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POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA
Igor Raguzin,Davor Ve?ligaj,Vladimir Jelavi?
Thermal Science , 2010, DOI: tsci1003569r
Abstract: This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.
ENERGY – CLIMATE CHANGE PACKAGE IMPACT ON ROMANIAN URBAN AREAS
Virgil MUSATESCU,Mihaela COMANESCU
Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management , 2009,
Abstract: Europe recognized the tight link between energy and climate change and took - through a coherent legislative package - the role of a global leadership to tackle climate change, to face up to the challenge of secure, sustainable and competitive energy, and to make the European economy a model for world sustainable development in the 21st century. EU targets to improve the relation between energy and environment are very ambitious and can not be reached without a clear understanding of the requirements of European policies and the effort that each and every Member State has to do. In these conditions, the present paper aims to make a short qualitative analysis on the possible impact that the legal package energy-climate change could have on housing and urbanism in Romanian towns in order to raise some question marks and alert the decision makers.
Combating complexity: the integration of EU climate and energy policies  [PDF]
Radostina Primova
European Integration Online Papers , 2011,
Abstract: In this article, we analyse EU energy policy from the perspective of the EU’s long-term commitments to combat climate change. We focus on the policy integration of climate concerns – ‘climate policy integration’ (CPI). We seek to answer the question: what is the extent of CPI in energy policy, and what factors can explain this level of CPI? After outlining a conceptualisation of CPI that argues for applying a principled priority standard for the assessment of the level of integration of climate policy objectives in other policy sectors, we apply an analytical framework, with factors derived from general theories of European integration and literature on environmental policy integration, to explain the strength of CPI in two sub-energy sector case studies – renewable energy policies and internal energy market policies. CPI is found to be insufficient in both cases, and two factors are highlighted as particularly crucial for furthering CPI: political commitment to CPI, and the strong participation of climate advocates in the policy process. The article suggests that the expansion of EU competence in energy policy does not necessarily provide a guarantee for full and complete CPI.
Energy and Population Policies in Australia  [PDF]
Doug Hargreaves
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.21001
Abstract: The Australian Government is about to release Australia’s first sustainable population policy. Sustainable population growth, among other things, implies sustainable energy demand. Current modelling of future energy demand both in Australia and by agencies such as the International Energy Agency sees population growth as one of the key drivers of energy demand. Simply increasing the demand for energy in response to population policy is sustainable only if there is a radical restructuring of the energy system away from energy sources associated with environmental degradation towards one more reliant on renewable fuels and less reliant on fossil fuels. Energy policy can also address the present nexus between energy consumption per person and population growth through an aggressive energy efficiency policy. This paper considers the link between population policies and energy policies and considers how the overall goal of sustainability can be achieved. The methods applied in this analysis draw on the literature of sustainable development to develop elements of an energy planning framework to support a sustainable population policy. Rather than simply accept that energy demand is a function of population increase moderated by an assumed rate of energy efficiency improvement, the focus is on considering what rate of energy efficiency improvement is necessary to significantly reduce the standard connections between population growth and growth in energy demand and what policies are necessary to achieve this situation. Energy efficiency policies can only moderate unsustainable aspects of energy demand and other policies are essential to restructure existing energy systems into on-going sustainable forms. Policies to achieve these objectives are considered. This analysis shows that energy policy, population policy and sustainable development policies are closely integrated. Present policy and planning agencies do not reflect this integration and energy and population policies in Australia have largely developed independently and whether the outcome is sustainable is largely a matter of chance. A genuinely sustainable population policy recognises the inter-dependence between population and energy policies and it is essential that this is reflected in integrated policy and planning agencies.
The Water Demand of Energy: Implications for Sustainable Energy Policy Development  [PDF]
Saeed Hadian,Kaveh Madani
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5114674
Abstract: With energy security, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development as three main motives, global energy policies have evolved, now asking for higher shares of renewable energies, shale oil and gas resources in the global energy supply portfolios. Yet, concerns have recently been raised about the environmental impacts of the renewable energy development, supported by many governments around the world. For example, governmental ethanol subsidies and mandates in the U.S. are aimed to increase the biofuel supply while the water footprint of this type of energy might be 70–400 times higher than the water footprint of conventional fossil energy sources. Hydrofracking, as another example, has been recognized as a high water-intensive procedure that impacts the surface and ground water in both quality and quantity. Hence, monitoring the water footprint of the energy mix is significantly important and could have implications for energy policy development. This paper estimates the water footprint of current and projected global energy policies, based on the energy production and consumption scenarios, developed by the International Energy Outlook of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The outcomes reveal the amount of water required for total energy production in the world will increase by 37%–66% during the next two decades, requiring extensive improvements in water use efficiency of the existing energy production technologies, especially renewables.
Turkey’s Energy Demand  [cached]
M. Mucuk,D. Uysal
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2009,
Abstract: The present study aims to forecast the primary energy demand in Turkey for the period 2007-2015using the Box-Jenkins methodology. The annual data for the period 1970-2006 provided by the Ministry ofEnergy and Natural Resources were used in the study. Considering the results of unit root test, energy demandseries is stationary at first difference. Later among alternative models it is found that the most appropriate modelis ARIMA (3,1,3) for energy demand series. According to this model, estimation findings show that the energydemand would continue its increasing trend also in the forecast period. It is expected that the primary energydemand will reach 119.472 TOE in 2015 with an approximately 22 percent increase compared to 2006.Therefore energy policies should be designed for increasing demand in Turkey.
Assessing the meridional atmosphere and ocean energy transport in a varying climate
HaiJun Yang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-013-5665-x
Abstract: Assessing the meridional atmosphere and ocean energy transport is one of the most classical problems in climate research. The meridional energy transport plays a critical role in maintaining the equilibrium of the earth system. Although the principle to calculate the meridional energy transport is simple, many fundamental questions remain unsolved. For example, what are the intrinsic mechanisms to maintain the hemispherically antisymmetric structure in the total energy transport? How on earth does the meridional energy transport partition between the atmosphere and ocean and, is there really a so-called “Bjerknes compensation” relationship between them? This relationship would provide us deep insight into the coupling mechanisms between the ocean and atmosphere in global scale. In this review we try to come out some important problems that are deserved in-depth investigations in current climate studies.
Energy demand modeling for Uzbekistan
Bobur Khodjaev
Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business , 2012,
Abstract: The paper is devoted to energy demand forecasting in Uzbekistan. Studies show that in spite of the abundant reserves of hydrocarbons, low energy efficiency can have an adverse impact on energy security in Uzbekistan in the future. Oil and gas are the main primary energy source and they ensure energy security of Uzbekistan. Energy demand forecasting is essential in order to develop an effective energy policy. Such forecast can be useful to plan oil and gas production volumes, to identify priorities for the industrial modernization and to create favorable conditions for sustainable economic development in the future. Author proposes model based on translog function for developing medium-and long-term development programs in energy sector and the modernization and technological re-equipment of industry.
Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation
J. Sa?ol Lizondo
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 1991,
Abstract: Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Thh paper examines the implications of some nominal exchange rate policies aimed or attaining a given real exchange rate target. A policy rule that sets the rate of nominal depreciation as a function of the departures of the real exchange rate from its target level is unable to achieve the target. In contrast, a policv rule that sets the change in the rate of depreciation as a function of those departures may lead the economy to the target, under certain conditions. However, this policy could also lead the economy to a process of accelerating inflation.
Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century – Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies
M. I. Hejazi,J. Edmonds,L. Clarke,P. Kyle
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-10-3383-2013
Abstract: We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m 2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m 2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.
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