ethyl acetate extract exerts immediate vasorelaxation (ED50 76.1 ng/mL) and is the most potent antioxidant (DPPH assay). The chloroform extract shows the highest vasorelaxation and antioxidation (SOD assay). These reveal a potential source of vasodilators and antioxidants.
Rapid plant regeneration from nodal explants of Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murr. - an endangered medicinal plant  [PDF]
Kuldeep YADAV,Narender SINGH
Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie , 2012,
Abstract: Excised nodal explants of Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murr., ‘Toothache Plant’ proliferate rapidly in vitro on MS medium containing 0.5- 2.0 mg/l of BAP. Rapid and prolific shoot proliferation occurred. Regenerated shoots vary considerably in size (3-10 cm long) and relative stage of development, with some (50%) producing adventitious roots without transferal to a separate rooting medium. With maximum possibility of adventitious roots induction was induced from middle order nodes (3 rd to 5 th node from apex) obtained from 3 months old in vivo plant on full-strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP under the photoperiod of 18-h. The possibility of adventitious roots induction directly from regenerated shoot was greatly influenced by the concentration of BAP, photoperiod, age of donor plant and nodal position on stem.
Preliminary studies on local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. in experimental animal models  [cached]
Chakraborty A,Devi B.R.K,Sanjebam R,Khumbong S
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Objective : Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Family: Compositae) is a herb that grows throughout the tropics. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, fever, sore throat, and hemorrhoids. A tincture of the flowers is used to relieve toothache. The leaves and flowers produce numbness of the tongue when eaten as salad. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of S. acmella in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Aqueous extract of S. acmella Murr. (SAM) was tested for local anesthetic action by (i) intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs and (ii) plexus anesthesia in frogs. In both the models, 2% xylocaine was used as the standard drug. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Aspirin 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Result : The test drug in concentrations of 10% and 20% produced 70.36% and 87.02% anesthesia respectively by the intracutaneous wheal compared to 97.22% anesthetic effect produced by 2% xylocaine (P<0.001). The mean onset of anesthesia with the test drug was 5.33±0.57 min compared to 2.75±0.31 min (P<0.001) for the standard drug in the plexus anesthesia model. In the anti-pyretic model, ASA in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg produced dose-dependent reduction in mean temperature at various hours of observation. Conclusion : The present study shows that SAM has significant local anesthetic and antipyretic activities.
In vitro flowering of shoots regenerated from cultured nodal explants of Spilanthes acmella Murr. - an ornamental cum medicinal herb  [PDF]
Kuldeep YADAV,Narender SINGH
Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie , 2011,
Abstract: An efficient protocol for in vitro flowering of Spilanthes acmella Murr., a medicinally valuable plant, has been developed. Multiple shoot formation of up to 4 shoots was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg/l). Regenerated shoots were subcultured cultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of BAP alone or in combination with IAA. Presence of BAP in the culture medium was observed to be absolutely essential for induction of flower. Maximum percentage (50 %) of flower induction occurred when regenerated shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l) + IAA (0.5 mg/l) under photoperiod of 16/8 h (light/dark cycle).The 3-week intervals for three consecutive subcultures on this medium were efficient for flower induction. The regenerated shoots rooted best on 1/2 MS medium containing IBA (1.0 mg/l). Rooted plantlets were hardened and established in pots with 70% survival rate.
Insecticidal Toxicity of Spilanthol from Spilanthes acmella Murr. against Plutella xylostella L.  [PDF]
Anuradha Sharma, Vishal Kumar, Rameshwar Singh Rattan, Neeraj Kumar, Bikram Singh
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.311189
Abstract: The present study explored the Spilanthes acmella Murr. for insecticidal principle, a plant of high value. The seed extract showed insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella. Further, bioassay guided isolation of bioactive compounds resulted in insecticidal active molecule, which was identified with the help of ESI-MS and NMR. Highest activity of 95 - 100 percent was observed at low dose of 2 g/l with spilanthol, while 60 - 70 and 80 - 90 percent mortality at 5 g/l in crude seed extracts prepared in methanol and hexane after 48 hours exposure, respectively. LC50 of 1.49, 5.14, 5.04, 11.75 g/l was observed with spilanthol, crude seed extract of methanol, hexane, deltamethrin, respectively. The findings indicate the potential of S. acmella with potent insecticidal toxicity for the management of P. xylostella and other insects of agricultural importance.
