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FACTORES PSICOLóGICOS Y LESIONES DEPORTIVAS EN LUCHA OLíMPICA Y TAEKWONDO Psychological factors and sports injuries in olympic wrestling and taekwondo  [cached]
Rosendo Berengüí Gil,José M. López Gullón,Enrique J. Garcés de los Fayos Ruiz,Javier Almarcha Teruel
E-balonmano.com : Revista de Ciencias del Deporte , 2011,
Abstract: Resumen En los últimos a os ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la relación entre las variables psicológicas y las lesiones deportivas. Considerando éstas como acontecimientos negativos e inevitables en el contexto deportivo, en el presente estudio abordamos dos disciplinas que tradicionalmente han registrado altas cifras de incidencia, lucha olímpica y taekwondo. Con una muestra de 34 deportistas de ambas modalidades, los resultados más destacados indican puntuaciones similares, aunque algo superiores en todas las escalas del IPED (Inventario Psicológico de Ejecución Deportiva) en los practicantes de taekwondo, si bien no se obtienen diferencias estadísticamente significativas, al igual que en la comparación entre deportistas internacionales y competidores nacionales. El índice de lesión es de 2,42 lesiones por deportista y temporada en lucha, y de 2,60 en taekwondo, y se aprecian diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p< ,01) al comparar a deportistas de nivel nacional (1,90 lesiones) e internacionales (3,46 por temporada). También se obtienen correlaciones significativas entre el número de lesiones y las escalas del IPED Autoconfianza, Control de Afrontamiento Negativo y Control de Afrontamiento Positivo, siendo éstas de signo negativo. Palabras clave: Lesiones deportivas, lucha olímpica, taekwondo, psicología del deporte. Abstract In the last years it has increased the interest for the study of the relation between psychological factors and sport injuries. Considering these as negative and inevitable events in the sports context, in the present study we approach two disciplines that have traditionally experienced high incidence rates, Olympic wrestling and taekwondo. With a sample of 34 athletes of both modalities, the most important results indicate similar scores, though slightly higher on all scales of IPED (Sports Performance Psychological Inventory) in taekwondo, but statistically significant differences are not obtained, as in the comparison between international and national competitors athletes. The injury rate is 2,42 injuries for athlete and season in wrestling, and 2,60 in taekwondo, and they appreciate statistically significant differences (p <, 01) on having compared to athletes of national level (1,90 injuries) and international (3,46 for season). Significant correlations have been also obtained between the number of injuries and the scales of the IPED Self-confidence, Negative Energy Control and Positive Energy Control, being these of negative sign. Key words: Sports injuries, olympic wrestling, taekwondo, sport psycho
Kinathropometric profile of recreational taekwondo athletes  [PDF]
K Chan,W Pieter,K Moloney
Biology of Sport , 2003,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to profile recreational taekwondo athletes in terms of somatotpye and body composition. Subjects (10 males and 10 females) were recruited from local taekwondo clubs in London, UK. Measurements taken included height, weight, girths, breadths and skinfold thicknesses at 6 sites. Body composition was expressed in terms of reverse ponderal index (RPI), sum of skinfolds as well as proportional weight and proportional sum of skinfolds. The data were analyzed by T-tests with a Dunn-Sidak-adjusted alpha. Although no difference was found in somatotype attitudinal distance (SAD) (P>0.05), the women had a higher endomorphy (6.3±1.5) rating than the men (4.2±1.1) (t=-3.485, P=0.011). No differences were found in the meso- and ectomorphy components (P>0.05). There was no difference in RPI, indicating that the women did not carry more weight for height. However, the females (135.8±34.9 mm) had a significantly higher absolute sum of six skinfolds than the males (77.0±23.2 mm) (P=0.002) even when scaled to Phantom height (68.7±8.3 mm and 62.3±5.7 mm for women and men, respectively) (P<0.001). Comparisons with elite taekwondo athletes seem to suggest that sexual dimorphism in somatotype and body composition is apparent regardless of competition level.
2012 Olympic Games Decision Making Technologies for Taekwondo Competition  [cached]
Rene Leveaux
Communications of the IBIMA , 2012,
Abstract: Leading up to the 2012 Olympic Games the demands for transparency and correctness in referee decision making in the sport of taekwondo increased dramatically to the extent where differing technologies were implemented for the first time at the Olympic level in London. This post Olympic research examines the impacts of those technologies on one sector of the sport’s stakeholders – referees. The study was conducted through discussion groups and interviews with elite level international referees (n=31). The findings present that via the diligent use and application of the technologies, provided mechanisms to greatly improve the correctness of decisions by being an effective aid to the referee’s decision making process, which contributed to the success of the event. Further it can be seen that with the implementation and use of these technologies, competition can now be provided on a fairer platform, in turn leading to a greater improvement in player performance and providing a more attractive competition. These findings provide a platform for further studies including trials utilizing more advanced technologies to further increase the transparency and correctness of referee decision making.
