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Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Viscum album (Mistletoe) Extracts
S.O. Oguntoye,G.A. Olatunji,O.M. Kolawole,K.I. Enonbun
Plant Sciences Research , 2013,
Abstract: Viscum album is a green parasitic plant belonging to the family of Loranthaceae. It grows as a partial parasite on the branches of many decidous lemon trees especially apple and has various ethnomedical uses. Phytochemical screening has shown the presence of Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Tannins and Flavonoids. Phytosterols are scanty. Thin-layer chromatography of the ethanolic extract (Petroleum spirit and Diethyl ether, 2:1) showed four spots, while the aqueous extract (Petroleum spirit and Diethyl ether, 2:1) showed the presence of three spots. The ethanolic and aqueous crude extracts inhibited the growth of Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus sp., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gentamycin and Cloxacillin did not exhibit any activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of mistletoes (Viscum album) from cocoa and cashew trees in Nigeria
AA Oluwaseun, O Ganiyu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Methanolic extracts of Viscum album leaves from two hosts (cocoa and cashew trees) were subjected to antioxidant assay. V. album from cocoa tree had higher total phenol content (182 mg/100 g) as against that of cashew tree (160 mg/100 g). The result of the study also revealed that the ferric reducing ability, free radical scavenging ability as well as the Fe2+ chelation of the extracts were all dosedependent (0 – 1.0 mg/ml). V. album from cocoa tree had significantly higher ferric reducing and free radical scavenging ability than that from cashew tree, while V. album from cashew tree had significant higher Fe2+ chelating ability than V. album from cocoa tree. Although both methanolic extracts showed promise as a good antioxidant source, the total phenol content and the antioxidant capacity pattern of the two extracts suggest host dependency while the possible antioxidant mechanism of action is by reducing ability, free radical scavenging ability and chelation of Fe2+, a major catalyst in lipid peroxidation.
Viscum album L. Extracts Protects HeLa Cells against Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Damage
Evren nay-U ar, zlem Erol,Ba ak Kandemir,Elif Merto lu,Ali Karag z,Nazl Arda
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/958740
Abstract: Viscum album L. is a semiparasitic plant grown on trees and widely used for the treatment of many diseases in traditional and complementary therapy. It is well known that some activities of Viscum album extracts are varied depending on the host trees, such as antioxidant, apoptosis-inducing, anticancer activities of the plant. The aim of the present study is to examine the comparative effects of methanolic extracts of V. album grown on three different host trees (locust tree, lime tree, and hedge maple tree) on H2O2-induced DNA damage in HeLa cells. Oxidative damage in mitochondrial DNA and two nuclear regions was assessed by QPCR assay. The cells were pretreated with methanolic extracts (10 μg/mL) for 48 h, followed by the treatment with 750 μM H2O2 for 1 hour. DNA damage was significantly induced by H2O2 while it was inhibited by V. album extracts. All extracts completely protected against nuclear DNA damage. While the extract from lime tree or white locust tree entirely inhibited mitochondrial DNA damage, that from hedge maple tree inhibited by only 50%. These results suggest that methanolic extracts of V. album can prevent oxidative DNA damage, and the activity is dependent on the host tree.
Antiradical activities of Salvia officinalis and Viscum album L. extracts concentrated by ultrafiltration process
Gabriela Paun Roman,Elena Neagu,Gabriel Lucian Radu
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum : Technologia Alimentaria , 2009,
Abstract: Background. In the present study the antioxidant properties were investigated of the medicinal plants Salvia officinalis L. (Labiaceae family) and Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae), both of them known for a long time as a remedy in the traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to prove the efficiency of ultrafiltration process for the concentration of herbs extracts and to evaluate the concentrate’s antioxidant activity. Material and methods. The extracts were prepared by maceration, using different solvents. After filtering the extract through Isolab quantitative filter paper “medium”, each of the filtrates was processed by microfiltration (MF; Millipore filters with 45 μm), followed by ultrafiltration (UF). The regenerated cellulose (Millipore), polysulfone and polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membranes were used in the experiment. The initial extracts and samples of permeate and retentate after ultrafiltration of extracts have been characterized by determination of the protein total and total phenolic content. Standard methods like ABTS and DPPH assay are used to measure the antioxidant activity. Results. For the three types of tested membranes: Millipore, PSF and PAN, PAN membrane proves to have the greatest efficiency since it shows the highest permeate flux and the greatest retention degree for bioactive compounds. The concentrated extracts obtained after ultrafiltration with polyacrylonitrile membrane had the strongest scavenging activity for all extracts. Conclusions. The results of this study has revealed that the concentrated extracts have a very high radical scavenging activity (TEAC values for sage hydro-alcoholic concentrated extracts in range 351.87-479.04 μmol Trolox/mL extract and for mistletoe concentrated extract E2 in range 345.14-426.18 μmol Trolox/mL extract; the DPPH inhibition values was over 85% for S. officinalis concentrated extracts and ranges between 66.2% and 88.2% DPPH inhibition for V. album concentrated), therefore can be considered as a good source for further medicinal applications.
