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 Escritos de Psicología (Internet) , 2012, DOI: 10.5231/psy.writ.2012.0711 Abstract: this study focused on the perception of death due to intimate partner violence against women. i describe two experiments that analyzed the effects of controllability and perspective on the perceived causality of these events measured by means of counterfactual reasoning about the past and the future as much as attributions of responsibility and blame. the effects of empathy for a victim in the second experiment were also investigated. the participants' replies focused on controllable factors which were classified into four categories: perpetrator, victim, formal authority, and education and mass media. the results show that counterfactual reasoning depends on empathy whereas attributions depend on both empathy and perspective. these results demonstrate an association between these cognitive processes and also help to establish some factors that may prevent these events. finally, specific implications for education and the mass media are drawn from the study.
 Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2000.0714 Abstract: Suppose that we are given a quantum computer programmed ready to perform a computation if it is switched on. Counterfactual computation is a process by which the result of the computation may be learnt without actually running the computer. Such processes are possible within quantum physics and to achieve this effect, a computer embodying the possibility of running the computation must be available, even though the computation is, in fact, not run. We study the possibilities and limitations of general protocols for the counterfactual computation of decision problems (where the result r is either 0 or 1). If p(r) denotes the probability of learning the result r for free'' in a protocol then one might hope to design a protocol which simultaneously has large p(0) and p(1). However we prove that p(0)+p(1) never exceeds 1 in any protocol and we derive further constraints on p(0) and p(1) in terms of N, the number of times that the computer is not run. In particular we show that any protocol with p(0)+p(1)=1-epsilon must have N tending to infinity as epsilon tends to 0. These general results are illustrated with some explicit protocols for counterfactual computation. We show that "interaction-free" measurements can be regarded as counterfactual computations, and our results then imply that N must be large if the probability of interaction is to be close to zero. Finally, we consider some ways in which our formulation of counterfactual computation can be generalised.
 Judgment and Decision Making , 2006, Abstract: According to regulatory fit theory (Higgins, 2000), when people make decisions with strategies that sustain their regulatory focus orientation, they feel right'' about what they are doing, and this feeling-right'' experience then transfers to subsequent choices, decisions, and evaluations. The present research was designed to link the concept of regulatory fit to functional accounts of counterfactual thinking. In the present study, participants generated counterfactuals about their anagram performance, after which persistence on a second set of anagrams was measured. Under promotion framing (i.e., find 90\% or more of all the possible words) upward counterfactual thinking in general elicited larger increases in persistence than did downward counterfactual thinking in general, but under prevention framing (i.e., avoid failing to find 90\% or more of all the possible words) upward evaluation (comparing reality to a better reality) elicited larger increases in persistence than did upward reflection (focusing on a better reality), whereas downward reflection (focusing on a worse reality) elicited larger increases in persistence than did downward evaluation (comparing reality to a worse reality). In all, the present findings suggest that the generation of counterfactuals enhances the likelihood that individuals will engage in courses of action that fit with their regulatory focus orientation.