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Razonamiento contrafáctico, responsabilidad y culpa de la violencia contra las mujeres en la pareja: educación y medios de comunicación como factores preventivos
Segura,Susana;
Escritos de Psicología (Internet) , 2012, DOI: 10.5231/psy.writ.2012.0711
Abstract: this study focused on the perception of death due to intimate partner violence against women. i describe two experiments that analyzed the effects of controllability and perspective on the perceived causality of these events measured by means of counterfactual reasoning about the past and the future as much as attributions of responsibility and blame. the effects of empathy for a victim in the second experiment were also investigated. the participants' replies focused on controllable factors which were classified into four categories: perpetrator, victim, formal authority, and education and mass media. the results show that counterfactual reasoning depends on empathy whereas attributions depend on both empathy and perspective. these results demonstrate an association between these cognitive processes and also help to establish some factors that may prevent these events. finally, specific implications for education and the mass media are drawn from the study.
Culpa o Responsabilidad: Terapia con Madres de Ni as y Ni os que han Sufrido Abuso Sexual Blame or Responsibility: Therapy for Mothers of Girls and Boys who had Suffered Sexual Abuse  [cached]
Caroline Sinclair,Josefina Martínez
Psykhe (Santiago) , 2006,
Abstract: Se desarrolla un modelo psicoterapéutico para madres de ni as y ni os que sufrieron abuso sexual intrafamiliar, considerando que el apoyo materno es el factor más significativo en la moderación del impacto traumático en los ni os. La literatura tradicional se ha centrado en dilucidar el rol de la madre en la génesis del abuso, predominando un enfoque culpabilizador que contribuye a su descalificación como figura protectora post-revelación. Se propone un enfoque de responsabilidad que destaca la importancia de desarrollar intervenciones que, junto con potenciar la activación de sus recursos protectores, permita acoger el impacto traumático de la madre ante el abuso y sus consecuencias. El modelo propuesto considera los objetivos de la terapia con la madre y las fases del proceso. This article explains the development of a psychotherapeutic model for mothers of girls and boys who have undergone intra-familiar sexual abuse. Our model considers that maternal support is the most significant factor minimizing the abused child's traumatic impact. Traditional literature has focused in explaining the mother's role in the origins of sexual abuse with a predominating blame approach, which contributes to her disqualification as a protective figure. Far from a blame approach, our method proposes a responsibility approach highlighting the importance of interventions prompting the activation of the mother's protective resources and allowing them to deal with her traumatic impact when they have to face her child's sexual abuse and its consequences. This model describes both, therapeutic goals with the mother and process stages.
Let’s Blame Everyone: Executive and Legislative Evaluations of Economic Performance in Brazil and Chile Echemosle la culpa a todos: Evaluación del Ejecutivo y del Legislativo por el desempe o económico en Brasil y en Chile
Lucio Renno,Wladimir Gramacho
Journal of Politics in Latin America , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper we bring together institutional, contextual, and behavioral perspectives in a comprehensive model that explores determinants of executive and legislative approval based on economic performance in Brazil and Chile. Our main question is, do voters attribute responsibility for the state of the economy to their representatives in the Legislative Branch as they apparently do to officeholders in the Executive Branch? We search for answers to this question with an eye on how active the distinct branches of government are in economic policy-making and voters’ levels of political sophistication. Our main hypothesis is that less sophisticated voters will blame politicians indiscriminately for the state of the economy, independent of how influential each branch of government is on economic policy. More sophisticated voters will better discern the role each branch plays in economic policy-making and will not blame representatives in the Legislative Branch for the state of the economy when Congress is not active in economic policy-making. The cases of Brazil and Chile under Cardoso and Lagos offer the perfect opportunity to test this hypothesis, which is confirmed by our data. En este trabajo combinanos perspectivas institucionalistas, contextuales y behavioristas en un amplio modelo que explora determinantes de la aprobación del Ejecutivo y del Legislativo basada en el desempe o de la economía de Brasil y Chile. Nuestra pregunta central se ocupa de saber si los ciudadanos le asignan