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Seroprevalence of Cystic Echinococcosis in Chinese Merino and Duolang Sheep in Xinjiang, China  [PDF]
Wenqiao Hui§, Xinli Du§, Bin Jia*, Xianxia Liu, Muyesaer, Junde Ma and Shijun Ma
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Chinese merino sheep and Duolang sheep in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 1219 serum samples of sheep (including 868 Chinese merino sheep from 6 farms in Ili, Tacheng and Shihezi as well as 351 Duolang sheep from 4 farms in Kashgar) were detected by ELISA assay. The chi-square test was used to analyze the data and the area differences for CE prevalence were compared. Results showed that the overall seropositive percentage for CE was 31.1% in Chinese merino sheep, and sheep from Ili area (of which 48.8% were seropositive) were significantly more likely to be seropositive than either sheep from Shihezi area (6.9%) (P<0.01) or ones from Tacheng area (12.7%) (P<0.01). In addition, seroprevalence for CE in Duolang sheep varied from 3.3% (farm No.45) to 30.7% (farm No.50A), with the average percentage of 21.7%, which was lower than that of Chinese merino sheep (31.1%), and statistically significant difference was observed between the two breeds in seroprevalence of CE (P<0.05). In conclusion, in Xinjiang, CE prevails differently in different areas in Chinese merino sheep and Duolang sheep. And also, serologically, Chinese merino sheep was more susceptible to CE than Duolang sheep. Comprehensive measures are needed to strengthen further prevention and control of disease in two breeds in Xinjiang.
Cystic echinococcosis in southern Brazil
de La Rue, Mario L.;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652008000100012
Abstract: cystic echinococcosis (ce) is very common in the southern part of rio grande do sul state where sheep and cattle raising is the most important economical activity. prevalence in intermediate hosts is well known due to reports in slaughterhouses while human reports are of discussed value. this is due to underreporting of cases and few epidemiological studies make it difficult to assess the situation of echinococcosis in the population. whereas cattle infection rate is more or less stable around 12% of the slaughter animals, in sheep there has been an increasing number in the last five years. some efforts have been done to control the zoonosis but no effective results were obtained so far. probably educational efforts to change human practices (feeding dogs with raw viscera), periodic treatment of dogs with praziquantel and joined actions with slaughterhouses could bring more attention to improve some control measures.
Immunology and Immunodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis: An Update
Wenbao Zhang,Hao Wen,Jun Li,Renyong Lin,Donald P. McManus
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/101895
Abstract: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the larval cystic stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This complex multicellular pathogen produces various antigens which modulate the host immune response and promote parasite survival and development. The recent application of modern molecular and immunological approaches has revealed novel insights on the nature of the immune responses generated during the course of a hydatid infection, although many aspects of the Echinococcus-host interplay remain unexplored. This paper summarizes recent developments in our understanding of the immunology and diagnosis of echinococcosis, indicates areas where information is lacking, and suggests possible new strategies to improve serodiagnosis for practical application.
Recombinant antigens for immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis
Li Jun,Zhang Wen-Bao,McManus Donald P.
Biological Procedures Online , 2004, DOI: 10.1251/bpo74
Abstract: Three cDNAs, termed EpC1, TPxEg and EgG5, were isolated by immunoscreening from an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA library. The recombinant phages exhibited strong reactivity with sera from humans with confirmed cystic echinococcosis (CE) and with sera from mice infected with E. granulosus oncospheres. The cDNAs were subcloned into a pET vector, expressed as fusion proteins tagged with GST and affinity purified against the GST tag. Of the three recombinant proteins, EpC1 achieved the highest performance for serodiagnosis of CE in Western blot analysis using a panel of clinically defined human sera to initially address the sensitivity and specificity of the molecules. The protein yielded an overall sensitivity of 92.2% and specificity of 95.6%, levels unprecedented taking into account the large panel of 896 human sera that were tested. The strategy used may also prove suitable for improved immunodiagnosis of other parasitic infections.
Isolated Invasive Endomyocardial Cystic Echinococcosis Presenting with Heart Failure
Suleyman Ercan,Vuslat Bosnak,Murat Yuce,Vedat Davutoglu,Fethi Yavuz
Case Reports in Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/603087
Abstract: Cardiac cystic echinococcosis is a rarely encountered parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulasus larvae. Cystic echinococcosis hydatid composes 0.5–2% of all human cystic echinococcosis cases. Isolated cardiac involvement is very rare. Cardiac cystic echinococcosis hydatid generally accompanies another organ involvement, however, it might be isolated as in the present case and although rare and it can cause heart failure. We present a case of isolated apical cardiac cystic echinococcosis hydatid which leads to heart failure.
