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BIOPHYSICAL SCORE
AYSHA AFZAL MBBS
The Professional Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: A pregnancy is defined as high risk when there is a likelihood of anadverse outcome to the woman and or her baby that is greater than the incidence of that outcome in the generalpregnant population. Objectives: To determine the efficacy and predictive value of biophysical profile in detectingperinatal outcome. Design: Observational study. Setting: Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, PNS SHIFA KarachiPeriod: From February 2003 to October 2003. Patients and Methods: The study was carried on 100 randomlyselected high risk pregnant patients who reported to gynae OPD or were referred from different armed forces hospitalsfrom all over sindh . Manning’s biophysical profile excluding nonstress test and including only ultrasound basedparameters were employed for fetal screening ( BPS 8/8). These parameters include four variables i.e fetal breathingmovement, fetal tone, fetal movements, and amniotic fluid volume. Nonstress test and Doppler studies were used asbackup tests where biophysical profile was abnormal. All cases selected were admitted in the hospital and each hadan admission biophysical profile followed by subsequent monitoring. Parameters for abnormal perinatal outcome includefetal distress in labour, five minute apgar score less than 7/10, admission of newborn to intensive care unit and stillbirthor neonatal death. The result of last biophysical profile is compared with perinatal outcome. For statistical analysis thepredictive value, specificity and sensitivity are used to determine the ability of biophysical profile to predict an abnormalperinatal outcome. Results: Out of 100 cases 92 had a normal biophysical profile in the last scan of 8/8. 90 cases hada normal perinatal outcome with A/S > 7/10. In two cases A/S at 1 and 5 minute is < 7/10 with one baby shifted tonursery for delayed cry. 08 cases had an abnormal biophysical profile with scores of 4/8 and 2/8. There was one falsepositive who showed abnormal biophysical profile but baby was born with an A/S of 8/10 at 05 minutes. There was noneonatal death in this study group. The sensitivity of biophysical profile was 77.7%, specificity 98.90%. predictive valuefor a positive test was 87.5%, predictive value for a negative test was 97.8%. Conclusion: Biophysical profile is highlyaccurate and reliable test of diagnosing fetal status.
Star Cluster Dissolution in Arp 284  [PDF]
Bradley W. Peterson,Curtis Struck,Beverly J. Smith,Mark Hancock
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We present results from a study of proto-globular cluster candidates in the interacting galaxy system Arp 284 (NGC 7714/5). Studies of the Antennae and M51 have suggested that the majority of these star clusters dissolve within 20 Myr due to mass loss. We obtain cluster colors using archival \emph{HST} data, and estimate ages and extinctions for over 150 clusters using evolutionary synthesis models. We find that clusters in NGC 7714 are generally less than 20 Myr old, while the data in the bridge is too limited to allow good estimates for individual clusters. We also examine {H {\sc ii}} region complexes with lower-resolution \emph{GALEX} and ground-based H$\alpha$ images. Several of these regions appear to be much older than the detected clusters within them, which may indicate the presence of an older, unresolved population of low mass or dispersed clusters.
Biophysical Micromixer  [PDF]
Chin-Tsan Wang,Yuh-Chung Hu,Tzu-Yang Hu
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s90705379
Abstract: In this study a biophysical passive micromixer with channel anamorphosis in a space of 370 mm, which is shorter than traditional passive micromixers, could be created by mimicing features of vascular flow networks and executed with Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 90. Split and recombination (SAR) was the main mixing method for enhancing the convection effect and promoting the mixing performance in the biophysical channel. The 2D numerical results reveal that good mixing efficiency of the mixer was possible, with εmixing = 0.876 at Reynolds number ration Rer = 0.85. Generally speaking, increasing the Reynolds number will enhance the mixing. In addition, the sidewall effect will influence the mixing performance and an optimal mixing performance with εmixing = 0.803 will occur at an aspect ratio of AR = 2. These findings will be useful for enhancing mixing performance for passive micromixers.
Endodontic microbiology  [cached]
Narayanan L,Vaishnavi C
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2010,
Abstract: Root canal therapy has been practiced ever since 1928 and the success rate has tremendously increased over the years owing to various advancements in the field. One main reason is the complete understanding of the microbiology involved in the endodontic pathology. This has helped us to modify the conventional treatment plans and effectively combat the microorganisms. Now, studies are aiming to explore the characteristics of the "most" resistant organism and the methods to eliminate them. This article gives an insight of the microbiology involved in endodontic pathology and discusses its role in our treatment procedure. Information from original reviews listed in PubMed, published from 1995 to 2010, has been mainly included in this review.
