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Strengthening Sovereignty: Security and Sustainability in an Era of Climate Change  [PDF]
Rymn J. Parsons
Sustainability , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/su3091416
Abstract: Using Pakistan and the Arctic as examples, this article examines security challenges arising from climate change. Pakistan is in crisis, and climate change, a transnational phenomenon perhaps better characterized as radical enviro-transformation, is an important reason. Its survival as a state may depend to great extent on how it responds to 2010’s devastating floods. In the Arctic, the ice cap is melting faster than predicted, as temperatures there rise faster than in almost any other region. Unmanaged, a complex interplay of climate-related conditions, including large-scale “ecomigration”, may turn resource competition into resource conflict. Radical enviro-transformation has repeatedly overborne the resilience of societies. War is not an inevitable by-product of such transformation, but in the 21st Century climate-related instability, from resource scarcity and “ecomigration”, will likely create increasingly undesirable conditions of insecurity. Weak and failing states are one of today’s greatest security challenges. The pace of radical enviro-transformation, unprecedented in human history, is accelerating, especially in the Arctic, where a new, open, rich, and accessible maritime environment is coming into being. The international community must work together to enhance security and stability, promote sustainability, and strengthen sovereignty. Radical enviro-transformation provides ample reason and plentiful opportunity for preventative, collaborative solutions focused broadly on adaptation to climate change, most particularly the effects of “ecomigration”. Nations must work together across the whole of government and with all instruments of national power to create conditions for human transformation—social, political, and economic—to occur stably and sustainably, so as to avoid or lessen the prospects for and consequences of conflict. Collaborative international solutions to environmental issues, i.e., solutions that mobilize and share technology and resources, will build nations and build peace. The military, through “preventative engagement” will play a more and more important role. Further research and analysis is needed to determine what changes in law and policy should be made to facilitate stable and secure “ecomigration” on an international scale, over a long timeline.
Individuality as an illusion  [PDF]
Adonai S. Sant'Anna
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Elementary particles in quantum mechanics (QM) are indistinguishable when sharing the same intrinsic properties and the same quantum state. So, we can consider quantum particles as non-individuals, although non-individuality is usually considered as a consequence of the formalism of QM, since the entanglement of states forbids any labelling process. We show how to consider non-individuality as one of the basic principles of QM, instead of a logical consequence. The advantages of our framework are discussed as well. We also show that even in classical particle mechanics it is possible to consider the existence of non-individual particles. One of our main contributions is to show how to derive the apparent individuality of classical particles from the assumption that all physical objects are non-individuals.
Law and individuality  [cached]
D.F.M. Strauss
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2007, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v72i1.189
Abstract: The main contours of the history of philosophical and scientific conceptions of law and individuality are portrayed. This includes an account of perspectives and views found in ancient Greece, the Graeco-Roman world, the medieval speculation and, via the Renaissance, in early modern developments that were continued in the Enlightenment era, in Romanticism and historicism, and were eventually manifested in the linguistic turn. What is important for a proper understanding of modern law conceptions is an acknowledgement of the all-pervading influence of modern nominalism. This orientation was characterised by employing two related distinctions, namely the distinction between conceptual knowledge and concept-transcending knowledge, and that between rationalism and irrationalism. From a systematic point of view, various aspectual terms provide a frame of reference for the idea of a law of nature as a compound basic concept of science. Special attention is given to the nature of normative principles and physical laws. In the last part of the article, these perspectives are applied to a brief assessment of differences and similarities in the thought of Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven.
