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Study on Characteristics of Gold Powder with Round Shape for Maki-e  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.610086
Abstract: Maki-e is a traditional Japanese decorative technique that uses the natural lacquer Urushi and metal powders. Currently, there exist only two companies that manufacture metal powder for the purpose of Maki-e, and this research focuses on comparing the material characteristics of the gold powders with round shape manufactured by them. EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis, image analysis of particle shape before and after Maki-e processing, and color analysis of samples after Maki-e processing were carried out in this research. The study revealed that current gold powders with round shape had almost the same content ratio regardless of the manufacturing company and the powder diameter. In addition, spherical shape and irregular shape were observed in any gold powders, and the aggregates were observed in powder with increasing the powder diameter, while the shape of the aggregates differed with manufacturing companies. Therefore, it was indicated that the aggregates in the powder made by Asano Co., Ltd. had an influence on the particle diameter and its deviation after Maki-e processing. Moreover, the powder in Urushi resin has an influence on the Maki-e appearance because there is a color difference in polished powder, powder in Urushi resin, and Urushi resin.
Study on Properties of Silver Powder for Maki-e  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.61001
Abstract: Maki-e is a traditional Japanese decorative technique that uses the natural lacquer Urushi and metal powders. In 2014, there exist only two companies that manufacture silver powder for the purpose of Maki-e, and this study focuses on comparing the powders manufactured by them. Gloss and color of each silver powder were measured after Maki-e decoration was finished, and EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) was used to determine the differences in their chemical composition. In addition, to verify the effect of polishing, residual gloss after sulfuration and polishing was measured. The study revealed that the shapes of the silver powders (Maru-fun, No. 1) manufactured by the two companies are different and it affects the occupancy rate of Urushi and powder, which in turn affects their gloss and color. Wakou silver has a very strong resistance to sulfuration; however, owing to its Pd content, its chroma is much lower than that of other powders. It was shown that sulfuration on powder surface can be removed by polishing irrespective of the shape and chemical composition ratio of the particles.
Effect of Eggshell Powder on the Stabilizing Potential of Lime on an Expansive Clay Soil  [PDF]
O.O. Amu,A.B. Fajobi,B.O. Oke
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: This research was meant to study the effect of Eggshell Powder (ESP) on the stabilizing potential of lime on an expansive clay soil. Tests were carried out to determine the optimal quantity of lime and the optimal percentage of lime-ESP combination; the optimal quantity of lime was gradually replaced with suitable amount of eggshell powder. The lime stabilized and lime-ESP stabilized mixtures were subjected to engineering tests. The optimal percentage of lime-ESP combination was attained at a 4% ESP + 3% lime, which served as a control. Results of the Maximum Dry Density (MDD), California Bearing Ratio (CBR), unconfined compression test and Undrained triaxial shear strength test all indicated that lime stabilization at 7% is better than the combination of 4% ESP + 3% lime.
Eggshell Appearance Does Not Signal Maternal Corticosterone Exposure in Japanese Quail: An Experimental Study with Brown-Spotted Eggs  [PDF]
Camille Duval, Phillip Cassey, Paul G. Lovell, Ivan Mik?ík, S. James Reynolds, Karen A. Spencer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080485
Abstract: Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown) is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green) is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control) or corticosterone (treatment). We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an avian visual model.
Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Powder by Eggshell  [PDF]
Himanshu Khandelwal, Satya Prakash
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2016.42011
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA) having chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is the main chemical component of human bone tissue (70%). This is the reason why it has been widely engaged in the dental and non-load bearing implantations, to cope up with the bone response as a bioactive material. In this study HA powder was synthesized by wet chemical method, using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and eggshells. The synthesized HA powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The Thermos gravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA) was also carried out to evaluate the stability of the synthesized HA powder at higher temperatures. The results of the study indicate that sintered (at 900°C) HA powder resembles the feature of pure and single apatite phase having favourable Ca/P ratio ranging from 1.7 to 2.4.
