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 Physics , 2011, Abstract: Electronic structures of a charge-density-wave CDW system CeTe_2-xSb_x (x=0, 0.05) have been investigated by employing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The observed Fermi surface (FS) agrees very well with the calculated FS for the undistorted CeTe_2 both in shapes and sizes. The metallic states crossing the Fermi level(E_F) are observed in ARPES. The carriers near E_F have mainly the Te(1) 5p character, with the negligible contribution from Ce 4f states to the CDW formation. The supercell (shadow) bands and the corresponding very weak FS's are found to arise from band-folding due to the interaction with Ce-Te(2) layers. This work shows that the origin of the CDW formation in CeTe_2 is the FS nesting and that the CDW modulation vector is along Gamma-X (Q_CDW ~ X)
 Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.235104 Abstract: We present a detailed ARPES investigation of the RTe3 family, which sets this system as an ideal "textbook" example for the formation of a nesting driven Charge Density Wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDW instabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi Surface (FS) (up to 0.4eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k-space. An additional advantage of RTe3 is that the band structure can be very accurately described by a simple 2D tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure, by comparing our ARPES measurements with Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and, for the first time, of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k-space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDW interaction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n(Ef), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.075114 Abstract: Rare-earth tri-tellurium RTe$_3$ is a typical quasi-two dimensional system which exhibits obvious charge density wave (CDW) orders. So far, RTe$_3$ with heavier R ions (Dy, Ho, Er and Tm) are believed to experience two CDW phase transitions, while the lighter ones only hold one. TbTe$_3$ is claimed to belong to the latter. However in this work we present evidences that TbTe$_3$ also possesses more than one CDW order. Aside from the one at 336 K, which was extensively studied and reported to be driven by imperfect Fermi surface nesting with a wave vector $q=(2/7 c^*)$, a new CDW energy gap (260 meV) develops at around 165 K, revealed by both infrared reflectivity spectroscopy and ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. More intriguingly, the origin of this energy gap is different from the second CDW order in the heavier R ions-based compounds RTe$_3$ (R=Dy, Ho, Er and Tm).
 Physics , 2012, Abstract: Electronic structure of crystalline materials is their fundamental characteristic which is the basis of almost all their physical and chemical properties. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is the main experimental tool to study all electronic structure aspects with resolution in k-space. However, its application to three-dimensional (3D) materials suffers from a fundamental problem of ill-defined surface-perpendicular wavevector kz. Here, we achieve sharp definition of kz to enable precise navigation in 3D k space by pushing ARPES into the soft-X-ray photon energy range. Essential to break through the notorious problem of small photoexcitation cross-section was an advanced photon flux performance of our instrumentation. We explore the electronic structure of a transition metal dichalcogenide VSe2 which develops charge density waves (CDWs) possessing exotic 3D character. We experimentally identify nesting of its 3D Fermi surface (FS) as the precursor for these CDWs. Our study demonstrates an immense potential of soft-X-ray ARPES (SX-ARPES) to resolve various aspects of 3D electronic structure.
 Y. J. Uemura Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1016/j.physb.2005.11.004 Abstract: In the quest for primary factors which determine the transition temperature $T_{c}$ of high-$T_{c}$ cuprate superconductors (HTSC), we develop a phenomenological picture combining experimental results from muon spin relaxation ($\mu$SR), neutron and Raman scattering, and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) measurements, guided by an analogy with superfluid $^{4}$He. The 41 meV neutron resonance mode and the ARPES superconducting coherence peak (SCP) can be viewed as direct observations of spin and charge soft modes, respectively, appearing near ($\pi,\pi$) and the center of the Brillouin zone, having identical energy transfers and dispersion relations. We present a conjecture that the mode energy of this twin spin/charge collective excitation, as a roton analogue in HTSC, plays a primary role in determining $T_{c}$, together with the superfluid density $n_{s}/m^{*}$ at $T \to 0$. We further propose a microscopic model for pairing based on a resonant spin-charge motion, which explains the extremely strong spin-charge coupling, relevant energy scales, disappearence of pairing in the overdoped region, and the contrasting spin-sensitivities of nodal and antinodal charges in HTSC systems. Comparing collective versus single-particle excitations, pair formation versus condensation, and local versus long-range phase coherence, we argue that many fundamental features of HTSC systems, including the region of the Nernst effect, can be understood in terms of condensation and fluctuation phenomena of bosonic correlations formed above $T_{c}$.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.187401 Abstract: Femtosecond time-resolved core-level photoemission spectroscopy with a free-electron laser is used to measure the atomic-site specific charge-order dynamics in the charge-density-wave/Mott insulator 1T-TaS2. After strong photoexcitation, a prompt loss of charge order and subsequent fast equilibration dynamics of the electron-lattice system are observed. On the time scale of electron-phonon thermalization, about 1 ps, the system is driven across a phase transition from a long-range charge ordered state to a quasi-equilibrium state with domain-like short-range charge and lattice order. The experiment opens the way to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of condensed matter systems with full elemental, chemical, and atomic site selectivity.
