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Infusing Disability Sport into the Sport Management Curriculum  [cached]
Deborah R. Shapiro,Brenda G. Pitts,Mary A. Hums,Jimmy Calloway
Choregia , 2012,
Abstract: Disability sport is growing around the world with momentum and is described as a “movement” (Bailey, 2008; DePauw & Gavron, 2005). While there are more similarities than differences with sport management for able-bodied athletes and those with disabilities, there are additional needs and considerations for persons with disabilities (DePauw & Gavron, 2005). The noticeable visibility of individuals with disabilities in society, including sport, raises concerns about the degree to which sport management academic programs have modified their curricula to ensure that individuals working in the sport management field are prepared to deal with theuniqueness of disability sport. This paper (a) discusses theoretical perspectives toward understanding and thinking about disability, (b) explores ways to enhance sport management curricula through infusion of disability sport, (c) reflects upon current social practices for curriculum integration of athletes with disabilities in sport, and (d) acknowledges infusion of disability sport businesses, organizations and events.
SOMATOTYPES OF NATIONAL ELITE COMBATIVE SPORT ATHLETES  [PDF]
Willy Pieter,Luigi T. Bercades
Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity , 2009,
Abstract: PIETER, W.; BERCADES, L. T. Somatotypes of National Elite Combative Sport Athletes. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30, 2009. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the somatotypes of elite adult combative sport athletes. Subjects were members of the Philippine national senior teams in karate and pencak silat (30 men, 24.27 ± 4.66 years, 168.85 ± 5.09 cm, 64.88 ± 10.63 kg and 10 women, 20.33 ± 2.58 years, 158.65 ± 5.18 cm, 54.55 ± 7.06 kg) as well as fencing (6 women, 24.33 ± 3.72 years, 153.25 ± 6.04 cm, 54.25 ± 8.37 kg). The Heath-Carter somatotype method was used to assess the physiques of the athletes. To determine differences between combative sports groups, 1-way Anovas were used. The global somatotype analysis almost revealed a trivial difference in somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM) between karate and silat men (p = 0.056, eta2 = 0.211). There was no difference in SAM between elite and developmental silat athletes (p = 0.883, eta2 = 0.001). However, there was a trivial difference (eta2 = 0.226) in age between the two levels of competition (26.88 ± 2.03 years and 22.50 ± 5.40 years for the elite and developmental men, respectively) (p = 0.046).
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ATHLETES: BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, GENE DOPING AND SPORT  [cached]
Andy Miah
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: The author discusses the extremely important issue of modifying athletes genetically in order to develop elite sportsmen. He sheds light on various aspects of bioethics and their implications for the practices and management of sport in general.
KINEMATIC DETERMINANTS OF EARLY ACCELERATION IN FIELD SPORT ATHLETES  [cached]
Aron J. Murphy,Robert G. Lockie,Aaron J. Coutts
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2003,
Abstract: Acceleration performance is important for field sport athletes that require a high level of repeat sprint ability. Although acceleration is widely trained for, there is little evidence outlining which kinematic factors delineate between good and poor acceleration. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic differences between individuals with fast and slow acceleration. Twenty field sport athletes were tested for sprint ability over the first three steps of a 15m sprint. Subjects were filmed at high speed to determine a range of lower body kinematic measures. For data analysis, subjects were then divided into relatively fast (n = 10) and slow (n = 10) groups based on their horizontal velocity. Groups were then compared across kinematic measures, including stride length and frequency, to determine whether they accounted for observed differences in sprint velocity. The results showed the fast group had significantly lower (~11-13%) left and right foot contact times (p < .05), and an increased stride frequency (~9%), as compared to the slow group. Knee extension was also significantly different between groups (p < .05). There was no difference found in stride length. It was concluded that those subjects who are relatively fast in early acceleration achieve this through reduced ground contact times resulting in an improved stride frequency. Training for improved acceleration should be directed towards using coaching instructions and drills that specifically train such movement adaptations
Dise o y aplicación de un programa de intervención de práctica deportiva inclusiva y su efecto sobre la actitud hacia la discapacidad: El Campus Inclusivo de Baloncesto. (Design and implementation of an intervention program of inclusive sport and its effect on attitudes toward disability: The Inclusive Basketball Campus).