responsabilidad por el estado de la economía al Legislativo del mismo modo como aparentemente lo hacen con respecto al Ejecutivo. Buscamos respuestas a esas cuestiones observando los roles, más o menos relevantes, de esos diferentes Poderes durante la elaboración de políticas económicas y, además, teniendo en cuenta el nível de sofisticación política de los indivíduos. Nuestra hipóstesis principal sugiere que los ciudadanos menos sofisticados políticamente le echan la culpa por las condiciones econ micas a los políticos de modo indiscriminado, independientemente del grado de influencia de cada Poder sobre la política económica. Ciudadanos más sofisticados políticamente demuestran mayor grado de comprensión sobre el papel que cada Poder desempe a en la elaboración de la política económica y no culpan indistintamente el Legislativo por el estado de la economía cuando el Congreso no tiene un papel relevante sobre la política económica. Los casos de Brasil y Chile durante los gobiernos Cardoso y Lagos ofrecen una oportunidad adecuada para el test de nuestras hipótesis, que han
Counterfactual Computation  [PDF]
Graeme Mitchison,Richard Jozsa
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2000.0714
Abstract: Suppose that we are given a quantum computer programmed ready to perform a computation if it is switched on. Counterfactual computation is a process by which the result of the computation may be learnt without actually running the computer. Such processes are possible within quantum physics and to achieve this effect, a computer embodying the possibility of running the computation must be available, even though the computation is, in fact, not run. We study the possibilities and limitations of general protocols for the counterfactual computation of decision problems (where the result r is either 0 or 1). If p(r) denotes the probability of learning the result r ``for free'' in a protocol then one might hope to design a protocol which simultaneously has large p(0) and p(1). However we prove that p(0)+p(1) never exceeds 1 in any protocol and we derive further constraints on p(0) and p(1) in terms of N, the number of times that the computer is not run. In particular we show that any protocol with p(0)+p(1)=1-epsilon must have N tending to infinity as epsilon tends to 0. These general results are illustrated with some explicit protocols for counterfactual computation. We show that "interaction-free" measurements can be regarded as counterfactual computations, and our results then imply that N must be large if the probability of interaction is to be close to zero. Finally, we consider some ways in which our formulation of counterfactual computation can be generalised.
Counterfactual computation revisited  [PDF]
Onur Hosten,Matthew T. Rakher,Julio T. Barreiro,Nicholas A. Peters,Paul Kwiat
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: Mitchison and Jozsa recently suggested that the "chained-Zeno" counterfactual computation protocol recently proposed by Hosten et al. is counterfactual for only one output of the computer. This claim was based on the existing abstract algebraic definition of counterfactual computation, and indeed according to this definition, their argument is correct. However, a more general definition (physically adequate) for counterfactual computation is implicitly assumed by Hosten et. al. Here we explain in detail why the protocol is counterfactual and how the "history tracking" method of the existing description inadequately represents the physics underlying the protocol. Consequently, we propose a modified definition of counterfactual computation. Finally, we comment on one of the most interesting aspects of the error-correcting protocol.
Goodman and Parry on Counterfactual
Oswaldo Chateaubriand
Principia : an International Journal of Epistemology , 2011,
Abstract: Goodman’s paper “The Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals” played a central role in the debate concerning the proper analysis of counterfactual conditionals. In what follows I examine Goodman’s paper in detail and discuss objections and suggestions by Parry in his “Reexamination of the Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals”. I restrict my discussion to what Goodman termed “the problem of relevant conditions”, which is the main subject of Parry’s criticism, and which I also consider to be the central issue for Goodman’s approach.
Weak Measurements and Counterfactual Computation  [PDF]
Onur Hosten,Paul G. Kwiat
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: Vaidman, in a recent article adopts the method of 'quantum weak measurements in pre- and postselected ensembles' to ascertain whether or not the chained-Zeno counterfactual computation scheme proposed by Hosten et al. is counterfactual; which has been the topic of a debate on the definition of counterfactuality. We disagree with his conclusion, which brings up some interesting aspects of quantum weak measurements and some concerns about the way they are interpreted.
