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Computer Security: Competing Concepts  [PDF]
Helen Nissenbaum,Batya Friedman,Edward Felten
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: This paper focuses on a tension we discovered in the philosophical part of our multidisciplinary project on values in web-browser security. Our project draws on the methods and perspectives of empirical social science, computer science, and philosophy to identify values embodied in existing web-browser security and also to prescribe changes to existing systems (in particular, Mozilla) so that values relevant to web-browser systems are better served than presently they are. The tension, which we had not seen explicitly addressed in any other work on computer security, emerged when we set out to extract from the concept of security the set values that ought to guide the shape of web-browser security. We found it impossible to construct an internally consistent set of values until we realized that two robust -- and in places competing -- conceptions of computer security were influencing our thinking. We needed to pry these apart and make a primary commitment to one. One conception of computer security invokes the ordinary meaning of security. According to it, computer security should protect people -- computer users -- against dangers, harms, and threats. Clearly this ordinary conception of security is already informing much of the work and rhetoric surrounding computer security. But another, substantively richer conception, also defines the aims and trajectory of computer security -- computer security as an element of national security. Although, like the ordinary conception, this one is also concerned with protection against threats, its primary subject is the state, not the individual. The two conceptions suggest divergent system-specifications, not for all mechanisms but a significant few.
Value Pluralism and the Two Concepts of Rights  [PDF]
Horacio Spector
Rationality, Markets and Morals , 2009,
Abstract: Philosophers and legal theorists still disagree about the correct analysis of 'rights', both moral and legal. The 'Will Theory' and the 'Interest Theory' - the two main views - can each account for various features of rights, but neither of them is totally satisfactory. The controversy has now been running for decades and seems irresolvable. I will contend in this paper that the discussion of 'value pluralism' in the Berlinian tradition can illuminate the debate over the concept of rights.
Competing Technologies: Disturbance, Selection, and the Possibilities of Lock-in  [PDF]
Loet Leydesdorff,Peter Van den Besselaar
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Arthur's (1988) model for competing technologies is discussed from the perspective of evolution theory. Using Arthur's own model for the simulation, we show that 'lock-ins' can be suppressed by adding reflexivity or uncertainty on the side of consumers. Competing technologies then tend to remain in competition. From an evolutionary perspective, lock-ins and prevailing equilibrium can be considered as different trajectories of the techno-economic systems under study. Our simulation results suggest that technological developments which affect the natural preferences of consumers do not induce changes in trajectory, while changes in network parameters of a technology sometimes induce ordered substitution processes. These substitution processes have been shown empirically (e.g., Fisher & Prey, 1971), but hitherto they have been insufficiently understood from the perspective of evolutionary modelling. Implications for technology policies are discussed.
Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysi  [cached]
Robert C. Aucoin
International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership , 2011,
Abstract: The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization, knowledge economy, and knowledge society. This emphasis creates an imbalance in opportunities for using ICTs in education and presents challenges for international educators. This paper discusses the Canadian International Development Agency’s report, CIDA’s Strategy on Knowledge for Development through Information and Communication Technologies, as an example of how rhetoric does not always meet reality. The paper concludes with four simple recommendations for good ICT practice in developing contexts.
Human Rights and Democracy in the Polish Abortion Debates: Concepts, Discourses, Subversions  [PDF]
Magdalena Zolkos
Essex Human Rights Review , 2006,
Abstract: This article analyzes debates about restrictive abortion legislation in Poland introduced in 1993. It studies these debates from the perspective of human rights and democratic conceptualizations constructed within three main abortion discourses in Poland: the pro-life national-Catholic discourse; the pro-choice liberal individual discourse;and the pro-choice feminist discourse. The point of departure of this article is the observation that while all these positions have invoked human rights and democratic rhetoric with strong positive implications, they have also pursued radically different interpretations of human rights and democracy. This article argues that, in the Polish post-communist abortion context, universal notions of human rights and democracy have become extremely powerful political instruments for the articulation of particular interests and identities. This article analyzes these notions as contingent, relational, and contextual. It also argues that the deficiencies and defects of the Polish abortion debate were not induced primarily by the great polarization, antagonism and adicalization of the pro-life and pro-choice discourses, but by attempts to align the concepts of human rights and democracywith one particular political-moral option, and consequently to lock these concepts outside the political.
