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Serum Magnesium Levels in Second and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy in Patients That Developed Pre-Eclampsia and Feto-Maternal Outcome  [PDF]
A. S. Atiba, R. A. Akindele, N. O. Bello, O. O. Kolawole, A. O. Fasanu
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2020.1010010
Abstract: Introduction: Pregnancy is a physiological process that may be complicated by a number of clinical conditions. Gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia are known complications in pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia is a disease of hypothesis in which the pathogenesis is yet to be fully explained. The role of magnesium in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia has been suggested by studies and it is being investigated all over the world. The study aimed to compare serum magnesium levels in pre-eclampsia and control groups from second trimester of pregnancy and assessed maternofetal outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a nested case control study in which consenting three hundred and sixty (360) normal pregnant women were enrolled. These women were recruited in their second trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples for serum magnesium estimation were obtained from subjects and controls at recruitment and after development of pre-eclampsia. Results: Thirty seven pregnant women that developed pre-eclampsia were nested as cases and were matched with 37 controls (apparently healthy pregnant women). The mean serum magnesium at recruitment was 0.75 ± 0.028 mmol/l (cases) and 0.76
BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE RESPONSES TO SUSTAINED STATIC (ISOMETRIC) CONTRACTIONS BY HANDGRIP DYNAMOMETRY IN THREE TRIMESTERS OF PREGNANCY  [cached]
Ravipati Sarath,Mamatha CN,Vemuri Leena Rani
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2013, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v2i12.238
Abstract: Title: Blood pressure and heart rate responses to sustained static (isometric) contractions by handgrip dynamometry in three trimesters of pregnancy. Objective: To measure the blood pressure and heart rate responses at various intensities, in three trimesters of pregnancy to the sustained isometric exercises, by handgrip dynamometry and comparing the results with the controls. Materials and methods: subjects - 20 healthy pregnant women, Controls - 20 non-pregnant healthy women. Subjects were followed for three trimesters. Blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated with handgrip dynamometer at Rest, 20% and 30% intensities of maximum voluntary contraction and Post Exercise. Blood pressure and Heart rate were recorded with the help of Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope, and ECG machine. Results: Blood pressure and heart rate increased more during sustained handgrip exercise in Subjects than the Controls. At rest and during static exercise blood pressure reduced in First, Second and increased in Third trimesters, compared to controls. At rest and during static exercise heart rate increased in First, Second trimesters and Third trimester displayed steady levels when compared to the controls. Maximum voluntary contraction in the Controls was higher than the Subjects. Conclusion: Sustained isometric exercise produces an increase in hemodynamics during different trimesters of pregnancy.
BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE RESPONSES TO SUSTAINED STATIC (ISOMETRIC) CONTRACTIONS BY HANDGRIP DYNAMOMETRY IN THREE TRIMESTERS OF PREGNANCY  [cached]
Ravipati Sarath,Mamatha CN,Vemuri Leena Rani
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v2i12.238
Abstract: Title: Blood pressure and heart rate responses to sustained static (isometric) contractions by handgrip dynamometry in three trimesters of pregnancy. Objective: To measure the blood pressure and heart rate responses at various intensities, in three trimesters of pregnancy to the sustained isometric exercises, by handgrip dynamometry and comparing the results with the controls. Materials and methods: subjects - 20 healthy pregnant women, Controls - 20 non-pregnant healthy women. Subjects were followed for three trimesters. Blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated with handgrip dynamometer at Rest, 20% and 30% intensities of maximum voluntary contraction and Post Exercise. Blood pressure and Heart rate were recorded with the help of Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope, and ECG machine. Results: Blood pressure and heart rate increased more during sustained handgrip exercise in Subjects than the Controls. At rest and during static exercise blood pressure reduced in First, Second and increased in Third trimesters, compared to controls. At rest and during static exercise heart rate increased in First, Second trimesters and Third trimester displayed steady levels when compared to the controls. Maximum voluntary contraction in the Controls was higher than the Subjects. Conclusion: Sustained isometric exercise produces an increase in hemodynamics during different trimesters of pregnancy.
