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Reliable Latency-Aware Routing for Clustered WSNs
Ali Tufail
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/681273
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are persistently evolving from merely a notion of microelectronics to a new realm of practical applications. Certain critical applications like disaster management, healthcare, and military not only require exceptionally reliable but also a low-latency source to sink communication. Nevertheless, low source to sink latency is of utmost importance in these kinds of applications. In this paper, a unique latency-sensitive reliable routing protocol for WSNs has been proposed. This protocol uses the concept of hotlines (highly reliable links) and also utilizes alternative routes to reduce the number of hops from the source to the sink. This reduction of hops not only reduces the end-to-end latency but also increases the reliability manifold. The proposed protocol is evaluated with the help of simulation. The simulation suggests that the proposed routing protocol outperforms previously suggested routing protocols in terms of average end-to-end latency and reliability.
Tree Routing Protocol with Location-based Uniformly Clustering Strategy in WSNs  [cached]
Gengsheng Zheng,Zhengbing Hu
Journal of Networks , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.5.11.1373-1380
Abstract: In WSNs, energy efficiency and low latency are considered as two key issues in designing routing protocol. This paper introduces a two layer hierarchical tree routing protocol with location-based uniformly clustering strategy in WSNs (TRPLUCS), which can gives a good compromise between energy consumption and delay. First, TRPLUCS makes balanced clustering based on geographic regions. That is to say, all the clusters are uniformly distributed in WSNs with approximately equal number of nodes in each cluster. Second, TRPLUCS computes a spanning tree inside the cluster. Each node in cluster transmits data to its cluster-head along the spanning tree. Third, TRPLUCS constructs an optimal tree among all the cluster-heads. The data packets are then routed to the sink along the optimal tree. Simulation results show that TRPLUCS performs better than PEGASIS and LEACH in terms of energy*delay cost metric.
WEAMR — A Weighted Energy Aware Multipath Reliable Routing Mechanism for Hotline-Based WSNs  [PDF]
Ali Tufail,Arslan Qamar,Adil Mehmood Khan,Waleed Akram Baig,Ki-Hyung Kim
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130506295
Abstract: Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs.
Building the Best Reliable Routing Tree Using Link Quality Services in WSNs

DU Jun-Zhao,LIU Hui,CHEN Ping,WU Bo,

自动化学报 , 2007,
Abstract: A recent study in wireless sensor networks(WSNs)has found that the link quality varies significantly with spatial and temporal factors and approximate 5% to 15% of all links are asymmetric links.The link quality services are used to measure and estimate the link quality between neighbors and provide the link layer relay mechanism to mitigate the effects of the unidirectional links.In order to provide the best reliable routing tree and reduce energy consumption, we developed a distributed algorithm to build the best reliable routing tree for every node using the link layer services. From statistic analysis and simulation using TOSSIM,we find that the algorithm can prevent from building a broken routing tree and build a more reliable routing tree.More than 17% nodes have built more reliable routing tree and the percentage of the improved reliability is about 2% to 51%.
Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Through Balanced Clustering  [PDF]
Stefanos A. Nikolidakis,Dionisis Kandris,Dimitrios D. Vergados,Christos Douligeris
Algorithms , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/a6010029
Abstract: The wide utilization of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is obstructed by the severely limited energy constraints of the individual sensor nodes. This is the reason why a large part of the research in WSNs focuses on the development of energy efficient routing protocols. In this paper, a new protocol called Equalized Cluster Head Election Routing Protocol (ECHERP), which pursues energy conservation through balanced clustering, is proposed. ECHERP models the network as a linear system and, using the Gaussian elimination algorithm, calculates the combinations of nodes that can be chosen as cluster heads in order to extend the network lifetime. The performance evaluation of ECHERP is carried out through simulation tests, which evince the effectiveness of this protocol in terms of network energy efficiency when compared against other well-known protocols.
Balanced routing of random calls  [PDF]
Malwina J. Luczak,Colin McDiarmid
Mathematics , 2008, DOI: 10.1214/14-AAP1023
Abstract: We consider an online network routing problem in continuous time, where calls have Poisson arrivals and exponential durations. The first-fit dynamic alternative routing algorithm sequentially selects up to $d$ random two-link routes between the two endpoints of a call, via an intermediate node, and assigns the call to the first route with spare capacity on each link, if there is such a route. The balanced dynamic alternative routing algorithm simultaneously selects $d$ random two-link routes, and the call is accepted on a route minimising the maximum of the loads on its two links, provided neither of these two links is saturated. We determine the capacities needed for these algorithms to route calls successfully and find that the balanced algorithm requires a much smaller capacity. In order to handle such interacting random processes on networks, we develop appropriate tools such as lemmas on biased random walks.
Random Walk Routing in WSNs with Regular Topologies
Hui Tian,Hong Shen,Teruo Matsuzawa,
Hui Tian
,Hong Shen,and Teruo Matsuzawa