Adverse Drug Reactions and Expected Effects to Therapy with Subcutaneous Mistletoe Extracts (Viscum album L.) in Cancer Patients  [PDF]
Megan L. Steele,Jan Axtner,Antje Happe,Matthias Kr?z,Harald Matthes,Friedemann Schad
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/724258
Abstract: Background. In Europe, mistletoe extracts are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. We assessed the safety of subcutaneous mistletoe as a conjunctive therapy in cancer patients within an anthroposophic medicine setting in Germany. Methods. A multicentre, observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Suspected mistletoe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were described by frequency, causality, severity, and seriousness. Potential risk factors, dose relationships and drug-drug interactions were investigated. Results. Of 1923 cancer patients treated with subcutaneous mistletoe extracts, 283 patients (14.7%) reported 427 expected effects (local reactions <5?cm and increased body temperature <38°C). ADRs were documented in 162 (8.4%) patients who reported a total of 264 events. ADRs were mild (50.8%), moderate (45.1%), or severe (4.2%). All were nonserious. Logistic regression analysis revealed that expected effects were more common in females, while immunoreactivity decreased with increasing age and tumour stage. No risk factors were identified for ADRs. ADR frequency increased as mistletoe dose increased, while fewer ADRs occurred during mistletoe therapy received concurrent with conventional therapies. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that mistletoe therapy is safe. ADRs were mostly mild to moderate in intensity and appear to be dose-related and explained by the immune-stimulating, pharmacological activity of mistletoe. 1. Introduction Effective treatment of cancer remains one of the biggest challenges to modern medicine. Due to conventional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation often falling short of their goals, and to patient dissatisfaction concerning adverse effects associated with these treatments, complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are becoming increasingly popular [1]. Anthroposophic medicine (AM), founded in the 1920s by Rudolf Steiner and Ita Wegman, is a person-centred medical approach which combines conventional medicine with the use of CAM remedies and specialised therapies, such as physical and artistic therapies [2]. AM uses an integrative approach to treat cancer, focusing not only on elimination of pathological entities (conventional therapies), but also activating salutogenetic resources by using European mistletoe extracts (Viscum album L.), and other therapies, with the aim of improving health related functions or preventing further disease [2]. Mistletoe therapy is amongst the most frequently used complementary treatments by cancer patients in Europe [3]. In 2003 more than 18
Renoprotective and Blood Pressure Lowering Impact of Equisetum arvense and Viscum album Therapy in Experimental Model of Chronic Kidney Disease  [PDF]
ülle Pechter, Ingrid Kalev, Mai Ots-Rosenberg
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2018.812054
Abstract: Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an irreversible decline in the glomerular filtration due to nephrosclerosis and glomerular loss. Rat remnant kidney model enables to assess the benefits of different treatment possibilities. Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate renal morphology and functioning after 12 weeks of treatment with Equisetum arvense and Viscum album. Methods: Male Wistar rats with 5/6 nephrectomy received herbal drug preparation Equisetum/Viscum in a dosage of 0.007 g/kg/die (herbal group) or losartan (180 mg/l, ARB group) or remained untreated. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and proteinuria were measured. Renal cortex tissue samples examined for focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and interstitial fibrosis (IF). mRNA was isolated to estimate CCL2/MCP-1 gene transcription. Results: SBP was significantly lower both in herbal group and ARB group compared with untreated animals (p < 0.05). The difference in proteinuria between herbal group and untreated group was significant (p < 0.05), between ARB group and untreated NPX (p = 0.001). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed statistically significant differences of mRNA transcription for MCP-1 between herbal group and untreated group (p < 0.05) and ARB group and untreated group (p < 0.001). FSGS (%) and IF (scored 0 - 3) estimation in kidney tissue samples revealed that significantly less glomerulosclerosis was found and IF score was lower both in herbal group and ARB group compared to untreated group (p = 0.001). Conclusions: We report about beneficial impact of horsetail
THE STRUCTURE OF VEGETATIVE ORGANS IN VISCUM ALBUM AND LORANTHUS EUROPAEUS  [PDF]
ASPAZIA ANDRONACHE,IRINA TOMA,C. TOMA
Scientific Annals of Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi. New Series, Section 2. Vegetal Biology , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper the results of the histo-anatomical investigations concerning two semiparasitic species from Romanian flora: Viscum album and Loranthus europaeus, are presented. Authors investigated the structure of the vegetative organs of these two species (the leaf, the stem and the haustoria); some commune or different features of the two species are underlined.
