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Ideological Configurations and Prediction of Attitudes toward Immigrants in Chile and Germany  [cached]
Héctor Carvacho
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2010,
Abstract: The concept of ideological configuration is proposed to refer to a complex of ideological attitudes – Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) and Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) – based on a shared core of derogation of outgroups. This concept is used in two surveys, in Chile and in Germany, to predict attitudes toward foreigners. Analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that a second-order factor involving RWA and SDO predicts hostility toward foreigners in Germany and affection toward Peruvian and Argentinean immigrants in Chile. This prediction was stronger in Germany than in Chile. The difference in strength is discussed in terms of the kind of measurements, different contexts of migration, and characteristics of the immigrants. Further research using the concept of ideological configuration is proposed.
Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy in United Kingdom
Journal of Identity and Migration Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Although recent research found substantial variation in the strength of anti-immigrant opinions across new and old countries of immigration, most studies determined that the public increasingly supports restrictive immigration policies. This paper explores several sources of attitudes toward immigrants in United Kingdom and attempts to simultaneously test some of the most important theoretical explanations of public attitudes toward immigration issues when the family immigration history is taken into account. Results are based on a quantitative analysis of data from the European Social Survey (Round 4/2008). Even if when compared to persons from families with at least one foreign-born member natives express the strongest opposition to flexible migration policies and are more likely to have negative views regarding the immigrants’ role in the British society, opinions vary significantly among groups differentiated by political preferences, socioeconomic attributes, and demographic characteristics. While for native Britons findings support the economic self-interest theory, education and social attachment (i.e., interpersonal and institutional trust) appear to be the strongest predictors of positive attitudes toward immigrants and opposition to restrictive immigration policies.
Survival of Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Germany and the United States  [PDF]
Dianne Pulte, Lina Jansen, Adam Gondos, Alexander Katalinic, Benjamin Barnes, Meike Ressing, Bernd Holleczek, Andrea Eberle, Hermann Brenner, the GEKID Cancer Survival Working Group
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085554
Abstract: Background Adulthood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a rare disease. In contrast to childhood ALL, survival for adults with ALL is poor. Recently, new protocols, including use of pediatric protocols in young adults, have improved survival in clinical trials. Here, we examine population level survival in Germany and the United States (US) to gain insight into the extent to which changes in clinical trials have translated into better survival on the population level. Methods Data were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database in the US and 11 cancer registries in Germany. Patients age 15–69 diagnosed with ALL were included. Period analysis was used to estimate 5-year relative survival (RS). Results Overall 5-year RS was estimated at 43.4% for Germany and 35.5% for the US (p = 0.004), with a decrease in survival with increasing age. Survival was higher in Germany than the US for men (43.6% versus 37.7%, p = 0.002) but not for women (42.4% versus 40.3%, p>0.1). Five-year RS estimates increased in Germany and the US between 2002 and 2006 by 11.8 and 7.3 percent units, respectively (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Conclusions Survival for adults with ALL continues to be low compared with that for children, but a substantial increase in 5-year survival estimates was seen from 2002 to 2006 in both Germany and the US. The reasons for the survival differences between both countries require clarification.
Accounting conservatism in Portugal: similarities and differences facing Germany and the United Kingdom
Ferreira, Leonor Fernandes;García Lara, Juan Manuel;Gon?alves, Tiago;
Revista de Administra??o Contemporanea , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-65552007000600009
Abstract: this paper examines the existence of conservative practices in the portuguese accounting system, and whether these conservative practices affect the comparability of financial information provided by companies. we particularly examine whether the book value figure can be understated due to conservative practices to protect creditors' interests (balance sheet conservatism) and whether accountants delay the recognition in earnings of good news, while they recognize immediately bad news (earnings conservatism). using a basu (1997) type reverse regression and a simple adaptation of the ohlson (1995) valuation model, the paper gives evidence concerning the existence of both definitions of conservatism in portuguese accounting practices. a sample of non-financial portuguese, german and british companies was used. our results also show the larger earnings conservatism of british firms relative to portugal and germany, and surprisingly, that portugal is more bs (larger understatement of shareholders' equity) conservative than the united kingdom. the results have implications for accounting standard setting and they can be useful for both the european commission and the iasb since they provide some insight into the properties of accounting figures in portugal.
Auditor’s liability towards third parties within the EU: A comparative study between the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium
Ingrid De Poorter
Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: Auditors’ liability is a hot topic nowadays. Due to the increased risks of auditors and the lack of appropriate insurance, a limitation of auditors’ liability seems appropriate. Based on the economic study of the London Economics, the European Commission issued a consultation paper to discuss a European harmonization of auditors’ liability. But to harmonize a liability cap on auditors, one needs to examine not only the economic implications, but also the legal restraints and differences of auditors’ liability regimes within the European Union. This paper shows that there are large discrepancies concerning auditor’s liability towards third parties within the legal systems of the European Union. In Belgium, an auditor is liable towards each interested party. However, the public role of an auditor is not acknowledged in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany. In those countries the purpose of audited statements is to fulfil the auditor’s duty to the shareholders collectively and not to the stockholders as individual parties or third parties. In Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, an auditor has to encompass a special duty of care towards the third party to be liable. Only a special relationship of the auditor towards a third party could imply auditor’s liability toward those parties. This element wasn’t discussed in the London Economics Study. However, these findings could have a major impact on the debate to harmonize an auditor’s liability cap because the more parties can pursue an auditor, the more damage can be claimed and the higher the liability cap needs to be fixed.