计算机科学技术学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Topology is one of the most important characteristics for any type of networks because it represents the network's inherent properties and has great impact on the performance of the network. For wireless sensor networks (WSN), a well-deployed regular topology can help save more energy than what a random topology can do. WSNs with regular topologies can prolong network lifetime as studied in many previous work. However, little work has been done in developing effective routing algorithms for WSNs with regular topologies, except routing along a shortest path with the knowledge of global location information of sensor nodes. In this paper, a new routing protocol based on random walk is proposed. It does not require global location information. It also achieves load balancing property inherently for WSNs which is difficult to achieve by other routing protocols. In the scenarios where the message required to be sent to the base station is in comparatively small size with the inquiry message among neighboring nodes, it is proved that the random walk routing protocol can guarantee high probability of successful transmission from the source to the base station with the same amount of energy consumption as the shortest path routing. Since in many applications of WSNs, sensor nodes often send only beep-like small messages to the base station to report their status, our proposed random walk routing is thus a viable scheme and can work very efficiently especially in these application scenarios. The random walk routing provides load balancing in the WSN as mentioned, however, the nodes near to the base station are inevitably under heavier burden than those far away from the base station. Therefore, a density-aware deployment scheme is further proposed to guarantee that the heavy-load nodes do not affect the network lifetime even if their energy is exhausted. The main idea is deploying sensors with different densities according to their distance to the base station. It will be shown in this paper that incorporating the random walk routing protocol with the density-aware deployment scheme can effectively prolong the network lifetime.
On Sink Mobility Trajectory in Clustering Routing Protocols in WSNs  [PDF]
N. Javaid,Q. Ain,M. A. Khan,A. Javaid,Z. A. Khan,U. Qasim
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Energy efficient routing protocols are consistently cited as efficient solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) routing. The area of WSNs is one of the emerging and fast growing fields which brought low cost, low power and multi-functional sensor nodes. In this paper, we examine some protocols related to homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. To evaluate the efficiency of different clustering schemes, we compare five clustering routing protocols; Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network (TEEN), Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) and two variants of TEEN which are Clustering and Multi-Hop Protocol in Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network (CAMPTEEN) and Hierarchical Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network (H-TEEN). The contribution of this paper is to introduce sink mobility to increase the network life time of hierarchal routing protocols. Two scenarios are discussed to compare the performances of routing protocols; in first scenario static sink is implanted and in later one mobile sink is used. We perform analytical simulations in MATLAB by using different performance metrics such as, number of alive nodes, number of dead nodes and throughput.
A Radio-Aware Routing Algorithm for Reliable Directed Diffusion in Lossy Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Yong-Pyo Kim,Euihyun Jung,Yong-Jin Park
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91008047
Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), transmission errors occur frequently due to node failure, battery discharge, contention or interference by objects. Although Directed Diffusion has been considered as a prominent data-centric routing algorithm, it has some weaknesses due to unexpected network errors. In order to address these problems, we proposed a radio-aware routing algorithm to improve the reliability of Directed Diffusion in lossy WSNs. The proposed algorithm is aware of the network status based on the radio information from MAC and PHY layers using a cross-layer design. The cross-layer design can be used to get detailed information about current status of wireless network such as a link quality or transmission errors of communication links. The radio information indicating variant network conditions and link quality was used to determine an alternative route that provides reliable data transmission under lossy WSNs. According to the simulation result, the radio-aware reliable routing algorithm showed better performance in both grid and random topologies with various error rates. The proposed solution suggested the possibility of providing a reliable transmission method for QoS requests in lossy WSNs based on the radio-awareness. The energy and mobility issues will be addressed in the future work.
Reliable Graph Routing in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Jing Zhao,Yajuan Qin,Dong Yang,Junqi Duan
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/758217
Abstract: Research studies on smart cities have been conducted, which will enable a better management of the available resources. Industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) are important part of smart city. IWSNs are used for process measurement and control applications in harsh and noisy industrial environments. As substitutes for traditional wired industrial networks, IWSNs are more flexible, scalable, and efficient. However, resource limitation of the sensor nodes and unreliability of low-power wireless links, in combination with stringent quality of the service (QoS) requirements of industrial applications, imposes many challenges in designing efficient routing for IWSNs. Existing standards propose a simple and reliable routing mechanism named graph routing. In this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms to discover reliable paths and construct reliable routing graphs. In our approaches, the centralized manager selects parent nodes for each node in the network to satisfy reliability requirements of the intended application. We try to maximize the number of reliable nodes and change the parent nodes selection strategy along with the link quality and the link correlation. Our design is evaluated using simulation where we show that our algorithm could achieve a balance between routing reliability and overhead. 1. Introduction The ubiquitous computing research studies and the deployment of urban wireless infrastructures make smart cities take shape [1–5]. The concept of smart cities is a natural evolution of research studies about smaller-scale smart spaces [6, 7]. Research studies on smart cities have been conducted by not only some organizations but also several governments. Smart cities form advanced collaborations to optimize resource allocation by monitoring the urban environment, collecting and conveying information, and establishing automated control. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be used to integrate with the surrounding environment and interact with the management system. In smart cities, IWSNs as a smaller smart space can intercommunicate and interoperate with other networks of smart cities providing a unified and personalized interface for their managers. IWSNs are new industrial networks appearing after field bus in industrial control field [8–13]. IWSNs should be designed specifically due to the extreme industrial environments and the stringent industrial application requirements. WirelessHART [14] approved by IEC is the first global industrial wireless communication standard. It is the extension of wired HART for wireless process

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