Pregnancy and quality of life: assessment during the gestational trimesters
Rosa Aurea Quintella Fernandes,Milena Butolo Vido
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2009,
Abstract: An exploratory and descriptive study whose objectives were: to identify the Quality of Life Index (QLI) for pregnant women, in the first, second and third trimesters using an adaptation of the Ferrans & Powers instrument. The sample consisted of 198 pregnant women. who had undergone prenatal exams in basic health units of inland cities of the State of S o Paulo. The mean of the General QLI was 23.84 ( maximum 30). Analyzing the General QLI, there was a statistical difference between the pregnant women of the first trimester with relation to the ones of the second. Pregnant women of the first trimester presented higher indexes of quality of life. There was no significant difference in the comparison between the pregnant women of the second trimester and the ones of the third semester, similarly to those between the first and third trimesters.
SHORTENING OF PR- INTERVAL IN DIFFERENT TRIMESTERS OF PREGNANCY- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY  [cached]
Nandini B N,Shiva Kumar D G,Manjunath M L,Girish Babu
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2011, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v2i11.181
Abstract: ABSTRACT: PR interval reflects the slow conduction of an impulse through the AV node, which is controlled by the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of electrocardiogram's short P-R interval during pregnancy. We included 150 pregnant women for the study, comprising 50 women in each trimester of pregnancy and were compared with another 50 age matched non-pregnant women as controls who had normal P-R interval. ECG was recorded after giving 5 minutes of rest to the subject to allay anxiety in all 12 leads by connecting electrodes to left arm, right arm, left leg and right leg in supine position. The values were expressed as Mean + SD and Z- Test was used for comparison between control and study groups. Categorical data was analyzed by Chi- square test. A a€ pa€ value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. In first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy, there was highly significant rise in heart rate (p<0.001) as compared to control. There was a statistically significant decrease in PR interval (p<0.001) in all trimesters of pregnancy when compared to control group. This indicates that shortening of PR interval during pregnancy is benign and no treatment is required.
Pattern of Parvovirus B19 Infection During Different Trimesters of Pregnancy in Kuwait  [cached]
Ma'asoumah Makhseed,Alexander Pacsa,Mohammad Abrar Ahmed,Sahar Sultan Essa
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 1999, DOI: 10.1155/s1064744999000538
Abstract: Objective: Aims of this study were to determine the IgG and IgM seropositivity to parvovirus B19 during the three trimesters of pregnancy.
A STUDY OF FVC, PEFR AND MEP IN DIFFERENT TRIMESTERS OF PREGNANCY  [cached]
Anita Teli,Shrilaxmi Bagali,Manjunatha Aithala
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i8.609
Abstract: Objective : Pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in the function of virtually every regulatory system in the human body. The events in pregnancy elicit one of the best examples of selective anatomical, physiological & biochemical adaptation that occur during pregnancy & profound changes in respiratory physiology is a part of the same process. Thus this study was designed to evaluate the pulmonary function tests in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy & compare them with non-pregnant control group. Method : A cross-sectional study was carried in 200 healthy women in the age range of 19-35 years .The subjects were distributed in four groups, i.e control (non-pregnant) group and 1st , 2nd &3rd trimester pregnant groups. Number of subjects in each group is 50. We recorded respiratory parameters in control and study groups. Statistical analysis done by a€ Za€ test. Result: There was significant decrease in FVC, PEFR & MEP in all trimesters of pregnancy with maximum decrease of FVC in 1st trimester & PEFR, MEP in 2nd trimester. Conclusion: The changes in pulmonary function are attributed to major adaptations in the maternal respiratory system & are also be influenced by the mechanical pressure of enlarging gravid uterus, elevating the diaphragm & restricting the movements of lungs thus hampering the forceful expiration & decrease in 1st trimester might be due to decline in alveolar Pco2 caused by hyperventilation which acts as bronchoconstrictor & due to sensitization of respiratory centre due to progesterone.
