Abstract:
A set of reduced MHD equations is derived us-ing the standard energy balance equation. By applying assumption of internal energy, i.e. , a set of reduced magnetohydro-dynamic equations are obtained for large aspect ratio, high tokamaks. These equations in-clude all terms of the same or der as the toroidal effect and only involve three variables, namely the ?ux, stream function and internal energy.

Abstract:
We derived one-fluid equations based on a relativistic two-fluid approximation of e$^\pm$ pair plasma and electron-ion plasma to reveal the specific relativistic nature of their behavior. Assuming simple condition on the relativistic one-fluid equations, we propose generalized relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations which satisfy causality. We show the linear analyses of these equations regarding various plasma waves to show the validity of the generalized RMHD equations derived here and to reveal the distinct properties of the pair plasma and electron-ion plasma. The distinct properties relate to (i) the inertia effect of electric charge, (ii) the momentum of electric current, (iii) the relativistic Hall effect, (iv) the thermal electromotive force, and (v) the thermalized energy exchange between the two fluids. Using the generalized RMHD equations, we also clarify the condition that we can use standard RMHD equations and that we need the distinct RMHD equations of pair and electron-ion plasmas. The standard RMHD is available only when the relative velocity of the two fluids is nonrelativistic, a difference of the enthalpy densities of the two fluids is much smaller than the total enthalpy density, and the above distinct properties of the pair/electron-ion plasma are negligible. We discuss a general relativistic version of the equations applicable to the pair and electron-ion plasmas in black hole magnetospheres. We find the effective resistivity due to shear of frame ragging around a rotating black hole.

Abstract:
We investigate the existence of envelope soliton solutions in collisionless quantum plasmas, using the quantum-corrected Zakharov equations in the kinetic case, which describes the interaction between high frequency Langmuir waves and low frequency plasma density variations. We show the role played by quantum effects in the nonlinearity/dispersion balance leading to the formation of soliton solutions of the quantum-corrected nonlinear Schrodinger (QNLS) equation.

Abstract:
A set of fluid equations, taking into account the spin properties of the electrons and positrons in a magnetoplasma, are derived. The magnetohydrodynamic limit of the pair plasma is investigated. It is shown that the microscopic spin properties of the electrons and positrons can lead to interesting macroscopic and collective effects in strongly magnetized plasmas. In particular, it is found that new Alfvenic solitary structures, governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, are allowed in such plasmas. These solitary structures vanish if the quantum spin effects are neglected. Our results should be of relevance for astrophysical plasmas, e.g. in pulsar magnetospheres.

Abstract:
Quantum Zakharov equations are obtained to describe the nonlinear interaction between quantum Langmuir waves and quantum ion-acoustic waves. These quantum Zakharov equations are applied to two model cases, namely the four-wave interaction and the decay instability. In the case of the four-wave instability, sufficiently large quantum effects tend to suppress the instability. For the decay instability, the quantum Zakharov equations lead to results similar to those of the classical decay instability except for quantum correction terms in the dispersion relations. Some considerations regarding the nonlinear aspects of the quantum Zakharov equations are also offered.

Abstract:
In this paper we study Liouville properties of smooth steady axially symmetric solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. First, we provide another version of the Liouville theorem of \cite{kpr15} in the case of zero swirl, where we replaced the Dirichlet integrability condition by mild decay conditions. Then we prove some Liouville theorems under the assumption $\|\f{u_r}{r}{\bf 1}_{\{u_r< -\f 1r\}}\|_{L^{3/2}(\mbR^3)}< C_{\sharp}$ where $C_{\sharp}$ is a universal constant to be specified. In particular, if $u_r(r,z)\geq -\f1r$ for $\forall (r,z)\in[0,\oo)\times\mbR$, then ${\bf u}\equiv 0$. Liouville theorems also hold if $\displaystyle\lim_{|x|\to \oo}\Ga =0$ or $\Ga\in L^q(\mbR^3)$ for some $q\in [2,\oo)$ where $\Ga= r u_{\th}$. We also established some interesting inequalities for $\Om\co \f{\p_z u_r-\p_r u_z}{r}$, showing that $\na\Om$ can be bounded by $\Om$ itself. All these results are extended to the axially symmetric MHD and Hall-MHD equations with ${\bf u}=u_r(r,z){\bf e}_r +u_{\th}(r,z) {\bf e}_{\th} + u_z(r,z){\bf e}_z, {\bf h}=h_{\th}(r,z){\bf e}_{\th}$, indicating that the swirl component of the magnetic field does not affect the triviality. Especially, we establish the maximum principle for the total head pressure $\Phi=\f {1}{2} (|{\bf u}|^2+|{\bf h}|^2)+p$ for this special solution class.

Abstract:
The current understanding of some important nonlinear collective processes in quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of quantum plasmas, we present model equations (e.g. the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schr\"odinger-Poisson equations) that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wavefunctions that result in tunneling of electrons and the electron degeneracy pressure. Since electrons are Fermions (spin-1/2), there also appears an electron spin current and a spin force acting on electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The quantum effects produce new aspects of electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) waves in a quantum plasma that are summarized in here. Furthermore, we discuss nonlinear features of ES ion waves and electron plasma oscillations (ESOs), as well as the trapping of intense EM waves in quantum electron density cavities. Specifically, simulation studies of the coupled nonlinear Schr\"odinger (NLS) and Poisson equations reveal the formation and dynamics of localized ES structures at nanoscales in a quantum plasma. We also discuss the effect of an external magnetic field on the plasma wave spectra and develop quantum magnetohydrodynamic (Q-MHD) equations. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects, in plasma-assisted nanotechnology, and in the next-generation of intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments.

Abstract:
A multistream model for spinless electrons in a relativistic quantum plasma is introduced by means of a suitable fluid-like version of the Klein-Gordon-Maxwell system. The one and two-stream cases are treated in detail. A new linear instability condition for two-stream quantum plasmas is obtained, generalizing the previously known non-relativistic results. In both the one and two-stream cases, steady-state solutions reduce the model to a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which can be numerically solved, yielding a manifold of nonlinear periodic and soliton structures. The validity conditions for the applicability of the model are addressed.

Abstract:
The temporal dynamics of the quantum Zakharov equations (QZEs) in one spatial dimension, which describes the nonlinear interaction of quantum Langmuir waves (QLWs) and quantum ion-acoustic waves (QIAWs) is revisited by considering their solution as a superposition of three interacting wave modes in Fourier space. Previous results in the literature are modified and rectified. Periodic, chaotic as well as hyperchaotic behaviors of the Fourier-mode amplitudes are identified by the analysis of Lyapunov exponent spectra and the power spectrum. The periodic route to chaos is explained through an one-parameter bifurcation analysis. The system is shown to be destabilized via a supercritical Hopf-bifurcation. The adiabatic limits of the fully spatio-temporal and reduced systems are compared from the viewpoint of integrability properties.

Abstract:
Quantum plasmas is a rapidly expanding field of research, with applications ranging from nanoelectronics, nanoscale devices and ultracold plasmas, to inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. Here we give a short systematic overview of quantum plasmas. In particular, we analyze the collective effects due to spin using fluid models. The introduction of an intrinsic magnetization due to the plasma electron (or positron) spin properties in the magnetohydrodynamic limit is discussed. Finally, a discussion of the theory and examples of applications is given.