oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Conserving Critical Sites for Biodiversity Provides Disproportionate Benefits to People  [PDF]
Frank W. Larsen, Will R. Turner, Thomas M. Brooks
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036971
Abstract: Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites identified as top priorities for the conservation of threatened species. Conserving these sites would yield benefits – in terms of a) climate change mitigation through avoidance of CO2 emissions from deforestation; b) freshwater services to downstream human populations; c) retention of option value; and d) benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity – significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being.
Conserving Biodiversity Efficiently: What to Do, Where, and When  [PDF]
Kerrie A. Wilson,Emma C. Underwood,Scott A. Morrison,Kirk R. Klausmeyer,William W. Murdoch,Belinda Reyers,Grant Wardell-Johnson,Pablo A. Marquet,Phil W. Rundel,Marissa F. McBride,Robert L. Pressey,Michael Bode,Jon M. Hoekstra,Sandy Andelman,Michael Looker,Carlo Rondinini,Peter Kareiva,M. Rebecca Shaw,Hugh P. Possingham
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050223
Abstract: Conservation priority-setting schemes have not yet combined geographic priorities with a framework that can guide the allocation of funds among alternate conservation actions that address specific threats. We develop such a framework, and apply it to 17 of the world's 39 Mediterranean ecoregions. This framework offers an improvement over approaches that only focus on land purchase or species richness and do not account for threats. We discover that one could protect many more plant and vertebrate species by investing in a sequence of conservation actions targeted towards specific threats, such as invasive species control, land acquisition, and off-reserve management, than by relying solely on acquiring land for protected areas. Applying this new framework will ensure investment in actions that provide the most cost-effective outcomes for biodiversity conservation. This will help to minimise the misallocation of scarce conservation resources.
Conserving Biodiversity Efficiently: What to Do, Where, and When  [PDF]
Kerrie A Wilson ,Emma C Underwood,Scott A Morrison,Kirk R Klausmeyer,William W Murdoch,Belinda Reyers,Grant Wardell-Johnson,Pablo A Marquet,Phil W Rundel,Marissa F McBride,Robert L Pressey,Michael Bode,Jon M Hoekstra,Sandy Andelman,Michael Looker,Carlo Rondinini,Peter Kareiva,M. Rebecca Shaw,Hugh P Possingham
PLOS Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050223
Abstract: Conservation priority-setting schemes have not yet combined geographic priorities with a framework that can guide the allocation of funds among alternate conservation actions that address specific threats. We develop such a framework, and apply it to 17 of the world's 39 Mediterranean ecoregions. This framework offers an improvement over approaches that only focus on land purchase or species richness and do not account for threats. We discover that one could protect many more plant and vertebrate species by investing in a sequence of conservation actions targeted towards specific threats, such as invasive species control, land acquisition, and off-reserve management, than by relying solely on acquiring land for protected areas. Applying this new framework will ensure investment in actions that provide the most cost-effective outcomes for biodiversity conservation. This will help to minimise the misallocation of scarce conservation resources.
GRAM PANCHAYATS AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT  [PDF]
R.B.KOKATANUR
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: In order to give a better deal to women, especially OBCs, SCs & STs indemocratic processes, the govt. of India enacted the 73rd Amendment Act in 1993.Consequently, the Panchayats in States with political power were revitalized and reequippedto play a vital role as agents of social and economic transformation with aspecial focus on SCs and STs and women. The underlying assumption is that a change inthe access to political power will not only transform the lives of the power-holders, butalso enable them to transform the socio economic conditions of the villages in which theylive. Political power is considered as 'resource'. It is argued that once lower classes aregiven power they can play a significant role in bringing about modern changesregardless of their low socio-economic status. There are others who argue that eventhough lower class people are given a greater access to political power, they are notlikely bring about any changes due to their low class status. It is also held that the policyof reservation will be utilized more by the economically well-off than by the poor.
Factors Affecting the Success of Conserving Biodiversity in National Parks: A Review of Case Studies from Africa  [PDF]
Moses Muhumuza,Kevin Balkwill
International Journal of Biodiversity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/798101
Abstract: National Parks are a cornerstone for biodiversity conservation in Africa. Two approaches are commonly used to sustain biodiversity in National Parks. Past and current studies show that both approaches are generally ineffective in conserving biodiversity in National Parks in Africa. However, there are a handful of cases where these approaches have been successful at conserving biodiversity in National Parks. The question this paper attempts to answer is why in some cases these approaches have been successful and in other cases they have failed. A metadata analysis of 123 documents on case studies about conservation of biodiversity in National Parks in Africa was conducted. A series of search engines were used to find papers for review. Results showed that all factors responsible for both the success and failure of conserving biodiversity in National Parks in various contexts were socioeconomic and cultural in nature. The highest percentage in both successful case studies (66%) and unsuccessful cases studies (55%) was associated with the creation and management of the park. These results suggest that future conservation approaches in National Parks in Africa should place more emphasis on the human dimension of biodiversity conservation than purely scientific studies of species and habitats in National Parks. 1. Introduction National Parks are the most extensive type of protected areas in Africa and globally. They are classified under category II of the IUCN categories of protected areas [1]. National Parks are created to (1) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystem for present and future generations; (2) exclude exploitation or occupation detrimental to the purposes of designation of the area; and (3) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational, and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible [1]. National Parks comprise the highest percentage (23%) of the total area covered by protected areas worldwide [1]. For instance, according to estimates by Colchester [2], Africa has more than 1,812 National Parks covering a total 3,112,027?km2 of the continent. In Sub-Saharan Africa alone, over 1 million km2 of land out of 23 million km2 (constituting approximately 4%) has been set aside as National Parks [2]. Conservation of biodiversity in National Parks is done through two main approaches: one approach is the preservation approach, which aims at setting aside National Parks to exclude human activities except for tourism. Through this approach, direct use of natural