The Attitude of United Nations Toward Armenian Aggression
Havva Memmedova
Journal of Gazi Academic View , 2009,
Abstract: United Nations Organization has not identified never Armenia as an invader. Extending their own land territories against Turkey and Azerbaijan, “Great Armenia from the sea to sea” to the state constitution with the purpose to realize dream of Armenians starting in 1988 turned the chaos into a large-scale war. Armenia has occupied %20 of Azerbaijan before 1992-1993. In the war, 30 thousand have been killed and more than 200 thousand Azerbaijani very hurt, more than 1 million have been forced to migrate from its own homeland. World’s most influential organization, UNO accepted four decree but none of them have not been fulfilled. United Nations Security Council tolerate occupation definitely Armenia has not been never named as invaders. This is considerable injustice.
A Comparison of Purchasing Habits and Sensory Preferences for Cola Consumers Across France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States
T. Luckow,P. Aarts,H.R. Moskowitz
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: European consumers (France, Germany and United Kingdom) show similar purchasing habits and similar acceptance patterns for statements about their sensory requirements of cola. Respondents can be categorized into three consumer segments, based on the pattern of their utility values from internet-based conjoint analysis. COKE Classics seek traditional colas that are branded with the name Coca-Cola. Sweet Sippers respond to statements about sugar-sweetened beverages emphasizing the words "crisp and refreshing". Diet Devotees respond to statements about the taste and the image of diet soft drinks. In contrast, American consumers show different segmentation patterns based upon their profiles of cola utilities obtained from the same type of conjoint-measurement. Fast Food Fiends consume fountain colas in fast food restaurant chains, to accompany burgers and fries. Diet Devotees crave diet colas that taste good, but are low in calories. Pepsi Progressives prefer the trendy marketing style and the unique cola flavor varieties from Pepsi Co.
Food waste in the United States: A contributing factor toward environmental instability  [PDF]
Michael E. Hickey,Gulnihal Ozbay
Frontiers in Environmental Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2014.00051
Abstract: The world's population continues to increase at record rates along with corresponding nutritional needs and related agricultural consequences. In the United States, food waste levels serve as dominant components of land-fill masses, oil and freshwater waste, methane and CO2 emissions, damage to wildlife ecosystems, and substantial financial losses. Agricultural effects on the environment were investigated through various research studies, referenced in this document, and efforts made toward food waste recycling were discussed as noteworthy models concerning improvements in sustainable agricultural practices. Food waste levels in the United States can be traced as faults of consumers, agricultural businesses, as well as federal legislation and there is an evident need for reform to maintain consumer health, viable foreign affairs, and environmental sustainability. Present agricultural practices are intense and rapid, increasing the risk of soil infertility and commercial alterations in production yields; repercussions well documented in neighboring nations. Experts argue that food waste in developed countries damages food availability around the world and, based on current agricultural practices and production, there is debate concerning the earth's sustainability of the human population in coming generations. This article delineates the extent to which food waste in the United States serves as an integral factor toward environmental instability on a global scale with emphasis on the critical capacity of public reception of the content discussed herein.
A comparative analysis of leaving home in the United States, the Netherlands and West Germany  [cached]
Mulder Clara H.,Clark William A.V.,Wagner Michael
Demographic Research , 2002,
Abstract: We investigate how leaving the parental home differs between three countries with different welfare-state and housing systems: the USA, the Netherlands and West Germany. Using longitudinal survey data, we examine the transitions of leaving home to live with and without a partner. We find that, much more than in the European countries, union formation has become separated from leaving home in the USA. We also find a different impact of level of education and employment status on leaving-home patterns in the European countries with their social-welfare state system than in the US system in which market forces prevail. The differences are not just related to welfare-state systems but also to the sizes of the countries and the geographical dispersion of jobs and educational opportunities.
Sex Sells? Gender Imbalance and Incentives – The Attitudes Toward Organ Donation in Germany
O. Decker,M. Beutel,M. Winter,E. Br?hler
Transplantationsmedizin , 2008,
Abstract: The German transplant law (TGP) of 1997 only recognises organ donation if the donor agrees ( extended consent“) and if done for altruistic reasons. Several alternatives will be discussed here, including incentives and passive agreement. Based upon a representative survey the authors examined the attitudes of Germans towards several European models of organ donation and their attitude towards organ donation in general whilst living and after death. The acceptance of possible compensation systems was also explored. In Germany the majority does not favour compensation systems, but rather passive agreement. There is evidence of gender difference with respect to this attitude. Men tend to favour compensation systems, women do not.
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