Javier Pérez-Tejero,Carmen Ocete,Gema Ortega-Vila,Javier Coterón
RICYDE : Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte , 2012,
Abstract: El objetivo del presente estudio fue dise ar y aplicar un programa de intervención como modelo de práctica deportiva inclusiva, analizando el impacto que ejerce en la actitud hacia la discapacidad en chicos que no la tienen. Para ello, se puso en práctica el “Campus Inclusivo de Baloncesto”, organizado por la Fundación Real Madrid, como actividad deportiva inclusiva donde la práctica del baloncesto sirve de contexto para una práctica normalizadora, ya que a él asisten participantes con y sin discapacidad física. El dise o del estudio fue de tipo experimental, utilizando el "Cuestionario de actitudes hacia las personas con discapacidad" (Reina, López, Jiménez, García-Calvo, y Hutzler, 2011) aplicándolo antes de la intervención, después y pasados 9 meses de la misma, a los 21 participantes sin discapacidad (17 hombres y 4 mujeres), con edades comprendidas entre los 8 y los 14 a os. Se aplicó la prueba de Wilcoxon y ANOVA de medidas repetidas, estableciendo el nivel de confianza en p≤0,05. Los resultados muestran que se registran cambios significativos en positivo tras la actividad a favor de la actitud hacia las personas con discapacidad, además de mantenerse dichos cambios en el tiempo. Por tanto, podemos afirmar que el dise o propuesto, llevado a cabo en este Campus Inclusivo de Baloncesto, se muestra eficaz a la hora de favorecer los beneficios de la inclusión en contextos de iniciación deportiva.Abstract The aim of this study was to design and to implement an intervention program as a model of inclusive sport, analyzing its impact on the attitude towards disability in children who have no disability. For this purpose, was implemented the "Inclusive Basketball Campus", organized by the Real Madrid Foundation, where basketball as inclusive sport provides a context for normalizing practice, since to this activity is attended by participants with and without physical disabilities. The study design was experimental, using the "Survey of attitudes towards people with disabilities" (Reina, López, Jiménez, García-Calvo, & Hutzler, 2011) applying before intervention, just after intervention and 9 months later on a sample of 21 participants without disabilities (17 males and 4 females) aged between 8 and 14 were studied. Wilcoxon and ANOVA′s repeated test was applied, setting the confidence level at p≤0.05. The results show that there are significant changes after the activity in positive attitude changes towards people with disabilities, and these changes keep in time. Therefore, it can be stated that the proposed design, carried out in the Inclusive Campus Ba
Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns  [PDF]
Karine Schaal,Muriel Tafflet,Hala Nassif,Valérie Thibault,Capucine Pichard,Mathieu Alcotte,Thibaut Guillet,Nour El Helou,Geoffroy Berthelot,Serge Simon,Jean-Fran?ois Toussaint
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019007
Abstract: Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced.
Determinants of drug use in sport: a survey of Italian athletes
Giuseppe La Torre,Francesco Limongelli,Daniele Masala,Paola Brancaccio
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.2427/6015
Abstract: The aim of this survey was to study the socio-demographic determinants of drug use in sporting activities at an amateur level in Italy. In 2000 a cross-sectional study was carried out in two Italian regions (Latium and Campania). The participants were 1056 athletes (age range: 16-35 years; 660 males and 396 females). The results show that 28.3% thought “doping” was creatine, 14.7% said racemed amino-acids, 5.8% said proteins, 24.7% did not know and finally 35.7% correctly recognised it as growth hormone. When asked if using drugs was acceptable in order to improve sporting performance, significant results were associated with age (OR = 1.64 for 18-24 years old and OR = 2.22 for 25-30 years old); gender (males were more prone to consider them acceptable); type of sport undertaken (OR = 1.34 for athletes who practice team sport); educational level (athletes with an elementary level education are at higher risk), and knowledge of the effects of anabolic agents (OR = 0.6 for athletes with poor knowledge). The findings of our study confirm the need to implement preventive interventions, with a special focus on healthier behaviour, for reducing factors that encourage the use and the willingness to use licit and illicit drugs.
