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Oxytocin and socioemotional aging: Current knowledge and future trends  [PDF]
Natalie C. Ebner,Gabriela M. Maura,Kai MacDonald,Lars Westberg,H?kan Fischer
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00487
Abstract: The oxytocin (OT) system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and—though evidence is somewhat mixed-intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model) which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety-all of which have high relevance in aging—and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan.
“Uncertainty makes us free”. Liberalism, risk and individual security
Pat O'Malley
Behemoth : a Journal on Civilisation , 2009,
Abstract: Security associated with 'the state′ easily is imagined only in terms of a 'Hobbesian′ problematic of the transfer of rights to a sovereign. Yet internal to liberal government is a 'Benthamite′ concern with security as the provision of a calculable environment in which rational actors may plan. A central dilemma arises within liberalism over what are optimal levels and forms of calculability. Modernist government demands scientific predictability, universality and rationality. This clash with traditional liberal visions of individual freedom is envisaged as fundamentally incompatible with a future that is 'excessively′ calculable and thus not open to enterprise. Through an historical analysis of insurance, the paper traces the contours of this struggle over security-calculability, and how this genealogy has shaped the current tension between risk and uncertainty in ways not readily grasped by the idea of a 'risk society′.
Adolescents’ Subtypes of Attachment Security with Fathers and Mothers and Self-Perceptions of Socioemotional Adjustment  [PDF]
Michal Al-Yagon
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.24046
Abstract: The study examined adolescents’ secure attachment with both versus one parent, for deeper understanding of adolescents’ perceptions of their socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, the current study aimed to identify different attachment profiles with father and mother among 203 adolescents aged 15 - 17 years and to examine whether these profiles associated differently with their self-rated peer-network loneliness and peer-dyadic loneliness, positive and negative affect, and internalizing behavior problems. Descriptive statistics demonstrated that more adolescents were classified as securely attached to mothers than to fathers. No significant associations emerged between adolescents’ sex and attachment classification distributions with mothers or fathers. Using k-means clustering methods, four distinct clusters emerged: secure attachment to both parents/to neither/to only father/to only mother. Tukey HSD and Scheffe procedures validated the attachment clusters, revealing significant inter-cluster differences on all of the adolescents’ socioemotional measures. The current results also highlighted that the group of adolescents who felt securely attached to both parents was least vulnerable to experiencing socioemotional difficulties. In addition, secure attachment only to one's mother and not to one's father did not seem to act as a protective factor for these adolescents, with the exception of protection from peer-dyadic loneliness. Discussion focused on understanding the possible contribution of parent-adolescent secure attachment among these subgroups of typically developing adolescents.
Guide for Authors  [cached]
Hakan Arslan
European Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.5155/eurjchem.1.1.iii-v.25
Abstract: Guide for Authors
Guide for Authors  [cached]
Hakan Arslan
European Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.5155/eurjchem.1.3.ii-iv.291
Abstract: Guide for Authors
Vibrational excitons in ionophores: Experimental probes for quantum coherence-assisted ion transport and selectivity in ion channels  [PDF]
Ziad Ganim,Andrei Tokmakoff,Alipasha Vaziri
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/13/11/113030
Abstract: Despite a large body of work, the exact molecular details underlying ion-selectivity and transport in the potassium channel have not been fully laid to rest. One major reason has been the lack of experimental methods that can probe these mechanisms dynamically on their biologically relevant time scales. Recently it was suggested that quantum coherence and its interplay with thermal vibration might be involved in mediating ion-selectivity and transport. In this work we present an experimental strategy for using time resolved infrared spectroscopy to investigate these effects. We show the feasibility by demonstrating the IR absorption and Raman spectroscopic signatures of potassium binding model molecules that mimic the transient interactions of potassium with binding sites of the selectivity filter during ion conduction. In addition to guide our experiments on the real system we have performed molecular dynamic-based simulations of the FTIR and 2DIR spectra of the entire KcsA complex, which is the largest complex for which such modeling has been performed. We found that by combing isotope labeling with 2D IR spectroscopy, the signatures of potassium interaction with individual binding sites would be experimentally observable and identified specific labeling combinations that would maximize our expected experimental signatures.
Socioemotional Competence, Self-Perceptions, and Receptive Vocabulary in Shy Canadian Children  [PDF]
Sandra BOSACKI
International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education , 2012,
Abstract: Given existing gendered stereotypic assumptions regarding shyness and children’s schoolcompetencies, this study explored relations among socioemotional competencies, self-perceptions,and receptive vocabulary in shy children. Ninety-one Canadian children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years)were classified as shy (n = 26) based on teachers’ behavioural ratings (n = 8), and completed selfperceptionand vocabulary measures. Compared to their non-shy peers, shy children reported lowerlevels of self-worth, and were rated by their teachers as more aggressive. Shy girls scored the loweston the vocabulary task, and received the highest teacher emotional competence ratings. Shy boysscored the highest on the vocabulary task, and received the lowest emotionally competence ratings.Gender-role stereotypes and shyness and their educational implications are discussed.
