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A regenera o da Amaz nia: crítica moral à coloniza o portuguesa no contexto da ilustra o
Mauro Cezar Coelho
S?culum : Revista de História , 1998,
Abstract: O artigo discute a crítica à coloniza o portuguesa no contexto da ilustra o, a partir dos debates levantados por Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira, naturalista baiano, em sua viagem filosófica, concentrada na regi o amaz nica.
A instabilidade contínua na Guiné-Bissau
Kamilla Rizzi
Meridiano 47 : Boletim de Análise de Conjuntura em Rela??es Internacionais , 2010,
Abstract: Pouco mais de um ano após os assassinatos políticos que chocaram a comunidade internacional, uma nova tentativa de golpe militar ocorreu na Guiné-Bissau, em 1o de abril passado. A contínua instabilidade política guineense vem desde a independência, em 1973.
The history of postcolonial kinglets in Guinea Bissau
Clara Carvalho
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2009,
Abstract: This paper attempts to demonstrate that the role of traditional authorities in today’s Guinea Bissau is embedded in a long-term history that goes back to their pre-colonial and colonial history. Looking back to the situation of traditional authorities by the end of the colonial period (the early ‘70s), the paper discusses the different configurations of legitimacy of present-day authorities in relation to both local population and State authorities.
New Findings On Otters In Guinea-Bissau
Reuther C,Ehlers M.,Schuhmann M.,Kalz B.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2003,
Abstract: To date, only Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis) presence has been reported for Guinea-Bissau. The western border of the distribution range for another sub-Saharan otter species, the spotted-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis), seemed to be formed by the southeastern neighbouring country of Guinea. The accidental catch of a specimen of L. maculicollis, and the results of an initial field survey, provide evidence that this species also occurs in Guinea-Bissau. Recommendations are given on how to improve knowledge on the distribution of the two otter species in this region, and how to improve the protection of otters in Guinea-Bissau.
National Integration in Guinea-Bissau since Independence  [cached]
Christoph Kohl
Cadernos de Estudos Africanos , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/cea.155
Abstract: This article explores national integration in Guinea-Bissau since independence in 1974. I argue that the level of national integration is quite strong – despite the ethnic diversity prevalent in the country. As I will show, national integration is due to the ideology and policy of the former independence movement and the early postcolonial state that advocated a national-unity-in-ethnic-diversity-model. Bissau-Guineans know to separate between the state and the nation, a distinction sometimes neglected in analyses. As my findings suggest, Bissau-Guineans victimize their nation while confronting it with the state. A foreign invasion during the 1998-99 Military Conflict fostered national integration even more. O artigo explora a integra o nacional na Guiné-Bissau desde a independência do país em 1974. O nível de integra o nacional é – no meu modo de ver – relativamente forte, apesar da diversidade étnica naquele país da áfrica Ocidental. Como vou demonstrar, a integra o nacional baseia-se na ideologia e política do antigo movimento independentista e no jovem Estado pós-colonial, que advogavam um modelo de unidade-nacional-na-diversidade-étnica. Os guineenses sabem diferenciar entre o Estado e a na o, uma distin o às vezes negligenciada nas análises. Como sugerem os resultados da minha pesquisa de campo, os guineenses vitimizam a sua na o enquanto confrontam a na o com o Estado. Uma invas o estrangeira durante o conflito militar de 1998-99 refor ou ainda mais a integra o nacional.
洞庭湖区洪涝特征分析(1471-1996年)  [PDF]
湖泊科学 , 1998, DOI: 10.18307/1998.0214
Abstract: 依据建立的1471-1996年洞庭湖区洪涝灾害序列、有关水文气象资料和灾情资料等,运用多种分析方法,揭示出洞庭湖区洪涝灾害具有如下特征:发展的阶段性和区域性;发生的持续性、周期性和地区关联性;自相似性等.为洞庭湖区洪涝灾害评估预测、防灾减灾和经济建设提供了科学依据.
Urban Cholera Transmission Hotspots and Their Implications for Reactive Vaccination: Evidence from Bissau City, Guinea Bissau  [PDF]
Andrew S. Azman,Francisco J. Luquero,Amabelia Rodrigues,Pedro Pablo Palma,Rebecca F. Grais,Cunhate Na Banga,Bryan T. Grenfell,Justin Lessler
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001901
Abstract: Background Use of cholera vaccines in response to epidemics (reactive vaccination) may provide an effective supplement to traditional control measures. In Haiti, reactive vaccination was considered but, until recently, rejected in part due to limited global supply of vaccine. Using Bissau City, Guinea-Bissau as a case study, we explore neighborhood-level transmission dynamics to understand if, with limited vaccine and likely delays, reactive vaccination can significantly change the course of a cholera epidemic. Methods and Findings We fit a spatially explicit meta-population model of cholera transmission within Bissau City to data from 7,551 suspected cholera cases from a 2008 epidemic. We estimated the effect reactive vaccination campaigns would have had on the epidemic under different levels of vaccine coverage and campaign start dates. We compared highly focused and diffuse strategies for distributing vaccine throughout the city. We found wide variation in the efficiency of cholera transmission both within and between areas of the city. “Hotspots”, where transmission was most efficient, appear to drive the epidemic. In particular one area, Bandim, was a necessary driver of the 2008 epidemic in Bissau City. If vaccine supply were limited but could have been distributed within the first 80 days of the epidemic, targeting vaccination at Bandim would have averted the most cases both within this area and throughout the city. Regardless of the distribution strategy used, timely distribution of vaccine in response to an ongoing cholera epidemic can prevent cases and save lives. Conclusions Reactive vaccination can be a useful tool for controlling cholera epidemics, especially in urban areas like Bissau City. Particular neighborhoods may be responsible for driving a city's cholera epidemic; timely and targeted reactive vaccination at such neighborhoods may be the most effective way to prevent cholera cases both within that neighborhood and throughout the city.