Excellence in sport: Towards an understanding of the psychological “architecture” of elite athletes  [PDF]
D.S. Matos,J.F.A. Cruz,L.S. Almeida
Motricidade , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide a brief overview of the literature around the field of excellence, focused on the sport's context. Thus, the main approaches to the study of excellence were presented and then some important factors in its development and maintenance were sought considering a set of social and personal dimensions. Among the latter, the focus of attention was on the athlete's psychological, motivational, affective, and emotional characteristics and skills, in an attempt to design the elite athletes' psychological "architecture". The characterization of these athletes included a number of consensual factors and strategies, such as high levels of motivation, commitment, concentration, and self-confidence, as well as the use of adaptive coping strategies, self-regulation, goal-setting and mental imagery. Although these results show some consistency in terms of research, it is still unsolved the issue of the weight and importance of each one of these factors and how such factors are combined in order to "produce" excellent performances.
The Effect of Mental Imagery upon the Reduction of Athletes` Anxiety during Sport Performance  [PDF]
S.H. Mousavi,Abolfazl Meshkini
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The present research tries to consider the mental imagery effect upon the reduction of athletes` anxiety during sport performance using documentary analysis method. We applied experimental method with pre-post tests and control group. The measuring tool was Ketle anxiety questionnaire (2009). Our statistical population was all tennis players in Zanjan (2010) of whom 25 were chosen as control and 25 as experimental group through Cohen sampling table We applied descriptive and independent t-student, here. Finally, having considered the background and findings related to our topic, our results showed that the mental imagery shall considerably reduce the athletes `anxiety and improve their performance, specifically, if other psychological strategies like self-talk, relaxation and goal-setting are included and the related task is highly familiar to the individuals.
Knee complaints seen in general practice: active sport participants versus non-sport participants
Marienke van Middelkoop, Robbart van Linschoten, Marjolein Y Berger, Bart W Koes, Sita MA Bierma-Zeinstra
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-9-36
Abstract: Patients consulting their GP for a new episode of knee complaints were invited to participate in this prospective cohort study. From the total HONEUR knee cohort population (n = 1068) we extracted patients who were athletes (n = 421) or non-athletes (n = 388).The results showed that acute distortions of the knee were significantly more diagnosed in athletes than in non-athletes (p = 0.04). Further, more athletes were advised by their GP to 'go easy on the knee' than the non-athletes (p < 0.01), but no differences were found in number of referrals and medication prescribed by the GP. The medical consumption was significantly higher among athletes; however, no significant differences were found between the two groups for recovery at one-year follow-up.There are no major differences in the diagnosis and prognosis of knee complaints between athletes and non-athletes presented to the GP. This implies that there are no indications for different treatment strategies applied in both groups. However, athletes are more often advised to 'go easy on the knee' and to rest than non-athletes. Further, there is a trend towards increased medical consumption among athletes while functional disability and pain are lower than among the non-athletes.Complaints of the lower extremities are a serious problem because of their high prevalence and high impact on functional and work disability. A study among the Dutch general population showed a one-year prevalence of 21.9% for knee pain; about 33% of subjects reporting knee or hip complaints during the preceding year indicated that they had contacted their general practitioner (GP) for this complaint[1]. Among the Dutch population, knee problems are the most frequently presented complaints of the lower extremities: 21.4 per 1000 person-years for women and 22.8 per 1000 person-years for men[2].Since sport activities are strongly promoted, the risk of sport injuries is likely to increase. Knee complaints are very common among sport participant
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