Risk factors for prehypertension in Xinjiang Uygur population

Lei Wang,Nan-Fang Li,Jin Yang,Ling Zhou,Tao Li,Jing Hong,

老年心脏病学杂志(英文版) , 2010,
Abstract: Objective To assess the risk factors for prehypertension in Xinjiang Uygur population. Methods A cross-section study was conducted in a Xinjiang Uygur population(438 males and 716 females,aged 30 to 70 years).The fasting lipid profiles,serum glucose,insulin,and uric acid were determined.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR)index was used to assess insulin resistance(IR).Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors for prehypertension.Blood pressure levels ofnormotensives and prehypertensives in different body mass index(BMI)categories were compared. Results Binary logistic regression analysis performed after adjustment for gender,lipids profiles,waist-to-hip ratio,uric acid,HOMA-IR,and lifestyle(alcohol drinking and smoking)showed a significantly increasing prevalence of prehypertension with BMI.The odds ratios for prehypertension against the lowest BMI group(separated by 24 and 28)were 1.934 and 2.490(95% confidence interval:1.435-2.606 and 1.825-3.399,respectively).Age was independently correlated to the increasing prevalence of prehypertension.HOMA-IR was not associated with prehypertensive.The mean diastolic blood pressure(DBP)was significantly increased with BMI categories in either normotensives or prehypertensives(P<0.001)while the mean systolic blood pressure(SBP)was significantly increased with BMI only in normotensives(P<0.001). Conclusions In Xinjiang Uygurs,BMI and age was the risk factors for prehypertension.DBP is significantly increased with BMI.IR is not associated with prehypertension.These findings emphasize the importance of management of obesity for the control of blood pressure and other cardiovascular complications.
Tardigrada of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China  [cached]
Clark W. BEASLEY,William R. MILLER
Journal of Limnology , 2007, DOI: 10.4081/jlimnol.2007.s1.49
Abstract: Relatively little is known of the Tardigrada fauna of China, and there are no previous tardigrade records for Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China's largest administrative division. Moss specimens of the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium (St. Louis, U.S.A.) were used as a source of tardigrades from this region. Of the 270 moss specimens sampled, 78 yielded tardigrades. Species found were Bryodelphax asiaticus, Cornechiniscus holmeni, Echiniscus blumi, Echiniscus canadensis, Echiniscus granulatus, Echiniscus testudo, Echiniscus trisetosus, Macrobiotus alekseevi, Macrobiotus mauccii, Milnesium asiaticum, Milnesium longiungue, and Milnesium tardigradum. Of the species found, the Heterotardigrada are better represented, which is probably a reflection of the higher altitudes at which the samples were taken and the arid environment of the region; the species found are primarily ones considered to be xerophilic or montane. Seven species new to China are reported.
Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Peru  [PDF]
Pedro L. Moro ,Christine M. Budke,Peter M. Schantz,Julio Vasquez,Saul J. Santiva?ez,Jaime Villavicencio
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001179
Abstract: Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. Methods We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Findings The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384–4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641–251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181–4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861–1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. Conclusions This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.
The Monetary Burden of Cystic Echinococcosis in Iran  [PDF]
Majid Fasihi Harandi ,Christine M. Budke,Sima Rostami
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001915
Abstract: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally distributed parasitic infection of humans and livestock. The disease is of significant medical and economic importance in many developing countries, including Iran. However, the socioeconomic impact of the disease, in most endemic countries, is not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the monetary burden of CE in Iran. Epidemiological data, including prevalence and incidence of CE in humans and animals, were obtained from regional hospitals, the scientific literature, and official government reports. Economic data relating to human and animal disease, including cost of treatment, productivity losses, and livestock production losses were obtained from official national and international datasets. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to represent uncertainty in input parameters. Mean number of surgical CE cases per year for 2000–2009 was estimated at 1,295. The number of asymptomatic individuals living in the country was estimated at 635,232 (95% Credible Interval, CI 149,466–1,120,998). The overall annual cost of CE in Iran was estimated at US$232.3 million (95% CI US$103.1–397.8 million), including both direct and indirect costs. The cost associated with human CE was estimated at US$93.39 million (95% CI US$6.1–222.7 million) and the annual cost associated with CE in livestock was estimated at US$132 million (95% CI US$61.8–246.5 million). The cost per surgical human case was estimated at US$1,539. CE has a considerable economic impact on Iran, with the cost of the disease approximated at 0.03% of the country's gross domestic product. Establishment of a CE surveillance system and implementation of a control program are necessary to reduce the economic burden of CE on the country. Cost-benefit analysis of different control programs is recommended, incorporating present knowledge of the economic losses due to CE in Iran.
Histological Effects of Cystic Echinococcosis on the Liver of Sheep  [PDF]
Nabeel Zaki Zahed
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Aim of the work: The author investigated the histological effects of hydatid cyst (echinococcosis) on the liver of sheep. Material and methods: This study was based on liver specimens of slaughtered sheep (twelve of infected and four of uninfected). Specimens were collected from abattoirs at Central Slaughterhouse area KSA. These specimens were investigated for the presence of hydatid cyst and then examined histologically for identification of the histopathological changes. Results: The infection with cystic echinococcosis induced significant elevation (P<0.05) in the hepatosomatic index of infected sheep. Hydatid cysts in the liver of sheep resulted in different histological lesions represented in inflammatory reaction, fibrosis and necrosis in the area near to the cysts. Meanwhile the hepatocytes exhibited vacuolated cytoplasm and dilated blood vessels and disintegration in the epithelia of the bile duct.
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