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Azizeh Khanchobani Ahranjani
Academic Research International , 2011,
Abstract: Nouns as the head of a complex noun phrase follow number system in different languages. They are used in singular or plural forms. These forms are seen in possessive construction, as well as, in the other grammatical categories. In English language the sub classifications of number system are : nouns identified as : a) singular in form ,Either number, b) plural in form, singular in number, c) singular in form ,plural in number, d)singular in form ,singular in number ,e)plural inform , either number ,and f) plural in form ,plural in number. A contrastive study of the number system and its sub classifications in Azerbaijani and English languages reveals both similaritiesand differences. The current study can be a great help for the grammarians and teachers of the mentioned languages in a multilingual situation.
Singular and Plural Functions for Functional Logic Programming  [PDF]
Adrián Riesco,Juan Rodríguez-Hortalá
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S147106841200004X
Abstract: Functional logic programming (FLP) languages use non-terminating and non-confluent constructor systems (CS's) as programs in order to define non-strict non-determi-nistic functions. Two semantic alternatives have been usually considered for parameter passing with this kind of functions: call-time choice and run-time choice. While the former is the standard choice of modern FLP languages, the latter lacks some properties---mainly compositionality---that have prevented its use in practical FLP systems. Traditionally it has been considered that call-time choice induces a singular denotational semantics, while run-time choice induces a plural semantics. We have discovered that this latter identification is wrong when pattern matching is involved, and thus we propose two novel compositional plural semantics for CS's that are different from run-time choice. We study the basic properties of our plural semantics---compositionality, polarity, monotonicity for substitutions, and a restricted form of the bubbling property for constructor systems---and the relation between them and to previous proposals, concluding that these semantics form a hierarchy in the sense of set inclusion of the set of computed values. We have also identified a class of programs characterized by a syntactic criterion for which the proposed plural semantics behave the same, and a program transformation that can be used to simulate one of them by term rewriting. At the practical level, we study how to use the expressive capabilities of these semantics for improving the declarative flavour of programs. We also propose a language which combines call-time choice and our plural semantics, that we have implemented in Maude. The resulting interpreter is employed to test several significant examples showing the capabilities of the combined semantics. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP)
Linearization of Poisson actions and singular values of matrix products  [PDF]
Anton Alekseev,Eckhard Meinrenken,Chris Woodward
Mathematics , 2000,
Abstract: We prove that the linearization functor from the category of Hamiltonian K-actions with group-valued moment maps in the sense of Lu, to the category of ordinary Hamiltonian K-actions, preserves products up to symplectic isomorphism. As an application, we give a new proof of the Thompson conjecture on singular values of matrix products and extend this result to the case of real matrices. We give a formula for the Liouville volume of these spaces and obtain from it a hyperbolic version of the Duflo isomorphism.
Crossed products of C*-algebras for singular actions  [PDF]
Hendrik Grundling,Karl-Hermann Neeb
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We consider group actions of topological groups on C*-algebras of the types which occur in many physics models. These are singular actions in the sense that they need not be strongly continuous, or the group need not be locally compact. We develop a "crossed product host" in analogy to the usual crossed product for strongly continuous actions of locally compact groups, in the sense that its representation theory is in a natural bijection with the covariant representation theory of the action. We prove a uniqueness theorem for crossed product hosts, and analyze existence conditions. We also present a number of examples where a crossed product host exists, but the usual crossed product does not. For actions where a crossed product host does not exist, we obtain a "maximal" invariant subalgebra for which a crossed product host exists. We further study the case of a discontinuous action of a locally compact group in detail.
Economías singulares
Elvio Alccinelli
Lecturas de Economía , 2001,
Abstract: En este artículo pretendemos mostrar que le conjunto de las economías singulares, si bien peque o desde el punto de vista de la topología y/o desde el punto de vista de la teoría de la medida, tiene importantes efectos en el desarrollo de los regímenes económicos. Es el responsable de los cambios abruptos en los estados de equilibrio y de la multiplicidad de tales estados. Permite además establecer a partir de los tipos de singularidades posibles, una partición del conjunto de economías según tenga lugar uno u otro tipo de singularidad cuya presencia o no, caracteriza el comportamiento posible de la economía en cuestión.
