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Removal of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solutions onto Microwave Assisted Zinc Chloride Chemical Activated Epicarp of Ricinus communis  [PDF]
M. Makeswari, T. Santhi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.52023
Abstract:

Competitive adsorption of malachite green (MG) in single and binary system on microwave activated epicarp of Ricinus communis (MRC) and microwave assisted zinc chloride activated epicarp of Ricinus communis (ZRC) were analyzed. The preparation of ZRC from Ricinus communis was investigated in this paper. Orthogonal array experimental design method was used to optimize the preparation of ZRC. Optimized parameters were radiation power of 100 W, radiation time of 4 min, concentration of zinc chloride of 30% by volume and impregnation time of 16 h, respectively. The MRC and ZRC were characterized by pHzpc, SEM-EDAX and FTIR analysis. The effect of the presence of one dye solution on the adsorption of the other dye solution was investigated in terms of equilibrium isotherm and adsorption yield. Experimental results indicated that the uptake capacities of one dye were reduced by the presence of the other dye. The adsorption equilibrium data fits the Langmuir model well and follows pseudo second-order kinetics for the bio-sorption process. Among MRC and ZRC, ZRC shows most adsorption ability than MRC in single and binary system.

Removal of Methylene blue from aqueous solution by bioadsorption onto Ricinus communis epicarp Activated Carbon  [cached]
T Santhi,S Manonmani
Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin , 2009,
Abstract: Carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis was used to remove a textile dye (methylene blue (MB)) from an aqueous solution by adsorption technique under varying conditions of agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. Adsorption depended on solution pH, dye concentration, carbon concentration and contact time. Adsorption followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption capacity was found to be 62.5mg/g at a neutral pH of 7 for the particle size of 125-250 μm at room temperature (32±2°C). The kinetics of adsorption of MB obeys Pseudo-first order. The results in this study indicated that activated carbon from Ricinus communis was an attractive candidate for removing cationic dyes from the dye wastewater.
Lead uptake and tolerance of Ricinus communis L.
Romeiro, Solange;Lag?a, Ana M.M.A.;Furlani, Pedro R.;Abreu, Cleide A. de;Abreu, M?nica F. de;Erismann, Norma M.;
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202006000400006
Abstract: phytoextraction is an important technique used for the decontamination of areas polluted by lead. consequently, an understanding of the physiological responses to tolerance of tropical species subjected to increasing levels of contamination is fundamental before considering their use as phytoextractors in contaminated areas. the objective of this study was to assess the lead (pb) uptake and the tolerance of ricinus communis l. the plants were cultivated in nutrient solution in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. lead was tested at concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 400 μmol l-1. the experimental set-up was a block design, using a 4 x 1 factorial scheme, with three replicates. biometric analyses, photosynthesis rates, and pb content in the nutritive solution as well as in roots and shoots were performed. in conclusion, r. communis l is a hyperaccumulator species for pb and presents tolerance properties in lead light concentration.
CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis
Shalabh Thakur, Sanjay Jha, Bharat B Chattoo
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-356
Abstract: CastorDB is a specialized and comprehensive database for the oil seed plant R. communis, integrating information from several diverse resources. CastorDB contains information on gene and protein sequences, gene expression and gene ontology annotation of protein sequences obtained from a variety of repositories, as primary data. In addition, computational analysis was used to predict cellular localization, domains, pathways, protein-protein interactions, sumoylation sites and biochemical properties and has been included as derived data. This database has an intuitive user interface that prompts the user to explore various possible information resources available on a given gene or a protein.CastorDB provides a user friendly comprehensive resource on castor with particular emphasis on its genome, transcriptome, and proteome and on protein domains, pathways, protein localization, presence of sumoylation sites, expression data and protein interacting partners.Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae family) is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop with several well established applications in industry. Castor bean genome is around 350 Mb and was sequenced and assembled in 4X draft by Chan et al. [1] using whole genome shortgun strategy and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, although the function of most of these proteins remains unknown. Thus, a comprehensive database has been developed to provide a useful resource by integrating information on genome, transcriptome, and proteome of R. communis. Sequence data of Castor bean plant was obtained from various resources like National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) [2] and JCVI Castor Bean Genome Database [3]. Appropriate programs were developed to establish a connection with various databases for accessing the information using API. Important information extracted from the analyzed data was compiled in a back-end database using MySQL database server [4] for the construction of CastorDB. The information
Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties
Zarai Zied,Chobba Ines,Mansour Riadh,Békir Ahmed
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-11-102
Abstract: Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.
Ricinus Communis Var Minor Inhibits Follicular Development and Possibly Ovulation in Human Subjects as Shown by Ultrasound Follicle Tracking
H.Y. Goncim, E.S. Mador and J.O. Ogunranti
Clinical Medicine Insights: Reproductive Health , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMRH.S4185
Abstract: There is no evidence from literature to show the use of ultrasound follicle tracking to monitor ovulation in women on Ricinus communis contraception. In the present study 20 women desiring contraception, gave an informed consent to be scanned from day 9 to day 16 of one of their menstrual cycle to track for follicles. After taking one seed of Ricinus communis, the women were again scanned for the same duration. The result obtained showed normal follicular development before the administration of Ricinus communis and the abolition of follicular development in all the 20 volunteers after taking one seed of Ricinus communis (Figs. 1a and 1b). This result showed that one seed of Ricinus communis taken orally is capable of preventing ovulation in humans and hence its anticonceptive effect may be due in part to the prevention of ovulation.
Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys
Dias, Paulo Cesar de Jesus;Granato, Lidio;Ramalho, Lizeti de Toledo de Oliveira;Oliveira, José Américo de;Pretel, Hermes;
Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1808-86942009000300007
Abstract: bone tissue lesions can be caused by congenital and acquired factors, and result in nasal deformities with cosmetic and functional repercussion. surgical treatment in these cases frequently requires complex reconstructions and the use of biomaterials. the polyurethane derived from castor beans (ricinus communis) has a favorable formulation in terms of ease of processing, flexibility, no emission of toxic vapors and low cost. nonetheless, despite favorable results, studies about the use of castor beam polymer (ricinus communis) assessing tissue reaction on the nasal dorsum are still missing in the literature. aim: the goal of the present investigation is to histologically assess the ricinus communis polymer implant biocompatibility with the nasal dorsum. study desing: experimental. materials and methods: we used four cebus appela monkeys, in which we created a nasal dorsal defect in all the animals and there we placed the aforementioned implant. the animals were sacrificed 270 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. results: in the histology analysis we did not observe the presence of foreign body granulomas or phagocytic cells. we also observed a progressive bone formation and maturation. conclusion: macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant was biocompatible.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF RICINUS COMMUNIS AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS  [PDF]
Kushwah Poonam,Singh Krishan Pratap
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The present paper deals with the antimicrobial activities of seed extracts of Ricinus communis against some human pathogenic bacteria namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and two fungal strains namely Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The aqueous and methanol extracts of seeds were screened for their antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion method. The aqueous seed extracts were less active but methanol extracts showed high degree zone of inhibition against the tested pathogens.
Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine—A Summary of Real Cases  [PDF]
Sylvia Worbs,Kernt K?hler,Diana Pauly,Marc-André Avondet,Martin Schaer,Martin B. Dorner,Brigitte G. Dorner
Toxins , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/toxins3101332
Abstract: Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.
Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine—A Summary of Real Cases  [PDF]
Sylvia Worbs,Kernt K?hler,Diana Pauly,Marc-André Avondet
Toxins , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/toxins3101332
Abstract: Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.
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