Sovereignty in Conflict  [cached]
Samantha Besson
European Integration Online Papers , 2004,
Abstract: Never has sovereignty been as fashionable as since its explanatory and normative force first came into doubt and its knell was tolled in the European Union. With the shift in authority away from the state to new sub-state, supra-state, post-state and non-state entities, an important question is whether the concept of ultimate authority or sovereignty is to be abandoned or, on the contrary, retained and, if so, in which form. This paper aims at exploring a third way that would allow us to escape from the two types of dualism that contrast state and sovereignty, first, and rejecting and saving sovereignty, second. This paper's argument is that sovereignty is neither the simple reflection of the new European and international reality nor the application of a pre-established concept whose criteria are immutable and risk corseting the post-national order. As an essentially contestable concept, sovereignty is at once a state of affairs, a question pertaining to the nature and justification of that state of affairs and a justification of the latter. The correct use of the concept of sovereignty consists therefore in constantly contesting one's conceptions of the concept and hence one's exercize of sovereignty. As such, the reflexive concept of sovereignty can be described as cooperative in the post-national constellation where sovereign entities overlap in their claims to sovereignty over the same territory and population. Read together with the principle of subsidiarity, cooperative sovereignty implies allocating competences to those authorities that are best placed to ensure the protection of shared sovereign values and principles, such as the values of democracy and fundamental rights. In the European context, cooperative sovereignty provides the normative framework for the development of a dynamic and reflexive form of constitutionalism. Through its duties of cooperation and coherence, cooperative sovereignty countervails the risks of erosion implied by constitutional pluralism, while also enhancing the legitimacy of the European polity. This can be observed in the context of difficult issues such as constitutional conflicts, legislative cooperation and, finally, multi-level constitutionalism.
Sovereignty in Conflict  [PDF]
Samantha Besson
European Integration Online Papers , 2004,
Abstract: Never has sovereignty been as fashionable as since its explanatory and normative force first came into doubt and its knell was tolled in the European Union. With the shift in authority away from the state to new sub-state, supra-state, post-state and non-state entities, an important question is whether the concept of ultimate authority or sovereignty is to be abandoned or, on the contrary, retained and, if so, in which form. This paper aims at exploring a third way that would allow us to escape from the two types of dualism that contrast state and sovereignty, first, and rejecting and saving sovereignty, second. This paper's argument is that sovereignty is neither the simple reflection of the new European and international reality nor the application of a pre-established concept whose criteria are immutable and risk corseting the post-national order. As an essentially contestable concept, sovereignty is at once a state of affairs, a question pertaining to the nature and justification of that state of affairs and a justification of the latter. The correct use of the concept of sovereignty consists therefore in constantly contesting one's conceptions of the concept and hence one's exercize of sovereignty. As such, the reflexive concept of sovereignty can be described as cooperative in the post-national constellation where sovereign entities overlap in their claims to sovereignty over the same territory and population. Read together with the principle of subsidiarity, cooperative sovereignty implies allocating competences to those authorities that are best placed to ensure the protection of shared sovereign values and principles, such as the values of democracy and fundamental rights. In the European context, cooperative sovereignty provides the normative framework for the development of a dynamic and reflexive form of constitutionalism. Through its duties of cooperation and coherence, cooperative sovereignty countervails the risks of erosion implied by constitutional pluralism, while also enhancing the legitimacy of the European polity. This can be observed in the context of difficult issues such as constitutional conflicts, legislative cooperation and, finally, multi-level constitutionalism.
FAMILY, FOOD SOVEREIGNTY AND ENVIRONMENT. A CASE STUDY
Sandra Milena Franco Pati?o,Isaías Tobasura Acu?a
Luna Azul , 2007,
Abstract: Food security, environmental conservation and social equity are fundamental elements for human development. In Colombia, in spite of being contemplated as rights in the Political Constitution, these are not totally guaranteed to the individuals, mainly in rural contexts. This article strives to show how family, the social group of vital importance for the development of society, can contribute to the obtainment of food sovereignty and the conservation of the environment in a concrete community. In the first part, a comprehensive frame of the categories of family, food sovereignty and the environment is elaborated. In the second part, the frame of public policies appears, which is related to food security and sovereignty, the handling of natural resources and their application in the local context. In the third part, an application program of food security is presented. Finally, the lessons derived from said policies are synthesized, in which the determining role of family in the achievement of food sovereignty, environmental sustainability and social equity is evidenced.