Boxing Competitors Being the Exception; Judo, 1500 m Running, and Marathon Running Competitors at the 2012 London Olympic Games Held Inadequate Ages, Heights and/or Weights That Contributed to the Humiliating Defeats of Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
André Mukala Nsengu Tshibangu
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2015.54034
Abstract: There exist many factors that may have influenced the performance of the only four Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) competitors at the 2012 London Olympic Games. However, in the present article, the attention is focused only on available anthropometric factors. Computer carried out the analysis of the ages, heights and/or weights of all the competitors of some divisions at the 2012 London Olympic Games [super heavyweight male boxers (more than 91 kg); male judokas weighing 100 kg and over; women who ran the 1500 m race; and men who ran the marathon]. An examined clip showed the contribution of factors others than anthropometric to the early defeat of the Congolese boxer Mwamba Meji at the 2012 London Olympic Games (inadequate wearing of boxing helmet, wearing of boots inappropriate to boxing practice, the imperfection of boxing guard, errors of tactics, face showing fear of the opponent’s attacks). None of the three aforesaid anthropometric factors contributed to the boxer’s defeat. Inadequate anthropometric factors that caused early defeats of the three other Congolese competitors at the 2012 London Olympic Games were: 1) the relative age of the male judoka Mandembo Cedric when compared with that of his opponent, and his too short absolute height; 2) the too young age, the too short height and the too light weight of the 1500 m female runner Ilunga Sankuru Chancel; as well as 3) the too young age and the too short height of the marathon male runner Ilunga Zatara Mande.
Kinanthropometric profile of cuban women olympic volleyball champions  [cached]
Wiliam Carvajal,Hamlet Betancourt,Sofia León,Yanel Deturnel
MEDICC Review , 2012,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. OBJECTIVE: Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. METHODS: Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using p<0.05 as significance threshold. Results were presented in tables and figures. RESULTS: Centers presented greater absolute size and higher average adipose (22.8±1.7 kg) and bone (7.1±0.6 kg) mass. The mean somatotype of all volleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly taller (187.1±2.5 cm) than players in other positions. Centers' percent adipose tissue mass (28.9±2.7%) was significantly higher than that of setters (24.3±2.7%), who were leanest of all positions. CONCLUSIONS: The kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions was defined by considerable muscular-skeletal development, with a predominantly mesomorphic somatotype and low endomorphy. Height and body composition varied significantly by playing position.
Olympic message: Olympic ideology and Olympic social reality.  [cached]
NIKOLAOS PATSANTARAS
Choregia , 2008,
Abstract: Olympic sports constitute an exceptionally complex and multidimensional social space, particularly in the framework of accelerated social transformations. The social meaning of Olympic communication has radically been transformed, principally during the last two decades. The influences of other social spaces such as the economy, the mass media and politics have lead to a notional heterogeneia of modern Olympic sports semantics. Today, Olympic institutions and organizational configurations direct their interests exclusively towards economic structures. In other words, implemented without reservations are all the processes that support the commercial profile of Olympic sports and promote it as a commercial-entertainment spectacle. As a result serious contradictions and inconsistencies arise between today’s Olympic social reality and the values advocated by the Olympic movement and the Olympic Charter. Olympic communication practices are primarily connected to economic interests,and as a result it is difficult to define them as conveyors and as means of reflection for foundational social and ethical values. Consequently, the original messages advocated by the 19th century Olympic movement– and in particular by Coubertin with regard to Olympism and Olympic Education– are not reproduced and reactivated in today’s Olympic social reality. Inevitably questions arise such as (1) What is the meaning of Olympic ideology, Olympism and Olympic Education? (2) Is there a discrepancy or a lack of correspondence between the social and ethical values advocated by the Olympic movement and Olympic social reality?