The Importance of Conserving Biodiversity Outside of Protected Areas in Mediterranean Ecosystems  [PDF]
Robin L. Cox,Emma C. Underwood
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014508
Abstract: Mediterranean-type ecosystems constitute one of the rarest terrestrial biomes and yet they are extraordinarily biodiverse. Home to over 250 million people, the five regions where these ecosystems are found have climate and coastal conditions that make them highly desirable human habitats. The current conservation landscape does not reflect the mediterranean biome's rarity and its importance for plant endemism. Habitat conversion will clearly outpace expansion of formal protected-area networks, and conservationists must augment this traditional strategy with new approaches to sustain the mediterranean biota. Using regional scale datasets, we determine the area of land in each of the five regions that is protected, converted (e.g., to urban or industrial), impacted (e.g., intensive, cultivated agriculture), or lands that we consider to have conservation potential. The latter are natural and semi-natural lands that are unprotected (e.g., private range lands) but sustain numerous native species and associated habitats. Chile has the greatest proportion of its land (75%) in this category and California-Mexico the least (48%). To illustrate the potential for achieving mediterranean biodiversity conservation on these lands, we use species-area curves generated from ecoregion scale data on native plant species richness and vertebrate species richness. For example, if biodiversity could be sustained on even 25% of existing unprotected, natural and semi-natural lands, we estimate that the habitat of more than 6,000 species could be represented. This analysis suggests that if unprotected natural and semi-natural lands are managed in a manner that allows for persistence of native species, we can realize significant additional biodiversity gains. Lasting biodiversity protection at the scale needed requires unprecedented collaboration among stakeholders to promote conservation both inside and outside of traditional protected areas, including on lands where people live and work.
Molecular Biogeography: Towards an Integrated Framework for Conserving Pan-African Biodiversity  [PDF]
Yoshan Moodley, Michael W. Bruford
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000454
Abstract: Background Biogeographic models partition ecologically similar species assemblages into discrete ecoregions. However, the history, relationship and interactions between these regions and their assemblages have rarely been explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we develop a taxon-based approach that explicitly utilises molecular information to compare ecoregion history and status, which we exemplify using a continentally distributed mammalian species: the African bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus). We reveal unprecedented levels of genetic diversity and structure in this species and show that ecoregion biogeographic history better explains the distribution of molecular variation than phenotypic similarity or geography. We extend these data to explore ecoregion connectivity, identify core habitats and infer ecological affinities from them. Conclusions/Significance This analysis defines 28 key biogeographic regions for sub-Saharan Africa, and provides a valuable framework for the incorporation of genetic and biogeographic information into a more widely applicable model for the conservation of continental biodiversity.
Biodiversity  [cached]
Editorial Office
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2006, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v71i2-4.252
Abstract: The origin of life and the development of biodiversity
Tool kits for the Sustainable Management of Ghana’s Riverine Biodiversity: an Overveiw
C Gordon, C Linstead, B Moss, O Ansa-Asare, T Annang, R Leah, R Kyeremateng, EH Owusu, E Maltby, M Bissaw, B Ampomah
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2012,
Abstract: The Darwin Initiative funded project Tool kits for the Sustainable Management of Ghana’s Riverine Biodiversity was a collaboration between the Centre for African Wetlands at the University of Ghana, various units of the University of Ghana and the Ghana Wildlife Society. The project also involved collaborators from Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire, Togo and Benin. The project aimed to address the impediments that remain for Ghana (and its neighbouring countries) in applying the Ecosystem Approach (EA) to riverine wetland management and the delivery of the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD). Priority needs were identified as taxonomic capacity building, a contemporary assessment of the status of aquatic biodiversity in Ghana, the development of practical management tools for rivers and increased engagement of stakeholders in decision-making together with an enhanced environmental awareness throughout Ghanaian society. These were addressed in this project by regional and local staff training, reporting on the current status of aquatic communities, the production of educational and taxonomic resources for a range of users, the development of a set of nested indicators of ecosystem health adapted for use at various levels, and the production of a policy document outlining the means of applying the EA in the management of Ghana’s rivers.
Challenges for conserving biodiversity and developing sustainable island tourism in North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia  [cached]
Luchman Hakim,Marno Soemarno,Sun-Kee Hong*
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Recent conditions in North Sulawesi Province (NSP) have become favorable for the development of tourism. In this paper,we present the recent status of biodiversity and tourism in NSP as a basic consideration towards integrative biodiversityconservation strategy. Overall, biological accounts suggest that NSP is important for the world biodiversity conservationprogram. NSP’s biodiversity makes the area a major nature-based tourism (ecotourism) site in the world. Developmentof diverse tourism programs in NSP has provided new opportunities for balancing development and conservation ofregional ecosystems. However, the excessive tourism growth in some particular areas in NSP has been identified as theprimary factor of environmental degradation. Nowadays, biodiversity of North Sulawesi regions are suffering from thenumber of tourist impacts and facilities. Based on those conditions, tourism planning and development in NSP is neededto formulate a proper strategy to protect the ecosystem and biodiversity from degradation and extinction. This will be anew challenge of sustainable island tourism development and biodiversity conservation in NSP.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.