Doubts and Dissents on Food Sovereignty  [cached]
Joel F. Ariate Jr.
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Working on the trope that propagating the concept of food sovereignty is akin to proselytizing a belief, the essay raises questions on the claims and intents of food sovereignty.
Soberania On Sovereignty  [cached]
António Horta Fernandes
Rela??es Internacionais (R:I) , 2009,
Abstract: A soberania e o que ela significa é uma das quest es menos discutidas hoje em politologia, aparecendo mesmo praticamente informulada em rela es internacionais. Provavelmente podemos encontrar raz es para isso no estrito empirismo e positivismo que marca hoje muitas das análises nesses saberes Todavia, talvez a raz o principal se deva encontrar na forma como os racionais soberanos se impregnaram no corpo político moderno e contemporaneo, ao ponto de parecerem o ar que respiramos. O presente artigo visa precisamente desconstruir essa impregna o, tentando chamar a aten o para a duvidosa consistência praxista da soberania, trazendo a lume a sua arquitectura. Sovereignty and what it means is less discussed on Political Science and International Relations. May be we could justify it because of the empiric and positivism that even more support that studies. However, the main justification could be found on the way as the rational sovereigns has crossed the modern and contemporary political body - seems to be the air we breathe. This article will try to deconstruct this impregnation and to alert to the uncertain consistence of sovereignty by stressing its architecture.
The role of vocal individuality in conservation
Andrew MR Terry, Tom M Peake, Peter K McGregor
Frontiers in Zoology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-2-10
Abstract: Signals can contain information useful to conservation [1,2]. Until recently, communication behaviour had a limited role in conservation, being restricted to enhancing captive breeding programs [3] or use in species counts [4]. However, knowledge of how individuals within a population communicate and what they are communicating can generate information ranging from measures of habitat use to genetic fitness [2,5] that can be applied to conservation and that may neither be possible nor desirable to extract using other methods. In this review we shall concentrate on a subsection of communication behaviour that underlies most attempts to gain useful information from signalling, namely individuality. We discuss the different applications and types of information that can be extracted using vocal individuality. Further, we consider the different methods currently applied and the results gained with different taxonomic groups. Finally, we discuss some of the limitations and future directions that this technique can take. As a consequence of our area of research we have concentrated our discussion on the role of acoustic vocal individuality in conservation, although the principles involved equally apply to other signalling modalities, with the possible exception of chemical signals where the techniques may currently be lacking.A pre-requisite for discrimination and individual recognition is that, in the signals being used, there should be low within-individual variation and high between-individual variation [6,7]. Many studies have shown the presence of individually distinctive vocal features in a wide range of animal species and it seems that vocal individuality is most likely a feature of all vocally active species and is caused by a series of genetic, developmental and environmental factors [8,9]. The level of individuality and the difficultly in extracting and using it will differ between species and we discuss these issues later in the review (also see [10-12]).When d
The Information Theory of Individuality  [PDF]
David Krakauer,Nils Bertschinger,Eckehard Olbrich,Nihat Ay,Jessica C. Flack
Quantitative Biology , 2014,
Abstract: We consider biological individuality in terms of information theoretic and graphical principles. Our purpose is to extract through an algorithmic decomposition system-environment boundaries supporting individuality. We infer or detect evolved individuals rather than assume that they exist. Given a set of consistent measurements over time, we discover a coarse-grained or quantized description on a system, inducing partitions (which can be nested). Legitimate individual partitions will propagate information from the past into the future, whereas spurious aggregations will not. Individuals are therefore defined in terms of ongoing, bounded information processing units rather than lists of static features or conventional replication-based definitions which tend to fail in the case of cultural change. One virtue of this approach is that it could expand the scope of what we consider adaptive or biological phenomena, particularly in the microscopic and macroscopic regimes of molecular and social phenomena.
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