Graphs of Plural Cuts  [PDF]
K. Dosen,Z. Petric
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Plural (or multiple-conclusion) cuts are inferences made by applying a structural rule introduced by Gentzen for his sequent formulation of classical logic. As singular (single-conclusion) cuts yield trees, which underlie ordinary natural deduction derivations, so plural cuts yield graphs of a more complicated kind, related to trees, which this paper defines. Besides the inductive definition of these oriented graphs, which is based on sequent systems, a non-inductive, graph-theoretical, combinatorial, definition is given, and to reach that other definition is the main goal of the paper. As trees underlie multicategories, so the graphs of plural cuts underlie polycategories. The graphs of plural cuts are interesting in particular when the plural cuts are appropriate for sequent systems without the structural rule of permutation, and the main body of the paper deals with that matter. It gives a combinatorial characterization of the planarity of the graphs involved.
A ratio ergodic theorem for multiparameter non-singular actions  [PDF]
Michael Hochman
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.4171/JEMS/201
Abstract: We prove a ratio ergodic theorem for non-singular free $Z^d$ and $R^d$ actions, along balls in an arbitrary norm. Using a Chacon-Ornstein type lemma the proof is reduced to a statement about the amount of mass of a probability measure that can concentrate on (thickened) boundaries of balls in $R^d$. The proof relies on geometric properties of norms, including the Besicovitch covering lemma and the fact that boundaries of balls have lower dimension than the ambient space. We also show that for general group actions, the Besicovitch covering property not only implies the maximal inequality, but is equivalent to it, implying that further generalization may require new methods.
Escola Plural
Miranda, Glaura Vasques de;
Estudos Avan?ados , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-40142007000200005
Abstract: this paper presents the plural school, implemented in belo horizonte?s local educational system from 1993 to 1996. this educational proposal has been considered innovative by many people and polemical by others since it attempted to break the traditional culture of public schooling, inserting a broader, democratic, inclusive and plural concept of education. it also attempted to take the multiple dimensions of an individual?s edification into account and to supply adequate conditions for children from lower socia classes to succeed. moreover, it aimed at meeting the demands of public policies in order to expand elementary and middle level education and, above all, improve the quality of public schools. the article presents the proposal, some polemics involving it and its assessment results.
Términos singulares y presuposición existencial  [PDF]
Juan Carlos García V.
Onomázein : Revista de Lingüística, Filología y Traducción , 2002,
Abstract: El propósito principal de este trabajo es dar una descripción, desde una perspectiva lingüístico-analítica, de la forma lógica exhibida por las presuposiciones existenciales asociadas al uso real de los términos singulares del lenguaje. Tal análisis debe ser considerado como una elucidación de la estructura semántica de las oraciones asertóricas del lenguaje. (The author intends to offer a linguistic, analytical description of the logic form shown in existentialistic presuppositions associated with the real use of singular verbal tenses. This analysis must be considered as an attempt to ellucidate the semantic structure of declarative sentences.)
Strongly singular MASA's and mixing actions in finite von Neumann algebras  [PDF]
Paul Jolissaint,Yves Stalder
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: Let $\Gamma$ be a countable group and let $\Gamma_0$ be an infinite abelian subgroup of $\Gamma$. We prove that if the pair $(\Gamma,\Gamma_0)$ satisfies some combinatorial condition called (SS), then the abelian subalgebra $A=L(\Gamma_0)$ is a singular MASA in $M=L(\Gamma)$ which satisfies a weakly mixing condition. If moreover it satisfies a stronger condition called (ST), then it provides a singular MASA with a strictly stronger mixing property. We describe families of examples of both types coming from free products, HNN extentions and semidirect products, and in particular we exhibit examples of singular MASA's that satisfy the weak mixing condition but not the strong mixing one.
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