 Physics , 2004, Abstract: We present a femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy (TRS) as an experimental tool to probe the changes in the low energy electronic density of states as a result of short and long range charge density wave order. In these experiments, a femtosecond laser pump pulse excites electron-hole pairs via an interband transition in the material. These hot carriers rapidly release their energy via electron-electron and electron-phonon collisions reaching states near the Fermi energy within 10-100 fs. The presence of an energy gap in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum inhibits the final relaxation step and photoexcited carriers accumulate above the gap. The relaxation and recombination processes of photoexcited quasiparticles are monitored by measuring the time evolution of the resulting photoinduced absorption. This way, the studies of carrier relaxation dynamics give direct information of the temperature-dependent changes in the low energy density of states. Here we present the application of the femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy for studying changes in the low energy electronic density of states in low dimensional charge density wave systems associated with various charge density wave (CDW) transitions and review some recent experiments on quasi 1D and 2D CDW compounds.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.176404 Abstract: We employ an exact solution of the simplest model for pump-probe time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in charge-density-wave systems to show how, in nonequilibrium the gap in the density of states disappears while the charge density remains modulated, and then the gap reforms after the pulse has passed. This nonequilibrium scenario qualitatively describes the common short-time experimental features in TaS2 and TbTe3 indicating a quasiuniversality for nonequilibrium "melting" with qualitative features that can be easily understood within a simple picture.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.167402 Abstract: The dynamics of the photoinduced commensurate to incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) phase transition in 4Hb-TaSe2 are investigated by femtosecond electron diffraction. In the perturbative regime the CDW reforms on a 150 ps timescale, which is two orders of magnitude slower than in other transition-metal dichalcogenides. We attribute this to a weak coupling between the CDW carrying T-layers and thus demonstrate the importance of three-dimensionality for the existence of CDWs. With increasing optical excitation the phase transition is achieved showing a second order character in contrast to the first order behavior in thermal equilibrium.
 Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1063/1.1645785 Abstract: Low-energy coherent charge-density wave excitations are investigated in blue bronze (K$_{0.3}$MoO$_{3}$) and red bronze (K$_{0.33}$MoO$_{3}$) by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. A linear gapless, acoustic-like dispersion relation is observed for the transverse phasons with a pronounced anisotropy in K$_{0.33}$MoO$_{3}$. The amplitude mode exhibits a weak (optic-like) dispersion relation with a frequency of 1.67 THz at 30 K. Our results show for the first time that the time-resolved optical technique provides momentum resolution of collective excitations in strongly correlated electron systems.Low-energy coherent charge-density wave excitations are investigated in blue bronze (K$_{0.3}$MoO$_{3}$) and red bronze (K$_{0.33}$MoO$_{3}$) by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. A linear gapless, acoustic-like dispersion relation is observed for the transverse phasons with a pronounced anisotropy in K$_{0.33}$MoO$_{3}$. The amplitude mode exhibits a weak (optic-like) dispersion relation with a frequency of 1.67 THz at 30 K. Our results show for the first time that the time-resolved optical technique provides momentum resolution of collective excitations in strongly correlated electron systems.
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