To Compare the Methods of Pregnancy Termination for Fetal Abnormality in the First and Second Trimesters  [PDF]
H. S. Wong
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/843245
Abstract: Fetal abnormality is a major cause of termination of pregnancy and preservation of the fetus is important for confirmation of the diagnosis. Various regimes have been reported for termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality in the first and the second trimesters. In this paper, we compare those regimes that allow preservation of the fetus, in terms of the efficacy in expulsion of the fetus, the factors and the side effects. 1. Introduction Fetal abnormality is known to be a major cause of perinatal mortality. Termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormalities significantly decreases perinatal mortality resulting from birth defects [1, 2]. Fetal morphological anomalies (without chromosomal anomalies) and chromosomal anomalies form the main ground for termination of pregnancy in 39% and 35% of cases respectively in a study by Guillem et al. [3] and 47% and 33%, respectively, in another study by Ramalho et al. [4]. For morphological anomalies identified by ultrasound with no evidence for abnormal karyotype, it is estimated that autopsy adds information that leads to a refinement of the risk of recurrence in 27% and revision to a higher risk of 1 in 4 in 8% of cases [5]. In another study, complete correlation between ultrasound findings and pathological examination is found in only 61.1% of autopsies. This highlights the importance of pathological examination for confirmation [4]. When surgical termination is employed for fetal abnormality, an intact fetus is not obtained. Pathological examination of fetal parts by use of radiography, gross dissection, microscopic examination, and/or cell culture for karyotyping or biochemical analysis may detect a major abnormality in 92%, and in 46% a specific diagnosis was obtained only from pathologic examination [6]. As there is a trend for prenatal diagnosis to take place earlier in pregnancy, largely as a result of first trimester ultrasound screening [7], more pregnancies are expected to be terminated in the first trimester. Preservation of the whole fetus is possible with medical termination in the first trimester [8–11] although pathological examination is usually technically more difficult in these specimens [12]. In this paper, we compare the methods and outcome for termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality in the first and second trimesters, respectively, especially those that potentially allow preservation of the fetus for pathological examination. 2. Method and Materials Medline was searched for induced abortion (MeSH) and prenatal diagnosis, and also for induced abortion (MeSH) for fetal abnormality.
Gestational diabetes, comparison of women diagnosed in second and third trimester of pregnancy with non GDM women: Analysis of a cohort study
HUIDOBRO,ANDREA; PRENTICE,ANDREW; FULFORD,TONY; PARODI,CARMEN; ROZOWSKI,JAIME;
Revista médica de Chile , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872010000300009
Abstract: pregnant women are normally screenedfor gestational diabetes (gdm) at week 24 of pregnancy. howeversome women develop the disease later on their pregnancies. no study has analyzed women developing gdm later in pregnancy. objective: to analyze data on a cohort study and compare women diagnosed with gdm in second and third trimester of pregnancy with women without gdm. results: gdm women diagnosed during their first two trimesters of pregnancy were older (p = 0.0008) and had higher body mass índex (bmi) (p = 0.0007) than non gdm women. however, the only risk factor in women diagnosed in their third trimester of pregnancy was having first degree relatives with type 2 dm and this was independent of age and bmi (or of2.7, 95% ci 1.2 - 6.0). conclusions: women who develop gdm in their second trimester of pregnancy have known risk factors for diabetes mellitus such as age and higher bmi, however, the only recognised risk factor between non gdm women and women developing gdm late in pregnancy is family history of type 2 dm. two populations ofgdm may exist andfuture studies should focus on analysing short and long term complications ofthese women to support the need to diagnosed and treat them all.
Correlation between the Doppler velocimetry findings of the uterine arteries during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy
Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw;Toyama, Julio;Costa, Verbênia;Ramos, Carla;Brizot, Maria;Zugaib, Marcelo;
Revista da Associa??o Médica Brasileira , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-42302009000200026
Abstract: objectives: evaluate the feasibility of transvaginal uterine artery doppler examination in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, establish reference ranges in a brazilian population and examine the correlation between these doppler findings. methods: longitudinal prospective study at the antenatal clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital. uterine artery doppler examinations were carried out transvaginally at 11 to 14 weeks and 20 to 25 weeks of gestation. uterine artery mean pulsatility index (pi) distributions were determined and the presence or absence of an early diastolic notch was also noted. the degree of correlation between first and second trimester doppler findings was examined. results: three hundred and forty four women with live singleton pregnancies and normal outcome were first examined at a mean gestation of 12.7 weeks. the values corresponding to the 50th and 95th centiles of mean pi were 1.69 and 2.48. bilateral notches were observed in 44% of cases and unilateral notches were present in 19%. second trimester doppler examinations were carried out at a mean gestation of 23.2 weeks and corresponding figures for the 50th and 95th centiles were 1.03 and 1.57. bilateral notches were noted in 4.4% of the cases. first trimester impedance indices were significantly higher and positively correlated to second trimester findings (r = 0.42, p<0.0001). conclusion: uterine artery doppler examination can be successfully performed transvaginally and incorporated into scans that are routinely offered to women during their antenatal care in the first and second trimesters. doppler indices obtained during the first trimester are significantly higher than those of the second trimester and findings at both scans are significantly correlated.
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