Kinanthropometric profile of cuban women olympic volleyball champions
Carvajal,Wiliam; Betancourt,Hamlet; León,Sofia; Deturnel,Yanel; Martínez,Miriam; Echevarría,Ivis; Castillo,María Eugenia; Serviat,Noemí;
MEDICC Review , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1555-79602012000200006
Abstract: introduction: athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. as in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. from 1992 through 2000, the cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive summer olympic games. objective: describe the kinanthropometric profiles of cuban women olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. methods: measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. all were members of the national team that participated in the summer olympic games in barcelona (1992), atlanta (1996) and sydney (2000). mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using p<0.05 as significance threshold. results were presented in tables and figures. results: centers presented greater absolute size and higher average adipose (22.8±1.7 kg) and bone (7.1±0.6 kg) mass. the mean somatotype of all volleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. on assessing somatotype attitudinal mean (sam), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that o
PHYSIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ELITE TRIATHLETES: A COMPARISON BETWEEN YOUNG AND PROFESSIONAL COMPETITORS
Díaz, Víctor,Zapico, Augusto G.,Peinado, Ana B.,álvarez, María
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the present work was to compare the cardiorespiratory response of two high level groups of triathletes of different age during a simulation of a cycling-running succession. The two groups, G1 (n=6; age 23.8 ± 5.6 years; weight 71.2 ± 8.7 kg; height 180.0 ± 8.8 cm) and G2 (n=9; age 15.2 ± 0.7 years; weight 60.2 ± 6.8 kg; height 173.6 ± 6.4 cm) performed two tests in a random order. Trial 1 (C-R) consisted of 30 min cycling with a load corresponding to the ventilatory threshold previously calculated, followed by a 3000 m run at the highest possible intensity around a 400 m track. Trial 2 (R), consisted of a 3000 m run at the maximum intensity possible only. The G1 subjects took less time to complete the distance (591.2 compared to 669.1 s for the G2 subjects in the C-R setting, and 584.6 vs. 645.5 s in the R setting). In addition, the G1 subjects showed a more adapted cardiorespiratory response than the G2 subjects. In conclusion, the results show a profile in terms of cardiorespiratory response and performance for senior and young triathletes highly trained.
O processo de esportiviza o do taekwondo The sportization process of taekwondo Proceso de deportivización do taekwondo  [cached]
Gleyson Batista Rios
Pensar a Prática , 2006, DOI: 19806183/rpp.v8i1.103
Abstract: O Taekwondo é uma arte marcial milenar nascida e desenvolvida em estreita rela o com a história da Coréia do Sul. O processo de esportiviza o dessa arte inicia-se em 1964, período em que se expande pelo mundo, ganhando o território brasileiro. Atualmente, faz parte do quadro de modalidades olímpicas. Entretanto – entendendo as lutas (inclusive o Taekwondo) como parte da cultura corporal produzida pelo homem e, como tal, um conhecimento que precisa ser acessado pelas pessoas em sua história, analisando condi es, tens es e interesses que orientaram o seu processo de esportiviza o, a fim de colaborar para a redefini o dos elementos que dever o compor o universo de saberes, sentidos e significados relacionados ao Taekwondo em nossa realidade atual, sobretudo quando pensamos no contexto educacional –, procuramos sistematizar o conteúdo histórico dessa arte marcial, no sentido de facilitar o acesso a esse conhecimento. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: arte marcial – esporte – taekwondo. Taekwondo is a millennium-old martial art born and developed in strict relation with South Korean history. The process of sportization of this art begins in 1964, when it expands throughout the world, landing in Brazilian soil. It is currently part of the Olympic sports categories. We have tried to systematize the historical content of this martial art in order to facilitate the access to this body of knowledge, as we understand that martial arts (including Taekwondo) are part of the body culture produced by man and, as such, it is a knowledge that needs to be accessed by people in their history, analyzing the conditions, the tensions, and the interests that have guided its process of sportization, in order to contribute to the redefinition of the elements that will constitute the universe of knowledge, senses and meanings related to Taekwondo in our current reality, especially when we think of the educational context. KEY WORDS: martial arts – sports – taekwondo. El Taekwondo es un arte marcial milenar nacida y desarrollada en estrecha relación con la historia de Corea del Sur. El proceso de deportivización de ese arte se inicia en 1964, período en que se expande por el mundo, ganando el territorio brasile o. Actualmente, hace parte del cuadro de modalidades olímpicas. Sin embargo – entendiendo las luchas (inclusive el Taekwondo) como parte de la cultura corporal producida por el hombre y, como tal, un conocimiento que precisa ser accesado por las personas en su historia, analizando condiciones, tensiones e interés que orientaron su proceso de deportivización, a fin de colaborar para la
Match Analysis in a University Taekwondo Championship  [PDF]
Coral Falco, Raul Landeo, Cristina Menescardi, José Luis Bermejo, Isaac Estevan
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.21005
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the performance of medallists’ taekwondo athletes in University level Championship. Kicking actions were grouped into three categories; circular, linear and with a previous spin kicks. Performance was evaluated based on 1) the type and height of the kicks employed, 2) the attacking and counterattacking nature of the kicking actions and 3) the scoring profiles of these. Forty-five matches from the four Olympic weight categories were notationally analyzed in male and female populations. Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that the reading scores in the four weight categories differed significantly in males for linear kicks, and in circular kicks to the chest, attacking kicks and total actions (p < 0.05) for females. A greater number of circular kicks was recorded in male and female taekwondo athletes; this was followed by linear kicks and those with a previous spin. Kicks to the chest were also more common than kicks to the head as well as attacking kicks were used more frequently than counterattacking kicks. Given the new competition rules, coaches are encouraged to induce athletes to increase the frequency of kicks to the head and with a previous spin to maximise the point scoring rate per kicks delivered.
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