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Spilanthes acmella: A Review  [PDF]
Suchita Dubey,Siddhartha Maity,Mahendra Singh,Shubhini A. Saraf,Sudipta Saha
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/423750
Abstract: Spilanthes acmella is an important medicinal plant, found in tropical and subtropical countries mainly India and South America. Popularly, it is known as toothache plant which reduces the pain associated with toothaches and can induce saliva secretion. Various extracts and active metabolites from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. Literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions, which include antifungal, antipyretic, local anaesthetic, bioinsecticide, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, analgesic, pancreatic lipase inhibitor, antimicrobial, antinociception, diuretic, vasorelaxant, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, toothache relieve and anti-inflammatory effects. This review is elaborately describing the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of this plant. This review would assist researchers to search scientific information in the future. 1. Introduction The increasing demand on herbal medicines and their acceptance in international market because of potent pharmacological potential and high therapeutic value have been proving to be real blessing to the people. However, efforts are needed to explore, standardise, and validate ayurvedic medicines for their potency, safety, and efficacy in order to bring them to market as main line therapeutics. Spilanthes acmella refers to the important medicinal plant distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions around the world with rich source of therapeutic and medicinal constituents. The main constituents, namely, “spilanthol” and “acmellonate”, are sometimes used to reduce the pain associated with toothaches and can induce saliva secretion [1, 2]. Other important traditional uses of this herb are the following: treatment of rheumatism, as a sialagogue for stammering, tongue paralysis, antipyretic, sore throat, and gum infections [3], and as an antipyretie herb. Spilanthes acmella has been well documented for its uses as spices, as antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antimalarial, treatment, and as remedy for toothache, flu, cough, rabies diseases, and tuberculosis [2, 4]. 2. Traditional Uses This plant is very popular among the ancient tribal community; special food item is prepared from this plant in religious festival. The poor people offered this plant along with the “Ajeng Dues” in Dobur Uie [5]. In particular, this plant is famous as a folklore remedy for toothache and for throat and gum infections [6]. The flowers are crushed and applied at the site of toothache, particularly in “Irula tribe of Hasanur
Antifungal potential of flower head extract of Spilanthes acmella Linn
S Rani, S Murty
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2006,
Abstract: Different concentrations of Spilanthes acmella flower head extract were evaluated for antifungal activity (0.1 to 2.0 mg). The diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 0.1 to 2.3 cm with the increase in concentration of test solution. In all the organisms, the maximum zone of inhibition was observed at 2000mg concentration. Among different fungal species, high inhibition zones were observed in Fusarium oxysporium (2.3 cm) and Fusarum moniliformis. (2.1 cm) followed by Aspergillus niger (2.0) and Aspergillus paraciticus (1.8 cm). (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 9: 67– 68, January 2006)
Immunomodulatory potential of ethanol extract of spilanthus acmella leaves  [PDF]
Yadav Rajesh,Kharya Dhar Murli, Yadav Nita, Savadi Rudraprabhu
International Journal of Biological and Medical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Aims: Ethanol extract of leaves of Spilanthes acmella (SAEE) was evaluated for its immunomodulatory potential using various models like neutrophil adhesion (NA) test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in rats. Methods: The coarse powder (40-mesh) of shade dried leaves (500g) of Spilanthes acmella was subjected to maceration using 95% ethanol. Preliminary phytochemical tests were conducted for SAEE to identify the various phytoconstituents. Two doses of SAEE were selected and SAEE was administered orally at doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight to healthy rats. The assessment of immunomodulatory potential was carried out by testing the humoral (antibody titre) and cellular (foot pad swelling) immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBC (SRBC) and by neutrophil adhesion test. Clean tap water was served as a control in all the tests. Results: Orally administered SAEE showed a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion, haemagglutinating antibody titre (HAT) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In rats immunized with sheep RBC, SAEE enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen and significantly potentiated the cellular immunity by facilitating the footpad thickness response to sheep RBC in sensitized rats. With a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight the values of NA, HAT and DTH responses were statistically significant as compared to control. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the immunomodulatory potential of Spilanthes acmella in rats. The responses were statistically significant when they were compared to control.
T. Shafi Thompson et al.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: This study aimed to discover the antibacterial effect of Acmella oleraceae against dental caries bacteria and aware the populace about the importance of using phytomedicines. According to this study, the antibacterial effects of Acmella oleraceae was checked against the dental caries bacteria using well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of Acmella oleracea checked with chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water and acetone extracts. Screening tests revealed that this plant is a big source of phytochemical compounds. The phytochemical analysis of Acmella oleracea is conducted using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC).Acetone solvent system of Acmella oleracea showed two spots with highest Rf value 0.922. Three compounds were obtained in the chloroform solvent system with highest Rf value of 0.744.
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