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Malaria resurgence: a systematic review and assessment of its causes
Justin M Cohen, David L Smith, Chris Cotter, Abigail Ward, Gavin Yamey, Oliver J Sabot, Bruno Moonen
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-122
Abstract: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify historical malaria resurgence events. All suggested causes of these events were categorized according to whether they were related to weakened malaria control programmes, increased potential for malaria transmission, or technical obstacles like resistance.The review identified 75 resurgence events in 61 countries, occurring from the 1930s through the 2000s. Almost all resurgence events (68/75?=?91%) were attributed at least in part to the weakening of malaria control programmes for a variety of reasons, of which resource constraints were the most common (39/68?=?57%). Over half of the events (44/75?=?59%) were attributed in part to increases in the intrinsic potential for malaria transmission, while only 24/75 (32%) were attributed to vector or drug resistance.Given that most malaria resurgences have been linked to weakening of control programmes, there is an urgent need to develop practical solutions to the financial and operational threats to effectively sustaining today’s successful malaria control programmes.
Incidence of Malaria Infection in Rural areas of District Quetta, Pakistan
Mohammad Iqbal Yasinzai,Jamu-Khan Kakarsulemankhel
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The present study reports the prevalence of malarial parasites in the human population of rural areas of Quetta District. Plasmodium falciparum was observed to be with a higher incidence (17.77%) in the age group of 21 years and above. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex was found to be more prevalent (95%), genus Anopheles was observed to by 3.48% and genus Aedes was found to be less prevalent (1.35%).
Malaria Transmission in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between 1995 and 2012: Malaria Resurgence Did Not Negatively Affect Mortality  [PDF]
Johan Ursing, Lars Rombo, Amabelia Rodrigues, Peter Aaby, Poul-Erik Kofoed
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101167
Abstract: Introduction As Plasmodium falciparum prevalence decreases in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, so does immunity resulting in larger at risk populations and increased risk of malaria resurgence. In Bissau, malaria prevalence decreased from ~50% to 3% between 1995 and 2003. The epidemiological characteristics of P. falciparum malaria within Bandim health and demographic surveillance site (population ~100000) between 1995 and 2012 are described. Methods and Findings The population was determined by census. 3603 children aged <15 years that were enrolled in clinical trials at the Bandim health centre (1995–2012) were considered incident cases. The mean annual malaria incidence per thousand children in 1995–1997, 1999–2003, 2007, 2011, 2012 were as follows; age <5 years 22→29→4→9→3, age 5–9 years 15→28→4→33→12, age 10–14 years 9→15→1→45→19. There were 4 campaigns (2003–2010) to increase use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITN) amongst children <5 years. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regime was routinely used until artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced in 2008. Long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLIN) were distributed in 2011. By 2012 there was 1 net per 2 people and 97% usage. All-cause mortality decreased from post-war peaks in 1999 until 2012 in all age groups and was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence. Conclusion The cause of decreasing malaria incidence (1995–2007) was probably multifactorial and coincident with the use of an efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regime. Decreasing malaria prevalence created a susceptible group of older children in which malaria resurged, highlighting the need to include all age groups in malaria interventions. ACT did not hinder malaria resurgence. Mass distribution of LLINs probably curtailed malaria epidemics. All-cause mortality was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence.
Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain
Sandra Sainz-Elipe, Jose Latorre, Raul Escosa, Montserrat Masià, Marius Fuentes, Santiago Mas-Coma, Maria Bargues
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-221
Abstract: The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics.Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields.The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour transmission. The temperature increase has favoured a widening of the monthly potential transmission window with respect to when malaria was endemic. The combined application of modified climate diagrams and GMR index, together with spatial characterization conforms a useful tool for assessing potential areas at risk of malaria resurgence. NDVI is a good marker when dealing with a rice field area.Change of climate factors and other variables related to environmental modifications included within the broad term of global change have a proven impact on the transmission of infectious diseases [1,2], caused by different types of infectious organisms including microparasites (viruses, bacteria, rickettsia and protozoans) and also, as very recently proved, metazoan macroparasites (helm
Climatic Changes and Natural Population of Anopheles Species in Quetta Valley  [PDF]
Arsala Mansoor
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: An entomological study of Anopheles species was conducted to find the seasonal variation of prevalent vectors to establish their correlation with the malaria parasite in Quetta. Vector collection was done according to World Health Organization standards of surveying. Analyses reveal the predominantly rapid increase in density of Anophles stephensi in rural areas, over Anophles culicifacies. The changing pattern of vectors in rural area must be due to some strong factor, which could obviously be attributed to the migration of million of Afghan refugees living mostly in the suburbs of Quetta.
Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures  [PDF]
Maria Tseroni?,Agoritsa Baka?,Christina Kapizioni?,Georges Snounou?,Sotirios Tsiodras?,Maria Charvalakou?,Maria Georgitsou?,Maria Panoutsakou?,Ioanna Psinaki?,Maria Tsoromokou
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004215
Abstract: Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011–2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013–2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4–39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of MDA can be a useful addition to the antimalarial armamentarium in areas threatened with the reintroduction of the disease.
Malaria-Resurgence and Problems
Dutta J,Singh Z,Verma AK,Bishnoi MS
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2004,
Resurgence and Topological Strings  [PDF]
Marcel Vonk
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: The mathematical idea of resurgence allows one to obtain nonperturbative information from the large-order behavior of perturbative expansions. This idea can be very fruitful in physics applications, in particular if one does not have access to such nonperturbative information from first principles. An important example is topological string theory, which is a priori only defined as an asymptotic perturbative expansion in the coupling constant g_s. We show how the idea of resurgence can be combined with the holomorphic anomaly equation to extend the perturbative definition of the topological string and obtain, in a model-independent way, a large amount of information about its nonperturbative structure.
Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics  [PDF]
Inês Aniceto,Micha? Spaliński
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the M\"uller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent, and that this large order behaviour is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed, that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of \symm\ plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.
Malaria in Pregnancy  [PDF]
Jesus R. Alvarez,Abdulla Al-Khan,Joseph J. Apuzzio
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2005, DOI: 10.1155/2005/768392
Abstract: Recently, there has been a resurgence of malaria in densely populated areas of the United States secondary to human migration from endemic areas where factors such as cessation of vector control, vector resistance to insecticides, disease resistance to drugs, environmental changes, political instability, and indifference, have played a role for malaria becoming an overwhelming infection of these tropical underdeveloped countries. It is important for health care providers of gravida to be alert of the disease and its effects on pregnancy.
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