Concepts and Technologies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Rock Salt
Wernt Brewitz,Tilmann Rothfuchs
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2007,
Abstract: In Germany, rock salt was selected to host a repository for radioactive waste because of its excellent mechanical properties. During 12 years of practical disposal operation in the Asse mine and 25 years of disposal in the disused former salt mine Morsleben, it was demonstrated that low-level wastes (LLW) and intermediate-level wastes (ILW) can be safely handled and economically disposed of in salt repositories without a great technical effort. LLW drums were stacked in old mining chambers by loading vehicles or emplaced by means of the dumping technique. Generally, the remaining voids were backfilled by crushed salt or brown coal filter ash. ILW were lowered into inaccessible chambers through a borehole from a loading station above using a remote control.Additionally, an in-situ solidification of liquid LLW was applied in the Morsleben mine. Concepts and techniques for the disposal of heat generating high-level waste (HLW) are advanced as well. The feasibility of both borehole and drift disposal concepts have been proved by about 30 years of testing in the Asse mine. Since 1980s, several full-scale in-situ tests were conducted for simulating the borehole emplacement of vitrified HLW canisters and the drift emplacement of spent fuel in Pollux casks. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome has been investigated to prove its suitability to host the national final repository for all types of radioactive waste. The “Concept Repository Gorleben” disposal concepts and techniques for LLW and ILW are widely based on the successful test operations performed at Asse. Full-scale experiments including the development and testing of adequate transport and emplacement systems for HLW, however, are still pending. General discussions on the retrievability and the reversibility are going on.
Predictors of competing mortality to invasive breast cancer incidence in the Canadian National Breast Screening study
Sharareh Taghipour, Dragan Banjevic, Joanne Fernandes, Anthony B Miller, Neil Montgomery, Bart Harvey, Andrew KS Jardine
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-299
Abstract: We use data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, consisting of two randomized controlled trials, which included data on 39 risk factors for breast cancer. The participants were followed up for the incidence of breast cancer and mortality due to breast cancer and other causes. We stratified all-cause mortality into death from other types of cancer and death from non-cancer causes. We conducted separate analyses for cause-specific mortalities.We found that “age at entry” is a significant factor for all-cause mortality, and cancer-specific and non-cancer mortality. “Menstruation length” and “number of live births” are significant factors for all-cause mortality, and cancer-specific mortality. “Ever noted lumps in right/left breasts” is a factor associated with all-cause mortality, and non-cancer mortality.For proper estimation of absolute risk of the main event of interest common risk factors associated with competing events should be identified and considered.