Microbiology of digestion in the Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus)
Colin G. Orpin,Svein Disch Mathiesen
Rangifer , 1990,
Abstract: Microbiology of digestion in the Svalbard reindeer
BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE AND NST
Mojgan Kalantary,Solmaz Piri
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2012,
Abstract: The fetal biophysical profile score (BPS or BPP) re-fers to the sonographic assessment of four discrete biophysical variables:Fetal movementFetal toneFetal breathingAmniotic fluid volumeResult of nonstress testingEach of these five parameters is given a score of 0 or 2 points. Presence of these biophysical variables implies absence of significant central nervous system hypoxemia/acidemia at the time of testing. By comparison, a compromised fetus typically exhibits loss of acceleration of fetal heart rate, decreased body movement and breathing, hypotonia and less acutely, decreased amniotic fluid volume. Sonographic detection of signs of fetal compromise can allow appropriate intervention that will ideally prevent adverse fetal squeal.
Star Clusters in the Interacting Galaxy System Arp 284  [PDF]
Bradley W. Peterson,Curtis Struck,Beverly J. Smith,Mark Hancock
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15551.x
Abstract: We present results from a study of proto-globular cluster candidates in the interacting galaxy system Arp 284 (NGC 7714/5) using data from the Hubble Space Telescope. Previous studies of the Antennae and M51 have suggested that the majority of young massive star clusters dissolve within 20 Myr due to mass loss. We use the evolutionary synthesis code Starburst99 to estimate ages and extinctions for approximately 175 clusters visible with HST. We also use lower-resolution GALEX and ground-based H-alpha data to estimate the ages of the giant HII regions in which these clusters are found, and compare the Spitzer colours of these HII regions to those of star forming regions in other interacting systems. The ages are also used to aid in the interpretation of Chandra X-ray data. Clusters in the tidal tails of NGC 7714 are generally found to have ages less than 20 Myr, though observational limits make the significance of this result uncertain. Older clusters, though not numerous, have nearly the same spatial distribution within the imaged portion of NGC 7714 as young clusters. The cluster population in the bridge connecting the two galaxies appears to be older, but the data in this part of the system is too limited to draw firm conclusions. The ages of the giant HII regions in NGC 7714 are generally older than those of their constituent clusters, possibly indicating that the young clusters we detect are surrounded by their dispersed predecessors.
Comparison of the Revised Biophysical Profile Test with Complete Biophysical Profile Test in Pregnancy
Fatemeh Lolaha,Ahmad Javadi,Azadeh Basharkhah,Omid Mashrabi,Sina Zarrintan,Farnaz Sepasi
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: One of the best tests for assessment of fetus is biophysical profile test and performance of this has significant effects in fetus health and outcome of pregnancy. The aim of this study, is comparison of modified biophysical profile test with complete biophysical profile test. A cross-sectional and prospective analytical study that performed in Kosar hospital of Qazvin at 2004S, 600 high risk pregnant women of 15-45 years of ages that gestational age was >32 weeks were chosen for any patient both of test were performed and then sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were compared together and then analyzed with statistics. Sensitivity in complete biophysical profile was 98.5% and in modified biophysical profile was 98.4%. Specificity in complete biophysical profile was 82.6% and in modified biophysical profile was 81.2%. Positive predictive value in complete biophysical profile was 99.7% and in modified biophysical profile was 99.7%. Modified biophysical profile test can be replaced for assessment of fetus health and outcome of pregnancy.
Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring
H.R. HaghighatKhah,M. Sanei Taheri
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2009,
Abstract: "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc), fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies), and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord). For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity) with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980), the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a) "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987). Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal significance. Fetal breathing movements, amniotic fluid volume, and the non-stress test are the most powerful variables. For example, when the biophysical profile score is 2, the perinatal mortality varies between 428/1000 with only fetal movement present to 66/1000 if the non-stress test is reactive and all of the ultrasound parameters are absent (Manning 1990b). Some authors have, therefore, proposed utilization of a modified biophysical profile that incorporates only the non-stress test and amniotic fluid volume (Miller 1996). Although the positive predictive value of these 2 tests is equivalent to a biophysic
Food Microbiology 101  [cached]
Min-Ken Liao
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1128/jmbe.v13i2.480
Abstract: Review of: Food Microbiology: an Introduction, 3rd ed.; Thomas J. Montville, Karl R. Matthews, and Kalmia E. Kniel; (2012). ASM Press, Washington, DC. 570 pages.
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