Adsorption of lignosulfonate compounds using powdered eggshell  [PDF]
Muhammad Ali Zulfikar,Edeh Dieke Mariske,Samitha Dewi Djajanti
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Batch adsorption of lignosulfonates using untreated powdered eggshell under the influences of mixing time, pH,particle size and dose of powdered eggshell was investigated. Adsorption isotherms of lignosulfonates onto powder eggshellwere also studied. Eggshells were collected from the Balubur traditional market in Bandung, Indonesia, washed with distilledwater, air dried, and then ground into powder of different particle sizes. Kinetic studies found that equilibrium time was ashigh as 90 minutes. From experiments carried out at different pH, it was observed that pH plays an important role in theadsorption of lignosulfonate compounds. It was also observed that particles size has no significant effect on the adsorptionof lignosulfonate compounds. The optimum dosage of powdered eggshell was 30 g/100 mL of 500 mg/L lignosulfonatesolution. Adsorption isotherms studied through the use of graphical methods revealed that the adsorption of lignosulfonatesonto powdered eggshell follows the Langmuir model.
Eggshell Powder as an Adsorbent for Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies
R. Bhaumik,N. K. Mondal,B. Das,P. Roy,K. C. Pal,C. Das,A. Baneerjee,Jayanta kumar Datta
Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/790401
Abstract: A new medium, eggshell powder has been developed for fluoride removal from aqueous solution. Fluoride adsorption was studied in a batch system where adsorption was found to be pH dependent with maximum removal efficiency at 6.0. The experimental data was more satisfactorily fitted with Langmuir isotherm model. The kinetics and the factor controlling adsorption process fully accepted by pseudo-second-order model were also discussed. Ea was found to be 45.98 kJmol-1 by using Arrhenius equation, indicating chemisorption nature of fluoride onto eggshell powder. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous nature and feasibility of the adsorption process with negative enthalpy (∆H0) value also supported the exothermic nature. Batch experiments were performed to study the applicability of the adsorbent by using fluoride contaminated water collected from affected areas. These results indicate that eggshell powder can be used as an effective, low-cost adsorbent to remove fluoride from aqueous solution as well as groundwater.
Conductive Polymer Based on Polyaniline-Eggshell Powder (PANI-ESP) Composites  [PDF]
Supri A. Ghani,Heah Chong Young
Journal of Physical Science , 2010,
Abstract: In this study, we analysed the characteristics of eggshell powder (ESP)-filled polyaniline (PANI) composites. Raw material eggshells were dried in an oven and blended into a powder. 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone was added to PANI powder to produce a PANI solution, and activated charcoal powder was then added. The solution was placed into a heating mantle with a controlled temperature until a uniform solution was produced. The resultant conductive polymer was then analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of these analyses show that PANI-ESP did not undergo a chemical structural change. The only interaction that occurred was between the filler reinforced with carbon black (CB) and the matrix. The structure of the composite was a face centred cubic (FCC) structure with an average lattice parameter of 0.72 nm. The surface morphology of the composites shows that agglomeration occurred to complete the connection of the conductive path, thus improving the conductivity behaviour. The conductivity of the PANI-ESP composite was also studied and measured in situ during the mixing process.
Enhancing Conductive Polymer Performance Using Eggshell for Ammonia Sensor  [PDF]
Supri Abdul Ghani,Ammar Zakaria,Ali Yeon Md. Shakaff,Mohd. Noor Ahmad
Journal of Physical Science , 2012,
Abstract: Polyaniline/eggshell powder composites are proposed as a novel ammonia detecting sensor. The conductive composite is prepared by mixing eggshell powder and polyaniline using polymerisation process, blended in an appropriate solvent. The mixture is deposited on an interdigit electrode. The solvent then evaporates leaving a polyaniline/eggshell powder composite film. The SEM micrograph shows better interfacial adhesion between the eggshell powders with polyaniline. The polyaniline/eggshell powder composite was assumed to process a face centred cubic (FCC) structure. The sensor S-2 with 0.5 g eggshell powder showed better ammonia gas response and selectivity than sensor S-0 without eggshell powder.
Effect of Different Levels of Calcium and Vitamin D3 on Eggshell Quality Traits  [cached]
M. Afsharmanesh,J. Pourreza,A. Samie
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2001,
Abstract: This experiment was carried out to study the effect of different levels (3.06, 3.23, 3.4, 3.57 and 3.74%) of calcium and vitamin D3 (2000, 2200 and 2400 IU/kg diet) on eggshell quality of laying hens. In a completely randomized design and in a 5×3 (15 treatments) factorial arrangement, two hundred and forty (240) white leghorn laying hens, strain Hy-Line W36 and 26 weeks old, were divided into 60 replicates, four hens per replicate. The experimental period lasted 90 days until the hens were 38 weeks of age. The results indicated that shell strength, shell thickness and shell percentage increased significantly (P
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