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YIELD AND OIL CONTENT OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) AS INFLUENCED BY SPACING AND REDUCED IRRIGATION CONDITION  [cached]
Abdul Rauf,Muhammad Maqsood,Adeel Ahmad,Amjad S. Gondal
eSci Journal of Crop Production , 2012,
Abstract: Availability of water is main factor in sunflower productivity. Planting density also influence the yield of sunflower. An experiment was carried out at postgraduate research area of Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during autumn 2011 to evaluate the effect of row spacing under reduced irrigation conditions on growth, yield and oil content of sunflower. The experiment was laid-out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having three replications. The size of plot for this experiment was 3m x 5m. This experiment was comprised of two row spacing (60 cm and 75 cm apart) and four irrigation levels (full irrigation, irrigation missed at the beginning of stem elongation, irrigation missed at beginning of flowering, irrigation missed at achene development). Uniform management practices were carried out. Data were taken by standard procedures used for sunflower growth and yield procedures. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA technique. Treatments’ means were compared using Least Significant Difference test at 5% probability level. The results had shown significant results regarding the yield and yield components of sunflower. Different row spacing and irrigation levels affect almost all the parameters significantly. Various row spacing had significant effect in case of yield components. The maximum results were obtained in case of 75 cm row spacing i.e. 1000-achene weight (47.2 g), achene yield (2.97 t ha-1) and biological yield (10.02 t ha-1). While number of achenes per head was non-significant in case of row spacing. Various irrigation levels differed significantly in case of yield components and maximum mean value i.e. 1000-achene weight (50.5 g), number of achenes per head (643.33), achene yield (3.01 t ha-1) and biological yield (10.19 t ha-1)was observed under the control (full irrigation).
Potential allelopathic effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on microorganisms
J Kamal, A Bano
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Potential allelopathic effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivar Hysun 38 on Rhizobium, Azospirillum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were studied by applying oxidase, QTS tests and Gram staining. Microorganisms for the control group were isolated from soil sampled before sowing sunflower. A commonly observed effect of allelochemicals was a decrease, compared to control, in the number of colonies of the three groups of microorganisms, isolated from the roots of sunflower in the case of Azospirillum and PSB and from the rhizosphere of sunflower in the case of Rhizobium. Isolates of Azospirillum and PSB from the rhizosphere of sunflower differed in their response: the number of colonies of Azospirillum remained the same as that in control but that of PSB was greater than that in control. QTS tests showed a range of responses, which varied with the group of microorganisms as well as with the habitat from which they were collected, namely roots of sunflower, rhizosphere of sunflower, and control. Allelopathy also influenced the results of Gram staining test but not those of the oxidase test.
Effect of chromium on growth attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

FOZIA Andaleeb,MUHAMMAD Anjum Zia,MUHAMMAD Ashraf,ZAFAR Mahmood Khalid,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2008,
Abstract: Heavy metal soil pollution takes place when the metal concentration of soil exceeds natural background level and causes ecological destruction and deterioration of the environment.In the present study,a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chromium-contaminated soil in sunflower(Helianthus annuus L.)growth attributes.Three different levels of chromium(Cr)i.e.,20, 40,and 60 mg/kg were applied to three varieties of sunflower(G-3,G-9,and G-59).The results of morphological,chemical,and yield p...
Effect of Potassium Levels on the Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
Muhammad Ayyaz Khan,Khalil Ahmad,Jamil Ahmad
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: Effect of various levels of potassium on the yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied at the Agronomic Research Area, Gomal University, D.I. Khan, during autumn 1997. The highest 1000-seed weight (53.71g) was obtained from the plot, fertilized with 150kg potassium ha-1, while the minimum 1000-seed weight (46.41 g) was obtained in control plots. the highest seed yield (4153 kg ha-1) was also obtained in plots where 150 kg potassium per hectare was applied. The lowest seed yield was recorded in control plots (3402 kg ha-1). It can be suggested from these results that potassium can be applied up to 150 kg ha-1 to obtain high seed yield of sunflower and to maintain the fertility regarding potassium level in the soil of D.I.Khan.
Screening of some sunflower (Helianthus annuus Linnaeus compositae) Genotypes against insect pests  [PDF]
Muhammad Aslam,Hafeez-ur-Rahman
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Six different genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) were screened against Aphids (Aphis gossypii) whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) leaf miner (Plytomyza atricornis) Green leaf hoppers (Empoasca spp.) Painted bugs (Bagrada spp.), and sunflower seed weevil (Smicronys spp) at, early growing and anthesis stages. The results concluded that SMH-9707 was found partially resistant against aphids, whereas Sf-187 was found less susceptible against leaf miner and resistant against whitefly. Suncross-24 was found highly susceptible against painted bug among all the six genotypes of sunflower. SF-187, Parsun-1 and suncross -24 were partially resistant against green leaf hoppers. SMH -9707 was found highly susceptible against sunflower seed weevil and SF-187 was found partially resistant.
Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
II Ozyigit, N Gozukirmizi, BD Semiz
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: This study aims to observe the effect of genotype, hormone and culture conditions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) callus induction and indirect plant regeneration. Calli were obtained from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of five different sunflower genotypes; Trakya 80, Trakya 129, Trakya 259, Trakya 2098 and Viniimk 8931, which are commercially important for Turkey. Seeds germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media contained no hormones. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were cultured on MS media supplemented with 1 mg/l 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) and different percentage of callus inductions were obtained. Calli were cultured on MS + 1 mg/l BA (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.5 mg/l NAA (-naphthalene acetic acid). Some genotypes showed high regeneration response while others showed lower on the same media with hypocotyl and cotyledon derived calli. This study showed that genotypic differences affect callus induction and plant regeneration in sunflower tissue culture studies.
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm evaluation for drought tolerance
Saeed Rauf,Hafeez A. Sadaqat
Communications in Biometry and Crop Science , 2007,
Abstract: Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production throughout the world. It is important, therefore, to evaluate genotypes for this stress. Our objective was to study yield and yield-related traits under irrigated and drought conditions in 56 sunflower genotypes of different origin and growth habit. A wide range of intraspecific genetic variability was present in sunflower, which could be used to develop new genotypes, more adapted to drought conditions. The highest level of tolerance was present in local genotypes. Among restorers, the highest level of tolerance was present in RL-57 (Pakistan), whereas an exotic restorer F-Yu-82 (Spain) showed the highest yield, along with high drought susceptibility index. Inbred line ORI-9/B (Pakistan) was identified as the most tolerant line combined with low yield potential, whereas AMES-10107 and AMES-10103 (China) were found to be moderately drought-tolerant lines with highest yield. Selection among segregating progeny from hybridization among lines with good drought tolerance with lines of good yield potential may lead to the development of superior inbred lines.
Character association and path analysis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
H.C.Sowmya, Y.G.Shadakshari, K.J. Pranesh, Arpita Srivastava and B. Nandini
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2010,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken during Summer 2009 at ZARS, GKVK, Bangalore. The material used in this study wasprovided by All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Sunflower, Bengaluru. The base material comprised of thirty eightsterility maintainer lines (‘B’ lines) and thirty eight fertility restorer lines (‘R’ lines). The studies on correlation and pathcoefficient analysis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) showed that days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, headdiameter, seed filling per cent, 100 seed weight, total dry matter per plant and oil content characters were positively andsignificantly correlated with seed yield per plant. Among these characters head diameter recorded maximum direct effect on seedyield per plant whereas all other characters recorded low direct effect. Seed filling per cent and plant height recorded maximumindirect effect on seed yield per plant through head diameter. The results of the study revealed that the character head diametercould be given emphasis for isolation of desirable genotypes, with high genetic potential for seed yield.
Interactive Effect of Nitrogen and Water Stress on Leaf Area of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  [PDF]
Abdul Ghani,Dr. Mumtaz Hussain,Anwar-ul-Hassan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: The interactive effect of nitrogen and water stress on leaf area of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied in Pots. Nitrogen and sporadic stress was induced by a cycle of ten-days watering and ten-days stress period after 20, 30, 40 and 50 days of sowing. Data revealed that the sporadic stress and nitrogen had highly significant response. When either the stress period was increased or nitrogen level decreased, the leaf area significantly decreased. The highest leaf area values were recorded with full dose of nitrogen, intermediate with 1/3rd dose and the lowest with 1/8th dose of nitrogen at all sporadic stress levels.
A suffrutescent Helianthus from Los Angeles County, California  [PDF]
Aleksi Baznekian
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.450v1
Abstract: A suffrutescent individual, belonging to the genus Helianthus, and bearing resemblance to H. annuus, has been observed in Los Angeles County, California. This individual was observed to woody proximally; not a character of the herbaceous annual sunflower, H. annuus. Photographs of this woody individual and a general herbaceous representative H. annuus are presented in this article. Dr. David J. Keil, an Asteraceae (sunflower family) taxonomist, suggests that a new shrubby species of Helianthus may be present in California, and thus, this suffrutescent individual may be a representative of that woody species. It may also be a woody variety of H. annuus.
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