Tunnel Vision or Kaleidoscope: Competing Concepts on Sudan Identity and National Integration
A El-Battahani
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2007,
Abstract: Characterised as a bridge between the Arab Muslim world and Black Africa; and as a melting pot where diverse ethnic, religious and language groups were related together, Sudan continues to baffle observers and analysts by protracted conflicts and crises inflicted on its population. Amid all these, major parties to the conflict accuse each other of sowing the seeds of disintegration and disunity, and on the other hand each claims to be the only one genuinely working for unity. This article discusses conceptual foundations behind these claims and positions of major parties to conflict. Taking the ethnic-cultural make-up of Sudan, the article compares and contrasts a dominant concept of ‘unity in conformity', endorsed since independence by Northern ruling groups, to ‘unity in diversity', propagated by marginalised ethnic nationalities and underprivileged classes. After setting the context of the debate between the two different concepts, and delineating traits of both, the article argues that in view of the diversity and complexity of the social formation of Sudan, and more important, the failure of ‘unity in conformity' to deliver on its promises, the alternative concept of ‘unity in diversity' is more adequate in laying down foundations for credible unity and viable identity. African Journal on Conflict Resolution Vol. 7 (2) 2007: pp. 37-62
Core Concepts of Human Rights and Inclusion of Vulnerable Groups in the Namibian Policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services  [cached]
Gert VanRooy,Elina Amadhila,Hasheem Mannan,Joanne McVeigh
Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.132
Abstract: Purpose: Despite a highly progressive legislation and clear governmental commitment, living conditions among persons with disabilities in Namibia are systematically lower than among persons without disabilities. This implies that persons with disabilities are denied equal opportunities to participate and contribute to society, and consequently are denied their human rights. Methods: EquiFrame, an innovative policy analysis framework, was used to analyse Namibian Policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services. EquiFrame evaluates the degree of stated commitment of an existing health policy to 21 Core Concepts of human rights and to 12 Vulnerable Groups, guided by the ethos of universal, equitable and accessible health services. Results: A number of Core Concepts of human rights and Vulnerable Groups were found to be absent in the Namibian Policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services, and its Overall Summary Ranking was assessed as Moderate. Conclusion and Implications: The Namibian health sector faces significant challenges in addressing inequities with respect to its policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services. If policy content, or policy ‘on the books’, is not inclusive of vulnerable groups and observant of core concepts of human rights, then health practices are also unlikely to do so. This paper illustrates that EquiFrame can provide the strategic guidance for the reform of Namibian Orthopaedic Technical Services policy, leading to universal and equitable access to healthcare. doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.132
L. Pretorius,S.J. Benade
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology can be identified as the result of an innovation process that may be time-dependent. Furthermore, technology is both an input to the innovation process and an output of it. When two competing technologies are diffused into the market, they are evaluated as a technology system by means of a systems dynamics approach. It is shown that systems thinking can be used initially to identify and assess the important factors that influence the competitive behaviour of the two technologies. Interesting dynamics of this technology management system are presented and discussed in the context of uncertainty of interaction between the two technologies. It is specifically shown that the life span of the existing technology, which resists competition, may be adversely affected under conditions of uncertainty. The effect of uncertainty in more than one systems dynamics model parameter – specifically, the interaction and market parameter in the competing technology system – is also addressed. The Lotka-Volterra approach of predator-prey interaction is used to model the interaction between and diffusion of the two technologies in the system. A qualitative assessment of the systems dynamics model without uncertainty is attempted in the exploration of a real case study of two competing technologies. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: DTegnologie kan beskryf word as die resultaat van ’n innovasie proses wat tydsveranderlik kan wees. Tegnologie is beide ’n inset sowel as ’n uitset van die innovasie proses. ’n Geval waar twee kompeterende tegnologie in die mark diffundeer word met behulp van sisteemdinamika ge valueer as ’n tegnologiestelsel. Dit word aangetoon dat stelselsdenke gebruik kan word as voorloper om die belangrike faktore wat die kompeterende gedrag van die twee tegnologie be nvloed, te identifiseer en te assesseer. Interessante dinamiese gedrag van hierdie tegnologiebestuurstelsel word aangebied en bespreek in die konteks van onsekerheid van interaksie tussen die twee tegnologieё. Dit word spesifiek aangetoon dat die bestaande tegnologie wat weerstand bied teen kompetisie se lewenspan nadelig geraak kan word in onseker toestande. Die effek van onsekerheid van meer as een sisteem-dinamikamodelparameter, spesifiek die interaksie en markparameter, word ook aangespreek. Die Lotka-Volterra benadering gebaseer op die interaksie van aanval en verdediging word gebruik om die samehang tussen en diffusie van die twee tegnologie in die stelsel te modelleer. Kwalitatiewe assessering van die sisteemdinamikamodel sonder parameteronsekerheid word ook aangespree
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