Reasoning with `Unless′ counterfactual conditionals  [cached]
Juan A. García-Madruga,Sergio Moreno-Ríos,Ana Cristina Quelhas,Csongor Juhos
Psicológica , 2009,
Abstract: This article tackles factual and counterfactual "unless" expressions such as "Virginia will not pass the exam unless she works harder" and "Virginia would not have passed the exam unless she had worked harder". "Unless" is a negative conditional that is semantically equivalent to "if not". However, some authors have claimed that "unless" is more closely related to "only if" than to "if not". We report two experiments that compare conditional inferences from "unless" to "if-not'" and "only if" factual and counterfactual conditionals. The first experiment compared "not-A unless B" and "if not-B then not-A" and showed a difference between affirmative (i.e. B therefore A, A therefore B) and negative (i.e. not-B therefore not-A, not-A therefore not- B) inferences only for factual "if not". The second experiment compared "not-A unless B "and "A only if B" and showed no difference between affirmative and negative inferences for factual "unless" and "only if", whereas the affirmative inferences were higher for counterfactual "unless" and "only if". In both experiments latency results confirmed that inferences from "B to A" were faster than from "A to B" for "unless" and "only if". The implications of the results for the mental representations and processing of counterfactual "unless", "if not" and "only if" are discussed in the context of mental model theory.
Inference on Counterfactual Distributions  [PDF]
Victor Chernozhukov,Ivan Fernandez-Val,Blaise Melly
Statistics , 2009,
Abstract: Counterfactual distributions are important ingredients for policy analysis and decomposition analysis in empirical economics. In this article we develop modeling and inference tools for counterfactual distributions based on regression methods. The counterfactual scenarios that we consider consist of ceteris paribus changes in either the distribution of covariates related to the outcome of interest or the conditional distribution of the outcome given covariates. For either of these scenarios we derive joint functional central limit theorems and bootstrap validity results for regression-based estimators of the status quo and counterfactual outcome distributions. These results allow us to construct simultaneous confidence sets for function-valued effects of the counterfactual changes, including the effects on the entire distribution and quantile functions of the outcome as well as on related functionals. These confidence sets can be used to test functional hypotheses such as no-effect, positive effect, or stochastic dominance. Our theory applies to general counterfactual changes and covers the main regression methods including classical, quantile, duration, and distribution regressions. We illustrate the results with an empirical application to wage decompositions using data for the United States. As a part of developing the main results, we introduce distribution regression as a comprehensive and flexible tool for modeling and estimating the \textit{entire} conditional distribution. We show that distribution regression encompasses the Cox duration regression and represents a useful alternative to quantile regression. We establish functional central limit theorems and bootstrap validity results for the empirical distribution regression process and various related functionals.
Counterfactual thinking and regulatory fit  [PDF]
Keith D. Markman,Matthew N. McMullen,Ronald A. Elizaga,Nobuko Mizoguchi
Judgment and Decision Making , 2006,
Abstract: According to regulatory fit theory (Higgins, 2000), when people make decisions with strategies that sustain their regulatory focus orientation, they ``feel right'' about what they are doing, and this ``feeling-right'' experience then transfers to subsequent choices, decisions, and evaluations. The present research was designed to link the concept of regulatory fit to functional accounts of counterfactual thinking. In the present study, participants generated counterfactuals about their anagram performance, after which persistence on a second set of anagrams was measured. Under promotion framing (i.e., find 90\% or more of all the possible words) upward counterfactual thinking in general elicited larger increases in persistence than did downward counterfactual thinking in general, but under prevention framing (i.e., avoid failing to find 90\% or more of all the possible words) upward evaluation (comparing reality to a better reality) elicited larger increases in persistence than did upward reflection (focusing on a better reality), whereas downward reflection (focusing on a worse reality) elicited larger increases in persistence than did downward evaluation (comparing reality to a worse reality). In all, the present findings suggest that the generation of counterfactuals enhances the likelihood that individuals will engage in courses of action that fit with their regulatory focus orientation.
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