Simon Massey
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/32-1-129
Abstract: An exchange of gunfire in Bissau city between soldiers loyal to President and mutinous troops supporting the recently dismissed army chief of staff Brigadier Ansumane Mané in the early morning of 7 June 1998 heralded the start of 11 months of civil conflict. ‘It was not a huge war’, the Economist noted, ‘but for the 1m people…of Guinea-Bissau, it was devastating…Hundreds of people were killed, the city was destroyed and hundreds of thousands fled into the countryside’. The primary reason for the fighting - irrevocable splits within the government and leading Partido Africano da Independencia da Guiné-Bissau e Cabo Verde (PAIGC) - sat amidst a web of geopolitical machinations and posturing. Guinea-Bissau became the locus for mediation based, for a large part, on political opportunism. These efforts resulted in a peace operation with ostensible humanitarian motives which, nonetheless, was also marked by strong political impulses. As William Zartman has remarked, ‘Africa does not lack mediators’. In the case of the war in Bissau the gamut of potential intermediaries – regional, African and extra-African – offered assistance. This confusion of good offices led to rival mediation efforts whose polarisation mirrored that on the battlefield.
Structural and Functional Characterization of DUF1471 Domains of Salmonella Proteins SrfN, YdgH/SssB, and YahO  [PDF]
Alexander Eletsky, Karolina Michalska, Scott Houliston, Qi Zhang, Michael D. Daily, Xiaohui Xu, Hong Cui, Adelinda Yee, Alexander Lemak, Bin Wu, Maite Garcia, Meagan C. Burnet, Kristen M. Meyer, Uma K. Aryal, Octavio Sanchez, Charles Ansong, Rong Xiao, Thomas B. Acton, Joshua N. Adkins, Gaetano T. Montelione, Andrzej Joachimiak, Cheryl H. Arrowsmith, Alexei Savchenko, Thomas Szyperski, John R. Cort
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101787
Abstract: Bacterial species in the Enterobacteriaceae typically contain multiple paralogues of a small domain of unknown function (DUF1471) from a family of conserved proteins also known as YhcN or BhsA/McbA. Proteins containing DUF1471 may have a single or three copies of this domain. Representatives of this family have been demonstrated to play roles in several cellular processes including stress response, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis. We have conducted NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of four DUF1471 domains from Salmonella representing three different paralogous DUF1471 subfamilies: SrfN, YahO, and SssB/YdgH (two of its three DUF1471 domains: the N-terminal domain I (residues 21–91), and the C-terminal domain III (residues 244–314)). Notably, SrfN has been shown to have a role in intracellular infection by Salmonella Typhimurium. These domains share less than 35% pairwise sequence identity. Structures of all four domains show a mixed α+β fold that is most similar to that of bacterial lipoprotein RcsF. However, all four DUF1471 sequences lack the redox sensitive cysteine residues essential for RcsF activity in a phospho-relay pathway, suggesting that DUF1471 domains perform a different function(s). SrfN forms a dimer in contrast to YahO and SssB domains I and III, which are monomers in solution. A putative binding site for oxyanions such as phosphate and sulfate was identified in SrfN, and an interaction between the SrfN dimer and sulfated polysaccharides was demonstrated, suggesting a direct role for this DUF1471 domain at the host-pathogen interface.
The Guinea-Bissau Family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Revisited  [PDF]
Ramona Groenheit,Solomon Ghebremichael,Jenny Svensson,Paulo Rabna,Raffaella Colombatti,Fabio Riccardi,David Couvin,Véronique Hill,Nalin Rastogi,Tuija Koivula,Gunilla K?llenius
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018601
Abstract: The Guinea-Bissau family of strains is a unique group of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that, although genotypically closely related, phenotypically demonstrates considerable heterogeneity. We have investigated 414 M. tuberculosis complex strains collected in Guinea-Bissau between 1989 and 2008 in order to further characterize the Guinea-Bissau family of strains. To determine the strain lineages present in the study sample, binary outcomes of spoligotyping were compared with spoligotypes existing in the international database SITVIT2. The major circulating M. tuberculosis clades ranked in the following order: AFRI (n = 195, 47.10%), Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (n = 75, 18.12%), ill-defined T clade (n = 53, 12.8%), Haarlem (n = 37, 8.85%), East-African-Indian (EAI) (n = 25, 6.04%), Unknown (n = 12, 2.87%), Beijing (n = 7, 1.68%), X clade (n = 4, 0.96%), Manu (n = 4, 0.97%), CAS (n = 2, 0.48%). Two strains of the LAM clade isolated in 2007 belonged to the Cameroon family (SIT61). All AFRI isolates except one belonged to the Guinea-Bissau family, i.e. they have an AFRI_1 spoligotype pattern, they have a distinct RFLP pattern with low numbers of IS6110 insertions, and they lack the regions of difference RD7, RD8, RD9 and RD10, RD701 and RD702. This profile classifies the Guinea-Bissau family, irrespective of phenotypic biovar, as part of the M. africanum West African 2 lineage, or the AFRI_1 sublineage according to the spoligtyping nomenclature. Guinea-Bissau family strains display a variation of biochemical traits classically used to differentiate M. tuberculosis from M. bovis. Yet, the differential expression of these biochemical traits was not related to any genes so far investigated (narGHJI and pncA). Guinea-Bissau has the highest prevalence of M. africanum recorded in the African continent, and the Guinea-Bissau family shows a high phylogeographical specificity for Western Africa, with Guinea-Bissau being the epicenter. Trends over time however indicate that this family of strains is waning in most parts of Western Africa, including Guinea-Bissau (p = 0.048).
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