Mood Disorders among Older Adults Participating in Individual and Group Active Environments: “Me” versus “Us,” or Both?  [PDF]
Rachael C. Stone,Brad A. Meisner,Joseph Baker
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/727983
Abstract: Involvement in physical activity is associated with improved mental health including better social skills, coping mechanisms, and lower rates of depression. However, evidence on whether group or individual active environments better facilitate these benefits remains inconsistent. This cross-sectional cohort study examined the mental health reports of older adults (aged 50+) in relation to participation in group or individual active environments. Logistic multivariate regression analyses were conducted on the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 4.1, 2007-2008, ?? = 4 4 , 0 5 7 ). Results illustrated that those active in both group and individual environments were 59% less likely to have a mood disorder than those who were not participating in either ( ?? < 0 . 0 0 1 ). Also, those active in both environments were 31% less likely to have a mood disorder than those active in an individual environment ( ?? < 0 . 0 0 1 ). Participating in only group or only individual environments had a similar effect compared to individuals not active in any environments for reducing rates of reported mood disorders (22% and 28%, resp.). However, the findings related to only group environments were not significant. These findings reveal that participating in both group and individual physical activities may have important implications for maintaining older adults' mental health status. 1. Introduction Older adults in Canada are the fastest growing cohort of the population [1], a trend echoed in other industrialized nations [2]. Currently, over 35% of the Canadian population is comprised of individuals aged 50 years and above, a number expected to rise as the baby boom generation progresses further into older age [2, 3]. Research has concluded that older individuals who are living longer often do so with a reduced quality of life and a greater disease/disability burden [4]. With these outcomes in mind, a growing field of research has begun to focus on how to facilitate “successful aging” amongst the aging population. A vital component of many successful aging models pertains to maintaining one’s psychological and mental health [5, 6]. Mood disorders are a growing health concern for an aging population. For example, the percentage of Canadians reporting a diagnosed mood disorder rose from 5.3% in 2003 to 6.3% in 2009; 43% of those reporting a mood disorder in 2009 were 50 years of age and greater [7, 8]. A major mood disorder is an umbrella term for a range of depressive and manic disorders, and their variants. Depressive disorders are marked by experiencing negative
Selectivity of odorant receptors in insects  [PDF]
Jonathan D. Bohbot,Joseph C. Dickens
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2012.00029
Abstract: Insect olfactory receptors (ORs) detect chemicals, shape neuronal physiology, and regulate behavior. Although ORs have been categorized as “generalists” and “specialists” based on their ligand spectrum, both electrophysiological studies and recent pharmacological investigations show that ORs specifically recognize non-pheromonal compounds, and that our understanding of odorant-selectivity mirrors our knowledge of insect chemical ecology. As we are progressively becoming aware that ORs are activated through a variety of mechanisms, the molecular basis of odorant-selectivity and the corollary notion of broad-tuning need to be re-examined from a pharmacological and evolutionary perspective.
What information structure tells us about individual/stage-level predicates  [cached]
Angel Jiménez-Fernández
Borealis : An International Journal of Hispanic Linguistics , 2012, DOI: 10.7557/1.1.1.2293
Abstract: The goal of this paper is to explore the lexical-syntactic structure of copulative constructions and argument small clauses within the framework proposed by Gallego & Uriagereka (2011) for the Individual-Level/Stage-Level distinction (Carlson 1988, Kratzer 1995) and implement their theory by claiming that there is a crucial correlation between IL/SL constructions and their information structure. I argue that IL subjects are topics (and hence this is a categorical construction, following Kuroda 1972, Milsark 1977 and Raposo & Uriagereka 1995), whereas in SL constructions the topic may either be the subject or a silent spatiotemporal argument (their construction being thetic). I show the topic nature of IL subjects in contexts of specificity and subextraction. I ultimately derive the IS of IL/SL constructions from their lexical-syntactic structure and identify the type of topic here as an Aboutness-Topic (in the sense of Frascarelli & Hinterh lzl 2007, Lambrecht 1994, Erteschik-Shir 1997). Keywords: individual-level/stage-level predicates, copulas, small clause, central-coincidence/terminal coincidence prepositions, topic, specificity, subextraction
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