Relationship and genetic diversity of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) subspecies
Leon Mejnartowicz
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2006, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2006.007
Abstract: With the help of 21 putative isoenzyme loci, the genetic diversity and variations of Viscum album ssp. album L. from 42 species, subspecies, varieties and hybrids of broadleaf trees, Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollmann, from 4 populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Viscum album ssp. abietis (Wiesb.) Abromeit, from 8 populations of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) were analyzed. On the dendrogram, the three investigated subspecies form three clusters, each clearly separated from the other, so we suggest a revision of the systematic nomenclature proposed to take into consideration a return to an earlier system of dividing the European mistletoe into three species: Viscum album L., Viscum abietis Beck, and Viscum laxum Boiss. et Reut. From among the 21 tested loci only one locus, SOD-A, was monomorphic. The average number of actual alleles (Na) and effective alleles (Ne) was 2.23 and 1.61 respectively. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) varied from 0.199 in V. album ssp. abietis to 0.345 in the V.a. ssp. album populations. Average FST = 0.277 indicates that about 28% of genetic differentiation is due to an interpopulation diversity of Viscum album populations. There is a small gene flux between Viscum album populations with only one immigrant successfully entering a population per two generations (Nm = 0,653).
IZOPRENOIDS COMPOSITION OF THE VISCUM ALBUM RAW MATERIAL
Upyr D.V.,Kyslychenco B.S.,Martynov A.V.
Annals of Mechnikov's Institute , 2011,
Abstract: Qualitative and quantitative composition of terpenoids in the Viscum album L. raw material, harvested from different trees of the host (linden and poplar), has been studied by gas chromatography method. The content of terpenoids in grass mistletoe was 0.28% and 0.14% respectively. It was determined 133 compounds are 98 compounds were identified. Among the identified compounds 35 were found in both extrakts, 9 - only in mistletoe harvested from lime (1.8-cineole, camphor, β-evdesmol, etc.), 19 substances - only in mistletoe harvested from poplar (α-isophorone, β-farnesene, β-ionone, farnesol, α-bisabolol etc).
Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in animals and humans - systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters
Gunver S Kienle, Renate Grugel, Helmut Kiene
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-72
Abstract: Systematic review of all experiments and clinical studies investigating higher dosages of VAE in animals and humans (Viscum album > 1 mg in humans corresponding to > 0.02 mg/kg in animals or ML > 1 ng/kg) and assessing immune parameters or infections or adverse drug reactions.69 clinical studies and 48 animal experiments reported application of higher doses of VAE or ML and had assessed immune changes and/or harm. In these studies, Viscum album was applied in dosages up to 1500 mg in humans and 1400 mg/kg in animals, ML was applied up to 6.4 μg/kg in humans and in animals up to 14 μg/kg subcutaneously, 50 μg/kg nasally and 500 μg/kg orally. A variety of immune parameters showed fluctuating or rising outcomes, but no immunosuppressive effect. Side effects consisted mainly of dose-dependent flu-like symptoms (FLS), fever, local reactions at the injection site and various mild unspecific effects. Occasionally, allergic reactions were reported. After application of high doses of recombinant ML, reversible hepatotoxicity was observed in some cases.Application of higher dosages of VAE or ML is not accompanied by immunosuppression; altogether VAE seems to exhibit low risk but should be monitored by clinicians when applied in high dosages.Complementary cancer treatment is utilised by 15-73% of all cancer patients in Europe, in addition to well established oncological treatments [1]. Most of these complementary treatments are herbal remedies and among these, Viscum album L extracts (VAE, European mistletoe, a hemiparasitic shrub, not to be confused with the Phoradendron species or "American mistletoe") are frequently used [1]. Physicians in Germany consider VAE to have a relevant therapeutic benefit [2].VAE contains a variety of biologically active compounds. Of these, mistletoe lectins (ML I, II and III) have been most thoroughly investigated. ML consist of two polypeptide chains: a carbohydrate-binding B-chain that can bind to cell surface receptors and thus enable the pro
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